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NAME

       chat - □□□□自□□通的指令稿

總覽 SYNOPSIS
       chat [ options ] script

描述 DESCRIPTION
       chat  程式在□□□□□□之□定□□通交□事宜。 它最主要的 目的是用□在□□□□定的□形程式 (pppd) 以及□端的 pppd  程式
       之□建立□□。

選項 OPTIONS
       -f <chat file>
              □  chat  □案□取   chat   指令稿。□□□□的使用□   chat   的   令稿□□互斥(mutually
              exclusive)。使用者必□具有存取□     □案的□取□。在□案中允□多□(multiple    lines)□定。□
              □要以空白或是□向定位(horizontal tab)字元□分隔字串。

       -t <timeout>
              □於所要接收的期待字串(expected string)□定逾□限制。  如果在□□□限制□□有接收到□字串的□那□就不送出回覆
              字串(reply             string)。             可以送出一□□通(alternate)的回覆
              或者如果□有□通的回覆字串□□指令稿□□失□。一□失□  的指令稿□□使得 chat 程式以一□非零的□□□□束。

       -r <report file>
              Set the file for output of the report strings. If  you  use  the
              keyword  REPORT, the resulting strings are written to this file.
              If this option is not used and you still  use  REPORT  keywords,
              the stderr file is used for the report strings.

       -e     Start with the echo option turned on. Echoing may also be turned
              on or off at specific points in the chat  script  by  using  the
              ECHO keyword. When echoing is enabled, all output from the modem
              is echoed to stderr.

       -E     Enables environment variable  substituion  within  chat  scripts
              using the standard $xxx syntax.

       -v     要求       chat      指令稿以冗□(verbose)模式□行。      □□      chat      程
              式接下□□□所有□□□□接收的文字以及□出的字串□□到  SYSLOG  去。The  default  is  to  log
              through  the  SYSLOG; the logging method may be altered with the
              -S and -s flags.

       -V     Request that the chat script be executed  in  a  stderr  verbose
              mode.  The chat program will then log all text received from the
              modem and the output strings sent to the  modem  to  the  stderr
              device.  This device is usually the local console at the station
              running the chat or pppd program.

       -s     Use stderr.  All log messages from '-v' and all  error  messages
              will be sent to stderr.

       -S     Do  not  use the SYSLOG.  By default, error messages are sent to
              the SYSLOG.  The use of -S will prevent both log  messages  from
              '-v' and error messages from being sent to the SYSLOG.

       -T <phone number>
              Pass in an arbitary string, usually a phone number, that will be
              substituted for the \T  substitution  metacharacter  in  a  send
              string.

       -U <phone number 2>
              Pass  in  a  second string, usually a phone number, that will be
              substituted for the \U  substitution  metacharacter  in  a  send
              string.   This  is  useful when dialing an ISDN terminal adapter
              that requires two numbers.

       script script 如果指令稿□有以 -f □□指定在□案□那□□指令稿□如同  □□般被包含在 chat 程式□。

CHAT 稿本 SCRIPT
       chat 稿本定□通□□程

       一□指令稿□包含一□或多□□期待□方送出(expect-send)□的配□            字串(pairs            of
       string),以空白隔□,□有一□□□性的□期待□方 送出之候□(subexpect-subsend)□配□字串,以短□(dash)隔□。像
       下面□□例子:

              ogin:-BREAK-ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       □一行指示    chat    程式□□期待    "ogin:"    □□字串。如果在所分配的     □□□□□接收□入提示失□的□,
       那它就送出一□中□程式(break   sequence)□□端然後期待   "ogin:"   □□字串。   如果第一□  "ogin:"
       被接收到那□中□程式就不□□生。

       一旦它接收到□□入提示□    chat     程式□□送出     ppp     □□字串然後期     待     "ssword:"
       □□提示。□它接收到密□提示以後,它□□送出密□ hello2u2 。
                                                                字元程式(character
       一般在回覆字串後面□跟著送出一□□架返回(carriage  return)。在  □期待□字串□除非以
       sequence)指定□必 □否□不□期待它的出□。

       期待程式(expect sequence)□□只包含辨□字串所需要的□料。因□ 它一般是□放在磁碟□案□,它不□□包含□□的□□。 通常以期待
       字串□□找□□字串(time     strings),     □路辨□字串(network     iden-    tification
       strings),或是其它□□的□料是不被接受的。

       □求□助修正在初始化程式中(initial  sequence)  可能□□送□□的  字元,所以□找   "ogin:"   □□字串而不是
       "login:"  。 □□的  "l" 字元可能接收□□而你永□找不到□字串, 即使它已□被系□送出。 因此□故,指令稿□找 "ogin:"
       而不是 "login:" 以及 "ssword" 而 不是 "password:" 。

       一□非常□□的指令稿看起□可能像□□:

              ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       □句□□, 期待 ...ogin:,  送出 ppp,  期待 ...ssword:, 再送出 hello2u2 。

       在□□使用上,□□的指令稿是罕□的。最少最少, 原先的字串□有  被接收□你□□要把候□期待(sub-sequences)包括□□。例如,考□
       下面□□例子:

              ogin:--ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       □□是一□比前面所用的□□指令稿更好的指令稿。  □□□□找相同  同的  login: 提示,然而, 如果□有接收到的□, □送出一□□□的
       返回程式(return   sequence)□且它□接著再次□找   login:    。要是□    □□掩□掉第一□    login
       提示那□接著送出空□路(empty line)□常 □□再次□生□入提示。

COMMENTS

       Comments  can be embedded in the chat script. A comment is a line which
       starts with the # (hash) character in column 1. Such comment lines  are
       just  ignored by the chat program. If a '#' character is to be expected
       as the first character of the expect sequence,  you  should  quote  the
       expect  string.   If you want to wait for a prompt that starts with a #
       (hash) character, you would have to write something like this:

              # Now wait for the prompt and send logout string
              ´# ' logout

SENDING DATA FROM A FILE

       If the string to send starts with an at  sign  (@),  the  rest  of  the
       string  is  taken to be the name of a file to read to get the string to
       send.  If the last character of the data  read  is  a  newline,  it  is
       removed.   The  file can be a named pipe (or fifo) instead of a regular
       file.  This provides  a  way  for  chat  to  communicate  with  another
       program,  for  example,  a  program  to  prompt  the user and receive a
       password typed in.

放棄字符串 ABORT STRINGS
       □多□□□□以字串□回□呼叫的□□。  □些字串可能是  CONNECTED  或是  NO  CARRIER   或是   BUSY   。
       通常要是□□□□□到□端失□的□ □□□希望□束指令稿。 困□是指令稿不□□□地知道它可能接收到 哪□□□□字串。在某次□□□, 他可能接收到
       BUSY 然而下次它可 能接收到 NO CARRIER 。

       □些□失□□字串可以用 ABORT 程式指定到指令稿中。像是下面□□ 例子般地□到指令稿□:

              ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER' '' ATZ OK ATDT5551212 CONNECT

       □□程式□不□期待什□;而且接著送出 ATZ □□字串。□此期待的 回□是 OK □□字串。□它接收到 OK □,字串 ADTD5551212
       就□行 □□。期待字串是 CONNECT 。 如果字串 CONNECT 被接收到那□就□ □行指令稿其□的部份。然而,要是□□□□□□□忙□,
       他□□送    出    BUSY    □□字串。    □□使得□字串符合失□字元程式(abort    char-    acter)。
       □□指令稿□□因□它□□一□失□字串(abort  string)而  失□(fail)。如果他接收到的是  NO  CARRIER  字串,
       它也□因□同□ 的原因而失□。不是可以接收到字串就是字串□□□ chat 指令稿。

CLR_ABORT STRINGS

       This sequence allows for clearing previously set ABORT strings.   ABORT
       strings  are  kept in an array of a pre-determined size (at compilation
       time); CLR_ABORT will reclaim the space for cleared entries so that new
       strings can use that space.

SAY STRINGS

       The  SAY directive allows the script to send strings to the user at the
       terminal via standard error.  If chat is being run by pppd, and pppd is
       running  as a daemon (detached from its controlling terminal), standard
       error will normally be redirected to the file /etc/ppp/connect-errors.

       SAY strings must be enclosed in single or double  quotes.  If  carriage
       return  and  line  feed are needed in the string to be output, you must
       explicitely add them to your string.

       The SAY strings could be used to give progress messages in sections  of
       the  script  where  you  want to have 'ECHO OFF' but still let the user
       know what is happening.  An example is:

              ABORT BUSY
              ECHO OFF
              SAY "Dialling your ISP...\n"
              ´' ATDT5551212
              TIMEOUT 120
              SAY "Waiting up to 2 minutes for connection ... "
              CONNECT ''
              SAY "Connected, now logging in ...0
              ogin: account
              ssword: pass
              $ SAY "Logged in OK ...0 etc ...

       This sequence will only present the SAY strings to the user and all the
       details  of  the  script  will remain hidden. For example, if the above
       script works, the user will see:

              Dialling your ISP...
              Waiting up to  2  minutes  for  connection  ...  Connected,  now
              logging in ...
              Logged in OK ...

REPORT STRINGS

       A  report string is similar to the ABORT string. The difference is that
       the strings, and all characters to the next control character such as a
       carriage return, are written to the report file.

       The  report strings may be used to isolate the transmission rate of the
       modem's connect string and return the  value  to  the  chat  user.  The
       analysis  of  the  report  string  logic occurs in conjunction with the
       other string processing such as looking for the expect string. The  use
       of the same string for a report and abort sequence is probably not very
       useful, however, it is possible.

       The report strings to no change the completion code of the program.

       These "report" strings may be specified in the script using the  REPORT
       sequence. It is written in the script as in the following example:

              REPORT  CONNECT  ABORT  BUSY  ''  ATDT5551212  CONNECT  '' ogin:
              account

       This sequence will expect nothing; and then send the string ATDT5551212
       to  dial  the  telephone. The expected string is CONNECT. If the string
       CONNECT is received  the  remainder  of  the  script  is  executed.  In
       addition the program will write to the expect-file the string "CONNECT"
       plus any characters which follow it such as the connection rate.

CLR_REPORT STRINGS

       This sequence  allows  for  clearing  previously  set  REPORT  strings.
       REPORT  strings  are  kept  in  an  array  of a pre-determined size (at
       compilation time);  CLR_REPORT  will  reclaim  the  space  for  cleared
       entries so that new strings can use that space.

ECHO

       The  echo  options controls whether the output from the modem is echoed
       to stderr. This option may be set with the -e option, but it  can  also
       be  controlled  by  the  ECHO  keyword.  The "expect-send" pair ECHO ON
       enables echoing, and ECHO OFF disables it. With this  keyword  you  can
       select which parts of the conversation should be visible. For instance,
       with the following script:

              ABORT   'BUSY'
              ABORT   'NO CARRIER'
               ''
              ATZ
              OK\r\n  ATD1234567
              \r\n    \c
              ECHO    ON
              CONNECT \c
              ogin:   account

       all output resulting  from  modem  configuration  and  dialing  is  not
       visible,  but  starting  with the CONNECT (or BUSY) message, everything
       will be echoed.

HANGUP

       The HANGUP options control whether a modem hangup should be  considered
       as  an  error  or  not.   This option is useful in scripts for dialling
       systems which will hang up and  call  your  system  back.   The  HANGUP
       options can be ON or OFF.
       When  HANGUP  is  set OFF and the modem hangs up (e.g., after the first
       stage of logging in to a callback system), chat will  continue  running
       the  script (e.g., waiting for the incoming call and second stage login
       prompt). As soon as the incoming call is connected, you should use  the
       HANGUP  ON directive to reinstall normal hang up signal behavior.  Here
       is an (simple) example script:

              ABORT   'BUSY'
              ´´      ATZ
              OK\r\n  ATD1234567
              \r\n    \c
              CONNECT \c
              ´Callback login:' call_back_ID
              HANGUP OFF
              ABORT "Bad Login"
              ´Callback Password:' Call_back_password
              TIMEOUT 120
              CONNECT \c
              HANGUP ON
              ABORT "NO CARRIER"
              ogin:--BREAK--ogin: real_account
              etc ...

超時 TIMEOUT
       初始的逾□值是 45 秒。□可以用 -t □□□加以改□。

       要□下一□期待字串改□逾□值的□,可以使用下面□□例子:

              ATZ OK ATDT5551212 CONNECT TIMEOUT  10  ogin:--ogin:  TIMEOUT  5
              assword: hello2u2

       □□□在期待 "login:" 提示的□候把逾□限制改成 10 秒。 逾□限 制接著在它□找密□提示□被改成 5 秒。

       逾□限制一旦改□就□持□作用直到它再度被改□。

SENDING 發送 EOT
       EOT □□特□的回覆字串指示 chat 程式□□送出一□ EOT 字元到□ 端去。□是一般的□案□束(End-of-file)字元程式。 在
       EOT 後面□ 不□跟著送出一□返回字元(return)。

       □□ EOT 程式可以用 ^D 序列嵌入到送出的字串□。

□生中□ GENERATING BREAK
       BREAK  □□特□的回覆字串□□使得一□中□情□被送出。  □□中□  是□送端的一□特殊。接收端一般□此的□理是改□□□率。   它可以
       用□循□□□□端可能的□□率直到你能□接到有效的□入提示。

       □□中□程式可以用 \K  序列嵌入到送出的字串□。

轉義序列 ESCAPE SEQUENCES
       期待以及回覆字串可以包含轉義序列。 所有□□程式在回覆字串中都 是合法的。有□多在期待字串中是合法的。 那些在期待程式中□效的 □被指出。

       ''     期待或送出一□空字串(null  string) 。如果你送出一□空字  串那□它□□送出一□返回字元。□□程式可以是一□省略符
              □(apostrophe)或者也可以是引用字元。

       \b     代表一□退位(backspace)字元。

       \c     抑制在回覆字串□尾的新列(newline)字元。  □是送出□有返    回字元尾□的字串的唯一方法。它必□在送出字串的□尾。例
              如,□□程式 hello

       \d     延□一秒□。□程式使用最□延□□一秒的 sleep(1) 。(在  期待字串中□效。)

       \K     插入一□中□(在期待字串中□效。)

       \n     送出一□新列(newline)或□行(linefeed)字元。

       \N     送出一□空字元(null character)。同□的程式可以用   代  替。(在期待字串中□效。)

       \p     □停一小段□□。延□ 1/10 秒。(在期待字串中□效。)

       \q     抑制字串□往 SYSLOG □案。□ ?????? 字串被□□到自己的  空□。(在期待字串中□效。)

       \r     □送或期待一□□架返回(字元)

       \s     代替字串中的空白。□□可以用在不□引用包含空白的字串之□。'HI TIM' 以及 HI\sTIM 是相同的。

       \t     □送或期待一□定位(tab)字元。

       \T     Send  the  phone  number  string as specified with the -T option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \U     Send the phone number 2 string as specified with the  -U  option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \\     □送或期待一□倒斜□(backslash)字元。

       \ddd   □八□位□字 (ddd) 折□(collapse)成□一的 ASCII 字元□  □其送出。(某些字元在期待字串中□效。)

       ^C     替□含有以 C 代表之控制字元的程式。例如,字元 DC1(17)  是以 ^Q 表示。(某些字元在期待字串中□效。)

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       Environment  variables  are  available  within chat scripts, if  the -E
       option was specified in the command line. The metacharacter $  is  used
       to introduce the name of the environment variable to substitute. If the
       substition fails, because the requested  environment  variable  is  not
       set, nothing is replaced for the variable.

TERMINATION CODES

       The chat program will terminate with the following completion codes.

       0      The  normal  termination of the program. This indicates that the
              script was executed without error to the normal conclusion.

       1      One or more of the parameters are invalid or  an  expect  string
              was  too large for the internal buffers. This indicates that the
              program as not properly executed.

       2      An error occurred during the execution of the program. This  may
              be  due  to a read or write operation failing for some reason or
              chat receiving a signal such as SIGINT.

       3      A timeout event occurred when there was an expect string without
              having  a  "-subsend"  string.  This  may  mean that you did not
              program the script correctly for  the  condition  or  that  some
              unexpected  event has occurred and the expected string could not
              be found.

       4      The first string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       5      The second string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       6      The third string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       7      The fourth string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       ...    The other termination codes are also strings marked as an  ABORT
              condition.

       Using  the  termination  code,  it is possible to determine which event
       terminated the script. It is possible to decide if  the  string  "BUSY"
       was  received  from  the  modem as opposed to "NO DIAL TONE". While the
       first event may be retried, the second will probably have little chance
       of succeeding during a retry.

參見 SEE ALSO
       □於 chat 指令稿的其它□□可以在 UUCP 檔案□找到。chat 指令稿 的概念由 uucico 程式所使用的指令稿□的。

       uucico(1), uucp(1)

COPYRIGHT

       The  chat  program  is  in  public  domain.  This is not the GNU public
       license. If it breaks then you get to keep both pieces.

[中文版維護人]
       asdchen <asdchen@pc2.hinet.net>

[中文版最新更新]
       1995/09/30

《中國linux論壇man手冊翻譯計劃》:
       http://cmpp.linuxforum.net