Provided by: findutils_4.4.2-4ubuntu1_i386 bug

NAME

       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS

       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from  left  to  right,  according  to  the  rules of
       precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the  outcome  is  known  (the
       left  hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which
       point find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
       chapter  of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That document  also  includes  a  lot  more
       detail  and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more
       useful source of information.

OPTIONS

       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic  links.
       Command-line  arguments  following these are taken to be names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the  first  argument  that  begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is  to  be
       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about  `options' within the expression list.
       These  options  control  the  behaviour  of  find  but  are   specified
       immediately  after the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L,
       -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name,  if  at  all.   A
       double  dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining arguments
       are not options (though ensuring  that  all  start  points  begin  with
       either  `./' or `/' is generally safer if you use wildcards in the list
       of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
              properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
              about files, the  information  used  shall  be  taken  from  the
              properties  of  the  file to which the link points, not from the
              link itself (unless it is a broken  symbolic  link  or  find  is
              unable  to  examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of
              this option implies -noleaf.  If you later use  the  -P  option,
              -noleaf  will  still  be in effect.  If -L is in effect and find
              discovers a symbolic link to a subdirectory during  its  search,
              the  subdirectory  pointed  to  by  the  symbolic  link  will be
              searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
              match  against  the type of the file that a symbolic link points
              to rather than the link itself  (unless  the  symbolic  link  is
              broken).   Using  -L  causes  the  -lname and -ilname predicates
              always to return false.

       -H     Do not  follow  symbolic  links,  except  while  processing  the
              command   line   arguments.    When   find  examines  or  prints
              information about files, the information  used  shall  be  taken
              from  the  properties  of  the  symbolic link itself.   The only
              exception to this behaviour is when  a  file  specified  on  the
              command  line  is a symbolic link, and the link can be resolved.
              For that situation, the information used is taken from  whatever
              the  link  points  to  (that  is,  the  link  is followed).  The
              information about the link itself is used as a fallback  if  the
              file  pointed to by the symbolic link cannot be examined.  If -H
              is in effect and one of the paths specified on the command  line
              is  a  symbolic  link  to  a  directory,  the  contents  of that
              directory will be examined (though of course -maxdepth  0  would
              prevent this).

       If  more  than  one  of  -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the
       others; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since
       it  is  the default, the -P option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to  which  the  symbolic  link  points.   The  same
       consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
              Print diagnostic information; this can be  helpful  to  diagnose
              problems  with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
              debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility  of  the
              debug  options  is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
              For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
              find -D help.  Valid debug options include

              help   Explain the debugging options

              tree   Show  the  expression  tree in its original and optimised
                     form.

              stat   Print messages as files are examined with  the  stat  and
                     lstat  system  calls.  The find program tries to minimise
                     such calls.

              opt    Prints   diagnostic   information   relating    to    the
                     optimisation of the expression tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints  a  summary  indicating  how  often each predicate
                     succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to
              speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
              predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
              other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
              are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
                     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
                     that tests based only on the names of files (for  example
                     -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any  -type  or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
                     based only on the names of files, but  before  any  tests
                     that  require information from the inode.  On many modern
                     versions of Unix, file types are  returned  by  readdir()
                     and  so  these  predicates  are  faster  to evaluate than
                     predicates which need to stat the file first.

              3      At this optimisation level,  the  full  cost-based  query
                     optimiser  is enabled.  The order of tests is modified so
                     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
                     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
                     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
                     according  to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
                     For -o,  predicates  which  are  likely  to  succeed  are
                     evaluated  earlier,  and  for  -a,  predicates  which are
                     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
              given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
              account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f
              is  assumed  to  be  more  likely to succeed than -type c).  The
              cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it  does
              not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
              again.  Conversely, optimisations that  prove  to  be  reliable,
              robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
              over time.  However, the default  behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
              level  1)  will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The
              findutils test  suite  runs  all  the  tests  on  find  at  each
              optimisation level and ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSIONS

       The  expression  is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests  (which  return  a  true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and return a  true  or  false  value),  all  separated  by
       operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If  the  expression  contains  no  actions other than -prune, -print is
       performed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.   Except  for  -daystart,  -follow  and
       -regextype,  the  options  affect  all tests, including tests specified
       before the option.  This is because the options are processed when  the
       command  line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
       are examined.   The  -daystart,  -follow  and  -regextype  options  are
       different  in  this  respect,  and  have  an effect only on tests which
       appear later in the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it  is  best
       to  place them at the beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued
       if you don't do this.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
              MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
              Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24  hours
              ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
              command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the  directory  itself.
              The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -follow
              Deprecated;  use  the  -L  option instead.  Dereference symbolic
              links.  Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only  those
              tests  which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H
              or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
              option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
              listed as the argument of -newer will be  dereferenced  if  they
              are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
              -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
              match  against  the type of the file that a symbolic link points
              to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
              and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally,  find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
              a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
              the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
              the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
              are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
              time  the  command  line  is  read,  which means that you cannot
              search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
              of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
              one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend  at  most  levels  (a  non-negative  integer)  levels of
              directories below the command line arguments.  -maxdepth 0
               means only apply the tests and  actions  to  the  command  line
              arguments.

       -mindepth levels
              Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
              non-negative integer).  -mindepth  1  means  process  all  files
              except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
              name for -xdev, for compatibility with some  other  versions  of
              find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do  not  optimize  by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
              subdirectories than their  hard  link  count.   This  option  is
              needed  when  searching  filesystems that do not follow the Unix
              directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS  filesystems
              or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
              filesystem has at least 2 hard  links:  its  name  and  its  `.'
              entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each have a
              `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
              directory,  after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
              directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
              tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
              no  need  to  stat  them;  this  gives a significant increase in
              search speed.

       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
              -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  Currently-
              implemented types are emacs (this is  the  default),  posix-awk,
              posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to
              the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find  might
              encounter  when  it searches directories.  The default behaviour
              corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to  -nowarn
              otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
       between the file currently  being  examined  and  some  reference  file
       specified  on  the  command  line.   When  these  tests  are  used, the
       interpretation of the reference file is determined by the  options  -H,
       -L  and  -P  and  any  previous -follow, but the reference file is only
       examined once, at  the  time  the  command  line  is  parsed.   If  the
       reference file cannot be examined (for example, the stat(2) system call
       fails for it), an error message  is  issued,  and  find  exits  with  a
       nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File  was  last  accessed n*24 hours ago.  When find figures out
              how many 24-hour periods ago the file  was  last  accessed,  any
              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
              have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
              File's status was last  changed  more  recently  than  file  was
              modified.   If  file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the
              -L option is in effect, the status-change time of  the  file  it
              points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches  files  which  are  executable and directories which are
              searchable (in a file name resolution sense).  This  takes  into
              account  access  control  lists  and other permissions artefacts
              which the -perm test  ignores.   This  test  makes  use  of  the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2)  in  the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the
              UID mapping information held on the server.  Because  this  test
              is  based only on the result of the access(2) system call, there
              is no guarantee that a file for which  this  test  succeeds  can
              actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File  is  on  a  filesystem  of type type.  The valid filesystem
              types vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete  list
              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
              another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.   You  can
              use  -printf  with  the  %F  directive  to see the types of your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match  is  case  insensitive.   If  the  -L
              option  or  the  -follow  option is in effect, this test returns
              false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
              patterns  `fo*'  and  `F??'  match  the file names `Foo', `FOO',
              `foo',  `fOo',  etc.    In  these  patterns,   unlike   filename
              expansion  by  the  shell, an initial '.' can be matched by `*'.
              That is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please
              note  that  you  should  quote  patterns  as a matter of course,
              otherwise the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.

       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It  is  normally  easier  to  use  the
              -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Behaves  in  the  same  way  as  -iwholename.   This  option  is
              deprecated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
              File has n links.

       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic  link  whose  contents  match  shell  pattern
              pattern.   The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.
              If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect,  this  test
              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's  data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
              of file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base  of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading directories
              removed) matches  shell  pattern  pattern.   The  metacharacters
              (`*',  `?',  and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name
              (this is a change  in  findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS
              CONFORMANCE  below).   To ignore a directory and the files under
              it, use -prune; see an example  in  the  description  of  -path.
              Braces  are  not  recognised  as being special, despite the fact
              that some shells including Bash  imbue  braces  with  a  special
              meaning  in  shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed
              with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't  forget
              to  enclose  the  pattern  in quotes in order to protect it from
              expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
              File was modified  more  recently  than  file.   If  file  is  a
              symbolic  link  and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,
              the modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Compares the timestamp of the current file with reference.   The
              reference  argument  is  normally the name of a file (and one of
              its timestamps is used for the comparison) but it may also be  a
              string  describing  an  absolute time.  X and Y are placeholders
              for other letters, and these letters select which time belonging
              to how reference is used for the comparison.

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some  combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X
              to be t.  Some combinations are not implemented on all  systems;
              for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
              unsupported combination  of  XY  is  specified,  a  fatal  error
              results.    Time  specifications  are  interpreted  as  for  the
              argument to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try  to  use  the
              birth  time  of  a  reference file, and the birth time cannot be
              determined, a fatal error message results.   If  you  specify  a
              test  which  refers  to  the birth time of files being examined,
              this test will fail for  any  files  where  the  birth  time  is
              unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File  name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
              exists).   To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
              than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
              directory  `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
              and print the names of the other files found, do something  like
              this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
              starting from one of the start points named on the command line.
              It  would  only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
              the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This  means
              that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              The  predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be
              in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
              File's permission bits are exactly  mode  (octal  or  symbolic).
              Since  an  exact match is required, if you want to use this form
              for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
              mode  string.  For example -perm g=w will only match files which
              have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  permission
              is  the  only  permission set).  It is more likely that you will
              want to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example -perm -g=w,  which
              matches  any file with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES
              section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
              modes  are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
              which would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or  `o'
              if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
              illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
              modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify `u', `g' or
              `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the  EXAMPLES  section  for
              some  illustrative  examples.  If no permission bits in mode are
              set, this test  matches  any  file  (the  idea  here  is  to  be
              consistent with the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              Deprecated,  old  way  of  searching  for  files with any of the
              permission bits  in  mode  set.   You  should  use  -perm  /mode
              instead.  Trying  to use the `+' syntax with symbolic modes will
              yield surprising  results.   For  example,  `+u+x'  is  a  valid
              symbolic   mode  (equivalent  to  +u,+x,  i.e.  0111)  and  will
              therefore not be evaluated as -perm +mode  but  instead  as  the
              exact  mode  specifier  -perm  mode and so it matches files with
              exact permissions 0111 instead of files  with  any  execute  bit
              set.   If you found this paragraph confusing, you're not alone -
              just use -perm /mode.  This form of the -perm test is deprecated
              because the POSIX specification requires the interpretation of a
              leading `+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched
              to using `/' instead.

       -readable
              Matches  files  which  are  readable.   This  takes into account
              access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
              call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do  UID  mapping
              (or  root-squashing),  since many systems implement access(2) in
              the client's kernel and so cannot make use of  the  UID  mapping
              information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
              named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
              `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
              by  find  are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
              be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
              this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
                     used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count  indirect  blocks,  but  it  does  count
              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
              mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf  handle
              sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
              to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
                     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
                     is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches files which  are  writable.   This  takes  into  account
              access  control  lists and other permissions artefacts which the
              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
              call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
              (or root-squashing), since many systems implement  access(2)  in
              the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make use of the UID mapping
              information held on the server.

       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the  file  is  a  symbolic  link.   For
              symbolic  links:  if  the -H or -P option was specified, true if
              the file is a link to a file of type c; if  the  -L  option  has
              been  given,  true  if  c  is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic
              links, -xtype checks the type of the file that  -type  does  not
              check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
              an error message is  issued.   If  -delete  fails,  find's  exit
              status  will  be  nonzero  (when  it  eventually exits).  Use of
              -delete automatically turns on the -depth option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line  is  evaluated
              as an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
              delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
              testing  a  find  command line that you later intend to use with
              -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to  avoid
              later  surprises.   Because  -delete  implies -depth, you cannot
              usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is  returned.   All  following
              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
              an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The  string  `{}'
              is  replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere
              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
              where  it  is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these
              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
              protect  them  from  expansion  by  the shell.  See the EXAMPLES
              section for examples of  the  use  of  the  -exec  option.   The
              specified  command  is  run  once  for  each  matched file.  The
              command is executed  in  the  starting  directory.    There  are
              unavoidable  security  problems  surrounding  use  of  the -exec
              action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified  command  on
              the  selected  files, but the command line is built by appending
              each selected  file  name  at  the  end;  the  total  number  of
              invocations  of the command will be much less than the number of
              matched files.  The command line is built in much the  same  way
              that  xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}'
              is allowed within the command.  The command is executed  in  the
              starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like   -exec,   but  the  specified  command  is  run  from  the
              subdirectory containing the matched file, which is not  normally
              the  directory  in  which  you  started  find.  This a much more
              secure  method  for  invoking  commands,  as  it   avoids   race
              conditions  during resolution of the paths to the matched files.
              As with the -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build  a
              command  line  to  process  more  than one matched file, but any
              given invocation of command will only list files that  exist  in
              the  same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure
              that your $PATH environment variable  does  not  reference  `.';
              otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
              an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
              -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are
              empty or which are not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
              is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
              truncated.   The  file names ``/dev/stdout'' and ``/dev/stderr''
              are handled specially; they refer to  the  standard  output  and
              standard  error output, respectively.  The output file is always
              created, even if  the  predicate  is  never  matched.   See  the
              UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for  information  about how unusual
              characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on  standard  output.
              The  block  counts  are  of  1K  blocks,  unless the environment
              variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case  512-byte  blocks
              are  used.   See  the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run  the
              command.   Otherwise  just return false.  If the command is run,
              its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

              The response to the prompt is matched against a pair of  regular
              expressions  to  determine  if  it is an affirmative or negative
              response.  This regular expression is obtained from  the  system
              if   the  `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable  is  set,  or
              otherwise from find's message translations.  If the  system  has
              no suitable definition, find's own definition will be used.   In
              either case, the interpretation of the regular expression itself
              will   be  affected  by  the  environment  variables  'LC_CTYPE'
              (character  classes)  and  'LC_COLLATE'  (character  ranges  and
              equivalence classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
              If the user does not agree, just return false.  If  the  command
              is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the  output  of  find  into
              another  program  and there is the faintest possibility that the
              files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
              you  should  seriously consider using the -print0 option instead
              of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -print0
              True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
              by a null character  (instead  of  the  newline  character  that
              -print  uses).   This allows file names that contain newlines or
              other types of  white  space  to  be  correctly  interpreted  by
              programs  that process the find output.  This option corresponds
              to the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
              True; print format on  the  standard  output,  interpreting  `\'
              escapes  and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
              specified as with the `printf' C  function.   Please  note  that
              many  of  the  fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and this
              may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.   This  also
              means  that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-
              aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at  the
              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
                     output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
              ordinary character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's  last  access time in the format returned by the C
                     `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the  format  specified  by  k,
                     which  is  either `@' or a directive for the C `strftime'
                     function.  The possible values for k  are  listed  below;
                     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
                     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds  since  Jan.  1,  1970,  00:00  GMT,  with
                            fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second  (00.00  ..  61.00).  There is a fractional
                            part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                     +      Date and  time,  separated  by  `+',  for  example
                            `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
                            The time is given in the current  timezone  (which
                            may  be  affected  by  setting  the TZ environment
                            variable).    The   seconds   field   includes   a
                            fractional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S)

                     Z      time  zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
                            is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's  full  weekday  name,   variable   length
                            (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's   full   month   name,   variable  length
                            (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov  04  12:02:33  EST
                            1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
                            so to preserve  compatibility  with  that  format,
                            there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week  number  of  year with Sunday as first day of
                            week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as  first  day  of
                            week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
                     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/512, but it can also be  smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %c     File's  last status change time in the format returned by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
                     command line argument.

              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev
                     field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's  name  with  any leading directories removed (only
                     the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
                     used for -fstype.

              %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
                     no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading directories of file's  name  (all  but  the  last
                     element).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it
                     is in the current directory) the %h specifier expands  to
                     ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a
                     sparse file.

              %l     Object  of  symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
                     symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses  the
                     `traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
                     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
                     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
                     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
                     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you  should
                     use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the  command  line  argument
                     under which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's     sparseness.     This    is    calculated    as
                     (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).   The  exact  value  you
                     will  get  for  an  ordinary  file of a certain length is
                     system-dependent.  However, normally  sparse  files  will
                     have  values  less than 1.0, and files which use indirect
                     blocks may have a value which is greater than 1.0.    The
                     value  used  for  BLOCKSIZE  is  system-dependent, but is
                     usually 512 bytes.   If the file size is zero, the  value
                     printed  is undefined.  On systems which lack support for
                     st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
                     the C `ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
                     k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
                     name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's  type  (like  in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
                     happen)

              %Y     File's type (like  %y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
                     N=nonexistent

              A  `%'  character  followed by any other character is discarded,
              but the other character is  printed  (don't  rely  on  this,  as
              further  format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end
              of the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is
              no  following character.  In some locales, it may hide your door
              keys, while in others it may remove  the  final  page  from  the
              novel you are reading.

              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
              other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
              and n.  The  `-'  format  flag  is  supported  and  changes  the
              alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default)
              to left-justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
              unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune True;  if  the  file  is a directory, do not descend into it. If
              -depth is given, false;  no  effect.   Because  -delete  implies
              -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
              no more paths specified on the command line will  be  processed.
              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
              /tmp/foo.  Any command lines  which  have  been  built  up  with
              -execdir  ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
              already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
       under the control of other users.  This  includes  file  names,  sizes,
       modification  times  and  so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character  except  `\0'  and  `/'.   Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of  your  function
       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the  output
              is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
              and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
              (for  example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are printed
              using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
              -fls  these  are  the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
              printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is  printed  as-is.
              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
              are  not  under control of files' owners, and so are printed as-
              is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
              %u  and  %U  have  values  which are under the control of files'
              owners but which cannot be used to send arbitrary  data  to  the
              terminal,  and  so  these are printed as-is.  The directives %f,
              %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in  the
              same  way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism
              as the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you  are  able  to  decide
              what  format  to  use for the output of find then it is normally
              better to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file
              names  can  contain  white  space  and  newline characters.  The
              setting of  the  `LC_CTYPE'  environment  variable  is  used  to
              determine which characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
              If you are using find in a script or in a  situation  where  the
              matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
              using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the shell,
              you will normally need to quote them.  Many of the  examples  in
              this  manual  page  use  backslashes for this purpose: `\(...\)'
              instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will  also  usually  need
              protection from interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two  expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
              "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The  value  of
              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
              The comma operator can  be  useful  for  searching  for  several
              different   types   of  thing,  but  traversing  the  filesystem
              hierarchy only once.  The -fprintf action can be  used  to  list
              the various matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

       For  closest  compliance  to  the  POSIX  standard,  you should set the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable.   The  following  options   are
       specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
              POSIX conformance of the system's fnmatch(3)  library  function.
              As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]'
              for example)  will  match  a  leading  `.',  because  IEEE  PASC
              interpretation  126  requires  this.    This  is  a  change from
              previous versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l',  `p',  `f'  and
              `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
              OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according  to  the
              "yes"  and  "no"  patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
              environment variable.  When  the  `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
              variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of
              a positive (yes) or negative (no)  response.  See  the  system's
              documentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR and
              NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the  patterns  are
              instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
              always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
              the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable  is  not
              set,  some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not valid
              in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group,  -links,  -mtime,
              -nogroup,  -nouser,  -print,  -prune, -size, -user and -xdev are
              all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
              a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
              file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
              write a diagnostic message to standard error  and  shall  either
              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU   find  complies  with  these  requirements.   The  link  count  of
       directories which contain entries which are hard links to  an  ancestor
       will  often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that
       GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting  of  a  subdirectory
       which  is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually
       enter such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic
       message.   Although  this  behaviour  may  be somewhat confusing, it is
       unlikely that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the  leaf
       optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued  where  it
       is  appropriate.   Symbolic  links  cannot be used to create filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a
       diagnostic  message  is  issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will
       often  mean  that  find  knows  that  it doesn't need to call stat() or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so  this  diagnostic  is  frequently  not
       necessary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the  behaviour
       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
              that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies  that  this  variable  affects  the
              pattern  matching  to  be  used for the -name option.   GNU find
              uses  the  fnmatch(3)  library  function,  and  so  support  for
              `LC_COLLATE'  depends  on  the  system library.    This variable
              also affects the interpretation of the response  to  -ok;  while
              the  `LC_MESSAGES'  variable  selects the actual pattern used to
              interpret the response to -ok, the interpretation of any bracket
              expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
              regular expressions  and  also  with  the  -name  test,  if  the
              system's   fnmatch(3)  library  function  supports  this.   This
              variable  also  affects  the  interpretation  of  any  character
              classes  in  the  regular  expressions  used  to  interpret  the
              response  to  the  prompt  issued  by   -ok.    The   `LC_CTYPE'
              environment  variable  will  also  affect  which  characters are
              considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see the
              section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
              If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this  also
              determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
              by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the  location  of  the  internationalisation  message
              catalogues.

       PATH   Affects   the   directories  which  are  searched  to  find  the
              executables invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines  the  block  size  used  by   -ls   and   -fls.    If
              POSIXLY_CORRECT   is   set,  blocks  are  units  of  512  bytes.
              Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that  is,
              implies  -nowarn)  by default, because POSIX requires that apart
              from the output for -ok, all  messages  printed  on  stderr  are
              diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
              -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is  not  a  valid  symbolic  mode.   When
              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by
              the -ok action is interpreted according to the system's  message
              catalogue,  as  opposed  to  according  to  find's  own  message
              translations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related  format
              directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this  will  work  incorrectly  if  there  are  any  filenames
       containing newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in  such  a  way  that  file  or  directory  names
       containing  single  or  double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly
       handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to  avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on  every file in or below the current directory.  Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly
       protected by the use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \
       \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is  less  than  24  hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.   Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their  owner
       and  group,  and  which  other  users  can  read, without regard to the
       presence of any extra permission bits (for example the executable bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner  or  their  group.  The files don't have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same  thing;  search  for  files  which  are
       writable by both their owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands  both  search  for  files  that  are  readable for
       everybody ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit  set
       (  -perm  /222  or  -perm  /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( !
       -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or  directories  whose  name  ends  in  ~,  but  not  their
       contents.   The  construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.
       The idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which
       are  to  be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so
       the following -o ensures that the right hand side is evaluated only for
       those  directories  which didn't get pruned (the contents of the pruned
       directories are not even visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't  have  -prune  applied  to them.  Because the
       default `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o,  this
       is  the  default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going
       on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn -o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of  projects  and  their  associated  SCM
       administrative   directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for  the
       projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent  into  directories
       that  have  already  been  discovered  (for  example  we  do not search
       project3/src because  we  already  found  project3/.svn),  but  ensures
       sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS

       find  exits  with  status  0  if  all files are processed successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors occur.   This is  deliberately  a  very  broad
       description,  but  if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO

       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1),  xargs(1),  chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),
       regex(7),  stat(2),  lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY

       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell  metacharacters  (`*',  `?'  or  `[]'  for
       example)  used  in  filename patterns will match a leading `.', because
       IEEE POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       The syntax -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
       -perm  /MODE.   As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files
       instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero  value when it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.
       Previously, find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure  of
       -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

NON-BUGS

       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of  doing  things
       this  way,  you  should  enclose  the  pattern  in quotes or escape the
       wildcard:
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS

       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the  POSIX
       standard  specifies  for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir  should
       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The   best   way   to   report   a   bug   is   to   use  the  form  at
       http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for this  is
       that  you  will  then  be able to track progress in fixing the problem.
       Other comments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general
       can  be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send
       email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

                                                                       FIND(1)