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NAME

     ieee80211_crypto -- 802.11 cryptographic support

SYNOPSIS

     #include <net80211/ieee80211_var.h>

     void
     ieee80211_crypto_register(const struct ieee80211_cipher *);

     void
     ieee80211_crypto_unregister(const struct ieee80211_cipher *);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_available(int cipher);

     void
     ieee80211_notify_replay_failure(struct ieee80211vap *,
         const struct ieee80211_frame *, const struct ieee80211_key *,
         uint64_t rsc, int tid);

     void
     ieee80211_notify_michael_failure(struct ieee80211vap *,
         const struct ieee80211_frame *, u_int keyix);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_newkey(struct ieee80211vap *, int cipher, int flags,
         struct ieee80211_key *);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_setkey(struct ieee80211vap *, struct ieee80211_key *);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_delkey(struct ieee80211vap *, struct ieee80211_key *);

     void
     ieee80211_key_update_begin(struct ieee80211vap *);

     void
     ieee80211_key_update_end(struct ieee80211vap *);

     void
     ieee80211_crypto_delglobalkeys(struct ieee80211vap *);

     void
     ieee80211_crypto_reload_keys(struct ieee80211com *);

     struct ieee80211_key *
     ieee80211_crypto_encap(struct ieee80211_node *, struct mbuf *);

     struct ieee80211_key *
     ieee80211_crypto_decap(struct ieee80211_node *, struct mbuf *,
         int flags);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_demic(struct ieee80211vap *, struct ieee80211_key *,
         struct mbuf *, int force);

     int
     ieee80211_crypto_enmic(struct ieee80211vap *, struct ieee80211_key *,
         struct mbuf *, int force);

DESCRIPTION

     The net80211 layer includes comprehensive cryptographic support for
     802.11 protocols.  Software implementations of ciphers required by WPA
     and 802.11i are provided as well as encap/decap processing of 802.11
     frames.  Software ciphers are written as kernel modules and register with
     the core crypto support.  The cryptographic framework supports hardware
     acceleration of ciphers by drivers with automatic fall-back to software
     implementations when a driver is unable to provide necessary hardware
     services.

CRYPTO CIPHER MODULES

     net80211 cipher modules register their services using
     ieee80211_crypto_register() and supply a template that describes their
     operation.  This ieee80211_cipher structure defines protocol-related
     state such as the number of bytes of space in the 802.11 header to
     reserve/remove during encap/decap and entry points for setting up keys
     and doing cryptographic operations.

     Cipher modules can associate private state to each key through the
     wk_private structure member.  If state is setup by the module it will be
     called before a key is destroyed so it can reclaim resources.

     Crypto modules can notify the system of two events.  When a packet replay
     event is recognized ieee80211_notify_replay_failure() can be used to
     signal the event.  When a TKIP Michael failure is detected
     ieee80211_notify_michael_failure() can be invoked.  Drivers may also use
     these routines to signal events detected by the hardware.

CRYPTO KEY MANAGEMENT

     The net80211 layer implements a per-vap 4-element ``global key table''
     and a per-station ``unicast key'' for protocols such as WPA, 802.1x, and
     802.11i.  The global key table is designed to support legacy WEP
     operation and Multicast/Group keys, though some applications also use it
     to implement WPA in station mode.  Keys in the global table are
     identified by a key index in the range 0-3.  Per-station keys are
     identified by the MAC address of the station and are typically used for
     unicast PTK bindings.

     net80211 provides ioctl(2) operations for managing both global and per-
     station keys.  Drivers typically do not participate in software key
     management; they are involved only when providing hardware acceleration
     of cryptographic operations.

     ieee80211_crypto_newkey() is used to allocate a new net80211 key or
     reconfigure an existing key.  The cipher must be specified along with any
     fixed key index.  The net80211 layer will handle allocating cipher and
     driver resources to support the key.

     Once a key is allocated it's contents can be set using
     ieee80211_crypto_setkey() and deleted with ieee80211_crypto_delkey()
     (with any cipher and driver resources reclaimed).

     ieee80211_crypto_delglobalkeys() is used to reclaim all keys in the
     global key table for a vap; it typically is used only within the net80211
     layer.

     ieee80211_crypto_reload_keys() handles hardware key state reloading from
     software key state, such as required after a suspend/resume cycle.

DRIVER CRYPTO SUPPORT

     Drivers identify ciphers they have hardware support for through the
     ic_cryptocaps field of the ieee80211com structure.  If hardware support
     is available then a driver should also fill in the iv_key_alloc,
     iv_key_set, and iv_key_delete methods of each ieee80211vap created for
     use with the device.  In addition the methods iv_key_update_begin and
     iv_key_update_end can be setup to handle synchronization requirements for
     updating hardware key state.

     When net80211 allocates a software key and the driver can accelerate the
     cipher operations the iv_key_alloc method will be invoked.  Drivers may
     return a token that is associated with outbound traffic (for use in
     encrypting frames).  Otherwise, e.g. if hardware resources are not
     available, the driver will not return a token and net80211 will arrange
     to do the work in software and pass frames to the driver that are already
     prepared for transmission.

     For receive, drivers mark frames with the M_WEP mbuf flag to indicate the
     hardware has decrypted the payload.  If frames have the IEEE80211_FC1_WEP
     bit marked in their 802.11 header and are not tagged with M_WEP then
     decryption is done in software.  For more complicated scenarios the
     software key state is consulted; e.g.  to decide if Michael verification
     needs to be done in software after the hardware has handled TKIP
     decryption.

     Drivers that manage complicated key data structures, e.g. faulting
     software keys into a hardware key cache, can safely manipulate software
     key state by bracketing their work with calls to
     ieee80211_key_update_begin() and ieee80211_key_update_end().  These calls
     also synchronize hardware key state update when receive traffic is
     active.

SEE ALSO

     ieee80211(9), ioctl(2), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4)