Provided by: git-man_1.7.9.5-1_all bug


       git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object


       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [(-m <message>)...] [(-F <file>)...] <tree>


       This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See git-
       commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits
       the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the
       standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
       parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the
       commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits
       have no parents.

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
       to get there.

       Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
       doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
       tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
       .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.


           An existing tree object

       -p <parent>
           Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

       -m <message>
           A paragraph in the commig log message. This can be given more than
           once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
           Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read from
           the standard input.


       A commit encapsulates:

       ·   all parent object ids

       ·   author name, email and date

       ·   committer name and email and the commit time.

       While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
       committer information is taken from the following environment
       variables, if set:


       (nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)

       In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the
       information is taken from the configuration items and, or, if not present, system user name and the hostname used
       for outgoing mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the
       fully qualified hostname when that file does not exist).

       A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
       provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to
       be entered and terminated with ^D.


       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support
       the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <timezone offset>, where <unix timestamp> is
           the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <timezone offset> is a
           positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 2
           hours ahead UTC) is +0200.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
           Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
           character as well.

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
               formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.


       You don’t exist. Go away!
           The passwd(5) gecos field couldn’t be read

       Your parents must have hated you!
           The passwd(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.

       Your sysadmin must hate you!
           The passwd(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.


       At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are
           treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What
           readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data
           git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2)
           and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
           bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1.  git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
           message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
           you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
           say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like

                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
           i18n.commitencoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
           people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
           commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
           UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
           output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file,
           like this:

                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.






       Part of the git(1) suite