Provided by: aptitude_0.6.6-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       aptitude - Benutzerschnittstelle für den Paketmanager

SYNOPSIS

       aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all | update}

       aptitude [<options>...] {full-upgrade | safe-upgrade} [<packages>...]

       aptitude [<options>...] {build-dep | build-depends | changelog | download | forbid-version
                | hold | install | markauto | purge | reinstall | remove | show | unhold |
                unmarkauto | versions} <packages>...

       aptitude extract-cache-subset <output-directory> <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] search <patterns>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {add-user-tag | remove-user-tag} <tag> <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {why | why-not} [<patterns>...] <package>

       aptitude [-S <fname>] [--autoclean-on-startup | --clean-on-startup | -i | -u]

       aptitude help

BESCHREIBUNG

       aptitude ist eine konsolenbasierte Benutzerschnittstelle für das
       Debian-GNU/Linux-Paketsystem.

       Es zeigt dem Benutzer die Liste der Pakete an und ermöglicht Paketmanagement wie das
       Installieren, Aktualisieren und Löschen von Paketen. aptitude verfügt über einen visuellen
       Modus, kann aber auch von der Kommandozeile gesteuert werden.

COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS

       Das erste Argument, das nicht mit einem Minus (“-”) beginnt, wird als Befehl an das
       Programm angesehen. Wenn kein Befehl übergeben wird, startet aptitude im visuellen Modus.

       Die folgenden Befehle sind verfügbar:

       install
           Install one or more packages. The packages should be listed after the “install”
           command; if a package name contains a tilde character (“~”) or a question mark (“?”),
           it will be treated as a search pattern and every package matching the pattern will be
           installed (see the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual).

           To select a particular version of the package, append “=<version>” to the package
           name: for instance, “aptitude install apt=0.3.1”. Similarly, to select a package from
           a particular archive, append “/<archive>” to the package name: for instance, “aptitude
           install apt/experimental”. You cannot specify both an archive and a version for a
           package.

           Not every package listed on the command line has to be installed; you can tell
           aptitude to do something different with a package by appending an “override specifier”
           to the name of the package. For example, aptitude remove wesnoth+ will install
           wesnoth, not remove it. The following override specifiers are available:

           <package>+
               Install <package>.

           <package>+M
               Install <package> and immediately mark it as automatically installed (note that if
               nothing depends on <package>, this will cause it to be immediately removed).

           <package>-
               Remove <package>.

           <package>_
               Purge <package>: remove it and all its associated configuration and data files.

           <package>=
               Place <package> on hold: cancel any active installation, upgrade, or removal, and
               prevent this package from being automatically upgraded in the future.

           <package>:
               Keep <package> at its current version: cancel any installation, removal, or
               upgrade. Unlike “hold” (above) this does not prevent automatic upgrades in the
               future.

           <package>&M
               Mark <package> as having been automatically installed.

           <package>&m
               Mark <package> as having been manually installed.

           “install” ohne weitere Argumente wird eventuelle gespeicherten anstehenden Befehle
           ausführen.

               Note
               Once you enter Y at the final confirmation prompt, the “install” command will
               modify aptitude's stored information about what actions to perform. Therefore, if
               you issue (e.g.) the command “aptitude install foo bar” and then abort the
               installation once aptitude has started downloading and installing packages, you
               will need to run “aptitude remove foo bar” to cancel that order.

       remove, purge, hold, unhold, keep, reinstall
           These commands are the same as “install”, but apply the named action to all packages
           given on the command line for which it is not overridden. The difference between hold
           and keep is that hold will cause a package to be ignored by future safe-upgrade or
           full-upgrade commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled actions on the package.
           unhold will allow a package to be upgraded by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade
           commands, without otherwise altering its state.

           Zum Beispiel löscht “aptitude remove '~ndeity'” alle Pakete, deren Name “deity”
           enthält.

       markauto, unmarkauto
           Pakete als automatisch bzw. manuell installiert markieren. Sie können Pakete mit
           derselben Syntax angeben wie oben bei “install” beschrieben. Beispielsweise wird
           “aptitude markauto '~slibs'” alle Pakete im Bereich (s wie “section”) “libs” als
           automatisch installiert markieren.

           Weitere Informationen zu automatisch installierten Paketen finden Sie unter “Managing
           Automatically Installed Packages” in der aptitude-Benutzeranleitung.

       build-depends, build-dep
           Satisfy the build-dependencies of a package. Each package name may be a source
           package, in which case the build dependencies of that source package are installed;
           otherwise, binary packages are found in the same way as for the “install” command, and
           the build-dependencies of the source packages that build those binary packages are
           satisfied.

           If the command-line parameter --arch-only is present, only architecture-dependent
           build dependencies (i.e., not Build-Depends-Indep or Build-Conflicts-Indep) will be
           obeyed.

       forbid-version
           Forbid a package from being upgraded to a particular version. This will prevent
           aptitude from automatically upgrading to this version, but will allow automatic
           upgrades to future versions. By default, aptitude will select the version to which the
           package would normally be upgraded; you may override this selection by appending
           “=<version>” to the package name: for instance, “aptitude forbid-version
           vim=1.2.3.broken-4”.

           This command is useful for avoiding broken versions of packages without having to set
           and clear manual holds. If you decide you really want the forbidden version after all,
           “aptitude install <package>” will remove the ban.

       update
           Die Liste der verfügbaren Pakete von den apt-Quellen erneuern. (Dies ist äquivalent zu
           “apt-get update”.)

       safe-upgrade
           Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version. Installed packages will not
           be removed unless they are unused (see the section “Managing Automatically Installed
           Packages” in the aptitude reference manual). Packages which are not currently
           installed may be installed to resolve dependencies unless the --no-new-installs
           command-line option is supplied.

           If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade
           every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only
           the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with
           suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give
           additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude safe-upgrade bash
           dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.

           It is sometimes necessary to remove one package in order to upgrade another; this
           command is not able to upgrade packages in such situations. Use the full-upgrade
           command to upgrade as many packages as possible.

       full-upgrade
           Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version, removing or installing
           packages as necessary. This command is less conservative than safe-upgrade and thus
           more likely to perform unwanted actions. However, it is capable of upgrading packages
           that safe-upgrade cannot upgrade.

           If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade
           every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only
           the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with
           suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give
           additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude full-upgrade bash
           dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.

               Note
               This command was originally named dist-upgrade for historical reasons, and
               aptitude still recognizes dist-upgrade as a synonym for full-upgrade.

       keep-all
           Cancels all scheduled actions on all packages; any packages whose sticky state
           indicates an installation, removal, or upgrade will have this sticky state cleared.

       forget-new
           Vergisst die Liste der “neuen” Pakete (äquivalent zur Taste “f” im visuellen Modus).

       search
           Searches for packages matching one of the patterns supplied on the command line. All
           packages which match any of the given patterns will be displayed; for instance,
           “aptitude search '~N' edit” will list all “new” packages and all packages whose name
           contains “edit”. For more information on search patterns, see the section “Search
           Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual.

               Note
               In the example above, “aptitude search '~N' edit” has two arguments after search
               and thus is searching for two patterns: “~N” and “edit”. As described in the
               search pattern reference, a single pattern composed of two sub-patterns separated
               by a space (such as “~N edit”) matches only if both patterns match. Thus, the
               command “aptitude search '~N edit'” will only show “new” packages whose name
               contains “edit”.
           Unless you pass the -F option, the output of aptitude search will look something like
           this:

               i   apt                             - Advanced front-end for dpkg
               pi  apt-build                       - frontend to apt to build, optimize and in
               cp  apt-file                        - APT package searching utility -- command-
               ihA raptor-utils                    - Raptor RDF Parser utilities

           Each search result is listed on a separate line. The first character of each line
           indicates the current state of the package: the most common states are p, meaning that
           no trace of the package exists on the system, c, meaning that the package was deleted
           but its configuration files remain on the system, i, meaning that the package is
           installed, and v, meaning that the package is virtual. The second character indicates
           the stored action (if any; otherwise a blank space is displayed) to be performed on
           the package, with the most common actions being i, meaning that the package will be
           installed, d, meaning that the package will be deleted, and p, meaning that the
           package and its configuration files will be removed. If the third character is A, the
           package was automatically installed.

           For a complete list of the possible state and action flags, see the section “Accessing
           Package Information” in the aptitude reference guide. To customize the output of
           search, see the command-line options -F and --sort.

       show
           Displays detailed information about one or more packages, listed following the search
           command. If a package name contains a tilde character (“~”) or a question mark (“?”),
           it will be treated as a search pattern and all matching packages will be displayed
           (see the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual).

           If the verbosity level is 1 or greater (i.e., at least one -v is present on the
           command-line), information about all versions of the package is displayed. Otherwise,
           information about the “candidate version” (the version that “aptitude install” would
           download) is displayed.

           You can display information about a different version of the package by appending
           =<version> to the package name; you can display the version from a particular archive
           or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name: for instance,
           /unstable or /sid. If either of these is present, then only the version you request
           will be displayed, regardless of the verbosity level.

           If the verbosity level is 1 or greater, the package's architecture, compressed size,
           filename, and md5sum fields will be displayed. If the verbosity level is 2 or greater,
           the select version or versions will be displayed once for each archive in which they
           are found.

       versions
           Displays the versions of the packages listed on the command-line.

               $ aptitude versions wesnoth
               p   1:1.4.5-1                                                             100
               p   1:1.6.5-1                                    unstable                 500
               p   1:1.7.14-1                                   experimental             1

           Each version is listed on a separate line. The leftmost three characters indicate the
           current state, planned state (if any), and whether the package was automatically
           installed; for more information on their meanings, see the documentation of aptitude
           search. To the right of the version number you can find the releases from which the
           version is available, and the pin priority of the version.

           If a package name contains a tilde character (“~”) or a question mark (“?”), it will
           be treated as a search pattern and all matching versions will be displayed (see the
           section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual). This means that, for
           instance, aptitude versions '~i' will display all the versions that are currently
           installed on the system and nothing else, not even other versions of the same
           packages.

               $ aptitude versions '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               Package exim4-daemon-light:
               i   4.71-3                                                                100
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

               Package exim4-daemon-light-dbg:
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

           If the input is a search pattern, or if more than one package's versions are to be
           displayed, aptitude will automatically group the output by package, as shown above.
           You can disable this via --group-by=none, in which case aptitude will display a single
           list of all the versions that were found and automatically include the package name in
           each output line:

               $ aptitude versions --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               i   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-3                                             100
               p   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-4                    unstable                 500
               p   exim4-daemon-light-dbg 4.71-4                unstable                 500

           To disable the package name, pass --show-package-names=never:

               $ aptitude versions --show-package-names=never --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               i   4.71-3                                                                100
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

           In addition to the above options, the information printed for each version can be
           controlled by the command-line option -F. The order in which versions are displayed
           can be controlled by the command-line option --sort. To prevent aptitude from
           formatting the output into columns, use --disable-columns.

       add-user-tag, remove-user-tag
           Adds a user tag to or removes a user tag from the selected group of packages. If a
           package name contains a tilde (“~”) or question mark (“?”), it is treated as a search
           pattern and the tag is added to or removed from all the packages that match the
           pattern (see the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual).

           User tags are arbitrary strings associated with a package. They can be used with the
           ?user-tag(<tag>) search term, which will select all the packages that have a user tag
           matching <tag>.

       why, why-not
           Explains the reason that a particular package should or cannot be installed on the
           system.

           This command searches for packages that require or conflict with the given package. It
           displays a sequence of dependencies leading to the target package, along with a note
           indicating the installed state of each package in the dependency chain:

               $ aptitude why kdepim
               i   nautilus-data Recommends nautilus
               i A nautilus      Recommends desktop-base (>= 0.2)
               i A desktop-base  Suggests   gnome | kde | xfce4 | wmaker
               p   kde           Depends    kdepim (>= 4:3.4.3)

           The command why finds a dependency chain that installs the package named on the
           command line, as above. Note that the dependency that aptitude produced in this case
           is only a suggestion. This is because no package currently installed on this computer
           depends on or recommends the kdepim package; if a stronger dependency were available,
           aptitude would have displayed it.

           In contrast, why-not finds a dependency chain leading to a conflict with the target
           package:

               $ aptitude why-not textopo
               i   ocaml-core          Depends   ocamlweb
               i A ocamlweb            Depends   tetex-extra | texlive-latex-extra
               i A texlive-latex-extra Conflicts textopo

           If one or more <pattern>s are present, then aptitude will begin its search at these
           patterns; that is, the first package in the chain it prints will be a package matching
           the pattern in question. The patterns are considered to be package names unless they
           contain a tilde character (“~”) or a question mark (“?”), in which case they are
           treated as search patterns (see the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude
           reference manual).

           If no patterns are present, then aptitude will search for dependency chains beginning
           at manually installed packages. This effectively shows the packages that have caused
           or would cause a given package to be installed.

               Note
               aptitude why does not perform full dependency resolution; it only displays direct
               relationships between packages. For instance, if A requires B, C requires D, and B
               and C conflict, “aptitude why-not D” will not produce the answer “A depends on B,
               B conflicts with C, and D depends on C”.
           By default aptitude outputs only the “most installed, strongest, tightest, shortest”
           dependency chain. That is, it looks for a chain that only contains packages which are
           installed or will be installed; it looks for the strongest possible dependencies under
           that restriction; it looks for chains that avoid ORed dependencies and Provides; and
           it looks for the shortest dependency chain meeting those criteria. These rules are
           progressively weakened until a match is found.

           If the verbosity level is 1 or more, then all the explanations aptitude can find will
           be displayed, in inverse order of relevance. If the verbosity level is 2 or more, a
           truly excessive amount of debugging information will be printed to standard output.

           This command returns 0 if successful, 1 if no explanation could be constructed, and -1
           if an error occurred.

       clean
           Alle heruntergeladenen und zwischengespeicherten .deb-Dateien aus dem Paketcache
           löschen. Der Paketcache liegt normalerweise unter /var/cache/apt/archives.

       autoclean
           Löscht alle zwischengespeicherten Paketdateien, die nicht mehr heruntergeladen werden
           können. Dies verhindert das grenzenlose Wachstum des Cacheverzeichnisses, ohne es
           vollständig zu leeren.

       changelog
           Downloads and displays the Debian changelog for each of the given source or binary
           packages.

           By default, the changelog for the version which would be installed with “aptitude
           install” is downloaded. You can select a particular version of a package by appending
           =<version> to the package name; you can select the version from a particular archive
           or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance,
           /unstable or /sid).

       download
           Downloads the .deb file for the given package to the current directory. If a package
           name contains a tilde character (“~”) or a question mark (“?”), it will be treated as
           a search pattern and all the matching packages will be downloaded (see the section
           “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual).

           By default, the version which would be installed with “aptitude install” is
           downloaded. You can select a particular version of a package by appending =<version>
           to the package name; you can select the version from a particular archive or release
           by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance: /unstable or
           /sid).

       extract-cache-subset
           Copy the apt configuration directory (/etc/apt) and a subset of the package database
           to the specified directory. If no packages are listed, the entire package database is
           copied; otherwise only the entries corresponding to the named packages are copied.
           Each package name may be a search pattern, and all the packages matching that pattern
           will be selected (see the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude reference manual).
           Any existing package database files in the output directory will be overwritten.

           Dependencies in binary package stanzas will be rewritten to remove references to
           packages not in the selected set.

       help
           Zeigt eine kurze Zusammenfassung der verfübaren Befehle und Optionen an.

OPTIONEN

       Die folgenden Optionen können angegeben werden, um das Verhalten der obigen Befehle zu
       verändern. Nicht jeder Befehl wird jede Option beachten; manche Optionen ergeben für
       einige Befehle keinen Sinn.

       --add-user-tag <tag>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
           unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag>
           to all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with
           the add-user-tag command.

       --add-user-tag-to <tag>,<pattern>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
           unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag>
           to all packages that match <pattern> as if with the add-user-tag command. The pattern
           is a search pattern as described in the section “Search Patterns” in the aptitude
           reference manual.

           For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --add-user-tag-to "new-installs,?action(install)"
           will add the tag new-installs to all the packages installed by the safe-upgrade
           command.

       --allow-new-upgrades
           When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the action is
           safe-upgrade, or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the
           dependency resolver to install upgrades for packages regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.

       --allow-new-installs
           Allow the safe-upgrade command to install new packages; when the safe resolver is
           being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the action is safe-upgrade, or
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the dependency resolver to
           install new packages. This option takes effect regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

       --allow-untrusted
           Install packages from untrusted sources without prompting. You should only use this if
           you know what you are doing, as it could easily compromise your system's security.

       --disable-columns
           This option causes aptitude search and aptitude version to output their results
           without any special formatting. In particular: normally aptitude will add whitespace
           or truncate search results in an attempt to fit its results into vertical “columns”.
           With this flag, each line will be formed by replacing any format escapes in the format
           string with the corresponding text; column widths will be ignored.

           For instance, the first few lines of output from “aptitude search -F '%p %V'
           --disable-columns libedataserver” might be:

               disksearch 1.2.1-3
               hp-search-mac 0.1.3
               libbsearch-ruby 1.5-5
               libbsearch-ruby1.8 1.5-5
               libclass-dbi-abstractsearch-perl 0.07-2
               libdbix-fulltextsearch-perl 0.73-10

           As in the above example, --disable-columns is often useful in combination with a
           custom display format set using the command-line option -F.

           This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Disable-Columns.

       -D, --show-deps
           For commands that will install or remove packages (install, full-upgrade, etc), show
           brief explanations of automatic installations and removals.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps.

       -d, --download-only
           Download packages to the package cache as necessary, but do not install or remove
           anything. By default, the package cache is stored in /var/cache/apt/archives.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only.

       -F <format>, --display-format <format>
           Specify the format which should be used to display output from the search and version
           commands. For instance, passing “%p %V %v” for <format> will display a package's name,
           followed by its currently installed version and its available version (see the section
           “Customizing how packages are displayed” in the aptitude reference manual for more
           information).

           The command-line option --disable-columns is often useful in combination with -F.

           For search, this corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format; for versions, this corresponds to the
           configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Version-Display-Format.

       -f
           Try hard to fix the dependencies of broken packages, even if it means ignoring the
           actions requested on the command line.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken.

       --full-resolver
           When package dependency problems are encountered, use the default “full” resolver to
           solve them. Unlike the “safe” resolver activated by --safe-resolver, the full resolver
           will happily remove packages to fulfill dependencies. It can resolve more situations
           than the safe algorithm, but its solutions are more likely to be undesirable.

           This option can be used to force the use of the full resolver even when
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is true. The safe-upgrade command never uses the
           full resolver and does not accept the --full-resolver option.

       --group-by <grouping-mode>
           Control how the versions command groups its output. The following values are
           recognized:

           ·    archive to group packages by the archive they occur in (“stable”, “unstable”,
               etc). If a package occurs in several archives, it will be displayed in each of
               them.

           ·    auto to group versions by their package unless there is exactly one argument and
               it is not a search pattern.

           ·    none to display all the versions in a single list without any grouping.

           ·    package to group versions by their package.

           ·    source-package to group versions by their source package.

           ·    source-version to group versions by their source package and source version.

           This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Group-By.

       -h, --help
           Display a brief help message. Identical to the help action.

       --log-file=<file>
           If <file> is a nonempty string, log messages will be written to it, except that if
           <file> is “-”, the messages will be written to standard output instead. If this option
           appears multiple times, the last occurrence is the one that will take effect.

           This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed
           (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include
           internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option
           --log-level to get more control over what gets logged.

           This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Logging::File.

       --log-level=<level>, --log-level=<category>:<level>

           --log-level=<level> causes aptitude to only log messages whose level is <level> or
           higher. For instance, setting the log level to error will cause only messages at the
           log levels error and fatal to be displayed; all others will be hidden. Valid log
           levels (in descending order) are off, fatal, error, warn, info, debug, and trace. The
           default log level is warn.

           --log-level=<category>:<level> causes messages in <category> to only be logged if
           their level is <level> or higher.

           --log-level may appear multiple times on the command line; the most specific setting
           is the one that takes effect, so if you pass --log-level=aptitude.resolver:fatal and
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver.hints.match:trace, then messages in
           aptitude.resolver.hints.parse will only be printed if their level is fatal, but all
           messages in aptitude.resolver.hints.match will be printed. If you set the level of the
           same category two or more times, the last setting is the one that will take effect.

           This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed
           (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include
           internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option
           --log-file to change where log messages go.

           This corresponds to the configuration group Aptitude::Logging::Levels.

       --log-resolver
           Set some standard log levels related to the resolver, to produce logging output
           suitable for processing with automated tools. This is equivalent to the command-line
           options --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search:trace
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search.tiers:info.

       --no-new-installs
           Prevent safe-upgrade from installing any new packages; when the safe resolver is being
           used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to
           true), forbid the dependency resolver from installing new packages. This option takes
           effect regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

           This mimics the historical behavior of apt-get upgrade.

       --no-new-upgrades
           When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), forbid the dependency resolver
           from installing upgrades for packages regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.

       --no-show-resolver-actions
           Do not display the actions performed by the “safe” resolver, overriding any
           configuration option or earlier --show-resolver-actions.

       -O <reihenfolge>, --sort <reihenfolge>
           Specify the order in which output from the search and versions commands should be
           displayed. For instance, passing “installsize” for <order> will list packages in order
           according to their size when installed (see the section “Customizing how packages are
           sorted” in the aptitude reference manual for more information).

           The default sort order is name,version.

       -o <schl>=<wert>
           Eine Einstellung direkt setzen; zum Beispiel können Sie -o Aptitude::Log=/tmp/my-log
           verwenden, um aptitudes Handeln nach /tmp/my-log zu loggen. Weitere Informationen zu
           den Einstellungen in den Konfigurationsdateien finden Sie in “Configuration file
           reference” in der aptitude-Benutzeranleitung.

       -P, --prompt
           Always display a prompt before downloading, installing or removing packages, even when
           no actions other than those explicitly requested will be performed.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Always-Prompt.

       --purge-unused
           If Aptitude::Delete-Unused is set to “true” (its default), then in addition to
           removing each package that is no longer required by any installed package, aptitude
           will also purge them, removing their configuration files and perhaps other important
           data. For more information about which packages are considered to be “unused”, see the
           section “Managing Automatically Installed Packages” in the aptitude reference manual.
           THIS OPTION CAN CAUSE DATA LOSS! DO NOT USE IT UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING!

           This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Purge-Unused.

       -q[=<n>], --quiet[=<n>]
           Suppress all incremental progress indicators, thus making the output loggable. This
           may be supplied multiple times to make the program quieter, but unlike apt-get,
           aptitude does not enable -y when -q is supplied more than once.

           The optional =<n> may be used to directly set the amount of quietness (for instance,
           to override a setting in /etc/apt/apt.conf); it causes the program to behave as if -q
           had been passed exactly <n> times.

       -R, --without-recommends
           Do not treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new packages (this
           overrides settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and ~/.aptitude/config). Packages previously
           installed due to recommendations will not be removed.

           This corresponds to the pair of configuration options Apt::Install-Recommends and
           Apt::AutoRemove::InstallRecommends.

       -r, --with-recommends
           Empfehlungen als Abhängigkeiten behandeln, wenn neue Pakete installiert werden (dies
           überschreibt Einstellungen in /etc/apt/apt.conf und ~/.aptitude/config).

           This corresponds to the configuration option Apt::Install-Recommends

       --remove-user-tag <tag>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
           unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag
           <tag> from all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if
           with the add-user-tag command.

       --remove-user-tag-from <tag>,<pattern>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
           unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag
           <tag> from all packages that match <pattern> as if with the remove-user-tag command.
           The pattern is a search pattern as described in the section “Search Patterns” in the
           aptitude reference manual.

           For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --remove-user-tag-from
           "not-upgraded,?action(upgrade)" will remove the not-upgraded tag from all packages
           that the safe-upgrade command is able to upgrade.

       -s, --simulate
           In command-line mode, print the actions that would normally be performed, but don't
           actually perform them. This does not require root privileges. In the visual interface,
           always open the cache in read-only mode regardless of whether you are root.

           This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Simulate.

       --safe-resolver
           When package dependency problems are encountered, use a “safe” algorithm to solve
           them. This resolver attempts to preserve as many of your choices as possible; it will
           never remove a package or install a version of a package other than the package's
           default candidate version. It is the same algorithm used in safe-upgrade; indeed,
           aptitude --safe-resolver full-upgrade is equivalent to aptitude safe-upgrade. Because
           safe-upgrade always uses the safe resolver, it does not accept the --safe-resolver
           flag.

           This option is equivalent to setting the configuration variable
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver to true.

       --schedule-only
           For commands that modify package states, schedule operations to be performed in the
           future, but don't perform them. You can execute scheduled actions by running aptitude
           install with no arguments. This is equivalent to making the corresponding selections
           in visual mode, then exiting the program normally.

           For instance, aptitude --schedule-only install evolution will schedule the evolution
           package for later installation.

       --show-package-names <when>
           Controls when the versions command shows package names. The following settings are
           allowed:

           ·    always: display package names every time that aptitude versions runs.

           ·    auto: display package names when aptitude versions runs if the output is not
               grouped by package, and either there is a pattern-matching argument or there is
               more than one argument.

           ·    never: never display package names in the output of aptitude versions.

           This option corresponds to the configuration item
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Show-Package-Names.

       --show-resolver-actions
           Display the actions performed by the “safe” resolver and by safe-upgrade.

           When executing the command safe-upgrade or when the option --safe-resolver is present,
           aptitude will display a summary of the actions performed by the resolver before
           printing the installation preview. This is equivalent to the configuration option
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::Show-Resolver-Actions.

       --show-summary[=<MODE>]
           Changes the behavior of “aptitude why” to summarize each dependency chain that it
           outputs, rather than displaying it in long form. If this option is present and <MODE>
           is not “no-summary”, chains that contain Suggests dependencies will not be displayed:
           combine --show-summary with -v to see a summary of all the reasons for the target
           package to be installed.

           <MODE> can be any one of the following:

            1.  no-summary: don't show a summary (the default behavior if --show-summary is not
               present).

            2.  first-package: display the first package in each chain. This is the default value
               of <MODE> if it is not present.

            3.  first-package-and-type: display the first package in each chain, along with the
               strength of the weakest dependency in the chain.

            4.  all-packages: briefly display each chain of dependencies leading to the target
               package.

            5.  all-packages-with-dep-versions: briefly display each chain of dependencies
               leading to the target package, including the target version of each dependency.

           This option corresponds to the configuration item Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary; if
           --show-summary is present on the command-line, it will override
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary.

           Example 10. Usage of --show-summary

           --show-summary used with -v to display all the reasons a package is installed:

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                 foomatic-db-engine
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint
                 foomatic-db-hpijs
                 foomatic-filters-ppds
                 foomatic-gui
                 kde
                 printconf
                 wine

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=first-package-and-type why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 [Depends] cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-engine
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-gutenprint
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-hpijs
                 [Depends] foomatic-filters-ppds
                 [Depends] foomatic-gui
                 [Depends] kde
                 [Depends] printconf
                 [Depends] wine

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 kde D: kdeadmin R: system-config-printer-kde D: system-config-printer R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 wine D: libwine-print D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 printconf D: foomatic-db

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages-with-dep-versions why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint (>= 5.0.2-4) D: cups (>= 1.3.0) R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 kde D: kdeadmin (>= 4:3.5.5) R: system-config-printer-kde (>= 4:4.2.2-1) D: system-config-printer (>= 1.0.0) R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 wine D: libwine-print (= 1.1.15-1) D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic (>= 0.7.9.2) D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 printconf D: foomatic-db

           --show-summary used to list a chain on one line:

               $ aptitude --show-summary=all-packages why aptitude-gtk libglib2.0-data
               Packages requiring libglib2.0-data:
                 aptitude-gtk D: libglib2.0-0 R: libglib2.0-data

       -t <release>, --target-release <release>
           Set the release from which packages should be installed. For instance, “aptitude -t
           experimental ...” will install packages from the experimental distribution unless you
           specify otherwise. For the command-line actions “changelog”, “download”, and “show”,
           this is equivalent to appending /<release> to each package named on the command-line;
           for other commands, this will affect the default candidate version of packages
           according to the rules described in apt_preferences(5).

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung APT::Default-Release.

       -V, --show-versions
           Anzeigen, welche Versionen installiert werden.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions.

       -v, --verbose
           Veranlasst einige Befehle (z.B. show), mehr Informationen anzuzeigen. Diese Option
           kann mehrfach angegeben werden um noch mehr Informationen anzuzeigen.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose.

       --version
           Display the version of aptitude and some information about how it was compiled.

       --visual-preview
           When installing or removing packages from the command line, instead of displaying the
           usual prompt, start up the visual interface and display its preview screen.

       -W, --show-why
           In the preview displayed before packages are installed or removed, show which manually
           installed package requires each automatically installed package. For instance:

               $ aptitude --show-why install mediawiki
               ...
               The following NEW packages will be installed:
                 libapache2-mod-php5{a} (for mediawiki)  mediawiki  php5{a} (for mediawiki)
                 php5-cli{a} (for mediawiki)  php5-common{a} (for mediawiki)
                 php5-mysql{a} (for mediawiki)

           When combined with -v or a non-zero value for Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose, this
           displays the entire chain of dependencies that lead each package to be installed. For
           instance:

               $ aptitude -v --show-why install libdb4.2-dev
               The following NEW packages will be installed:
                 libdb4.2{a} (libdb4.2-dev D: libdb4.2)  libdb4.2-dev
               The following packages will be REMOVED:
                 libdb4.4-dev{a} (libdb4.2-dev C: libdb-dev P<- libdb-dev)

           This option will also describe why packages are being removed, as shown above. In this
           example, libdb4.2-dev conflicts with libdb-dev, which is provided by libdb-dev.

           This argument corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Why and
           displays the same information that is computed by aptitude why and aptitude why-not.

       -w <breite>, --width <breite>
           Die Anzeigebreite, die für die Ausgabe des search-Befehls verwendet wird, einstellen.
           (Per Vorgabe wird die Breite des Terminals verwendet.)

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width

       -y, --assume-yes
           When a yes/no prompt would be presented, assume that the user entered “yes”. In
           particular, suppresses the prompt that appears when installing, upgrading, or removing
           packages. Prompts for “dangerous” actions, such as removing essential packages, will
           still be displayed. This option overrides -P.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes.

       -Z
           Anzeigen, wieviel Plattenspeicher durch die Installation / das Upgrade / das Löschen
           der einzelnen Pakete belegt oder freigegeben wird.

           Dies entspricht der Einstellung Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes.

       Die folgenden Optionen sind Befehle für den visuellen Modus von aptitude. Sie werden
       intern verwendet und Sie sollten sie nicht selbst verwenden müssen.

       --autoclean-on-startup
           Deletes old downloaded files when the program starts (equivalent to starting the
           program and immediately selecting Actions → Clean obsolete files). You cannot use this
           option and “--autoclean-on-startup”, “-i”, or “-u” at the same time.

       --clean-on-startup
           Cleans the package cache when the program starts (equivalent to starting the program
           and immediately selecting Actions → Clean package cache). You cannot use this option
           and “--autoclean-on-startup”, “-i”, or “-u” at the same time.

       -i
           Displays a download preview when the program starts (equivalent to starting the
           program and immediately pressing “g”). You cannot use this option and
           “--autoclean-on-startup”, “--clean-on-startup”, or “-u” at the same time.

       -S <dateiname>
           Die erweiterten Statusinformationen aus <dateiname> laden, nicht aus der
           Standarddatei.

       -u
           Begins updating the package lists as soon as the program starts. You cannot use this
           option and “--autoclean-on-startup”, “--clean-on-startup”, or “-i” at the same time.

ENVIRONMENT

       HOME
           If $HOME/.aptitude exists, aptitude will store its configuration file in
           $HOME/.aptitude/config. Otherwise, it will look up the current user's home directory
           using getpwuid(2) and place its configuration file there.

       PAGER
           If this environment variable is set, aptitude will use it to display changelogs when
           “aptitude changelog” is invoked. If not set, it defaults to more.

       TMP
           If TMPDIR is unset, aptitude will store its temporary files in TMP if that variable is
           set. Otherwise, it will store them in /tmp.

       TMPDIR

           aptitude will store its temporary files in the directory indicated by this environment
           variable. If TMPDIR is not set, then TMP will be used; if TMP is also unset, then
           aptitude will use /tmp.

FILES

       /var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates
           The file in which stored package states and some package flags are stored.

       /etc/apt/apt.conf, /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*, ~/.aptitude/config
           The configuration files for aptitude. ~/.aptitude/config overrides /etc/apt/apt.conf.
           See apt.conf(5) for documentation of the format and contents of these files.

SEE ALSO

       apt-get(8), apt(8), /usr/share/doc/aptitude/html/<lang>/index.html from the package
       aptitude-doc-<lang>

AUTHOR

       Daniel Burrows <dburrows@debian.org>
           Author.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2004-2011 Daniel Burrows.

       This manual page is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
       terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
       either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This manual page is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.