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NAME

       git-log - Show commit logs

SYNOPSIS

       git log [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[--] <path>...]

DESCRIPTION

       Shows the commit logs.

       The command takes options applicable to the git rev-list command to control what is shown
       and how, and options applicable to the git diff-* commands to control how the changes each
       commit introduces are shown.

OPTIONS

       -<n>
           Limits the number of commits to show. Note that this is a commit limiting option, see
           below.

       <since>..<until>
           Show only commits between the named two commits. When either <since> or <until> is
           omitted, it defaults to HEAD, i.e. the tip of the current branch. For a more complete
           list of ways to spell <since> and <until>, see gitrevisions(7).

       --follow
           Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames (works only for a single file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|no]
           Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short is specified, the ref
           name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full
           is specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. The default option
           is short.

       --source
           Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each commit was reached.

       --full-diff
           Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that touch the specified
           paths, and diffs about the same specified paths. With this, the full diff is shown for
           commits that touch the specified paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only
           commits, and doesn’t limit diff for those commits.

           Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those produced by --stat etc.

       --log-size
           Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended mainly for porcelain
           tools consumption. If git is unable to produce a valid value size is set to zero. Note
           that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown its size is not included.

       [--] <path>...
           Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files that match the specified
           paths came to be. See "History Simplification" below for details and other
           simplification modes.

           To prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to be prefixed with
           "-- " to separate them from options or refnames.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations
       explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied. Note that they
       are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as --reverse.

       -n number, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

       --skip=<number>
           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression).

       --grep=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern
           (regular expression).

       --all-match
           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, --author and --committer
           instead of ones that match at least one.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the
           default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret pattern as a
           regular expression).

       --remove-empty
           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       --merges
           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

       --no-merges
           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as
           --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many commits. In particular,
           --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again.
           Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
           --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper limit).

       --first-parent
           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
           better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because
           merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from
           time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in
           to your history by such a merge.

       --not
           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision
           specifiers, up to the next --not.

       --all
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

       --branches[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>.
           If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
           lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --tags[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If
           <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?,
           *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --remotes[=<pattern>]
           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>.
           If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell
           glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --glob=<glob-pattern>
           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       --ignore-missing
           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not
           given.

       --bisect
           Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and as if it was
           followed by --not and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

       --stdin
           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard
           input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
           limit the result.

       --cherry-mark
           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting
           them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       --cherry-pick
           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side"
           when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on
           only one side of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description
           of the --left-right option). It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from
           the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With
           this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e. only those which
           would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in
           A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits
           from git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
           exact list.

       --cherry
           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to
           the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a
           forked history with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry
           upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent
           one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude
           (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output
           to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth}
           notation is used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now},
           output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the
           commit message is prefixed with this information on the same line. This option cannot
           be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       --merge
           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don’t exist on
           all heads to merge.

       --boundary
           Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not shown.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits
       modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part
       is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
       simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

       <paths>
           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       --simplify-by-decoration
           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree.
           Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e.
           merging branches with the same content)

       --full-history
           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       --dense
           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

       --sparse
           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       --simplify-merges
           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting
           history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

       --ancestry-path
           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1),
           only display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and
           commit2, i.e. commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME,
       and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,
       respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the
       differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file
       foo in this commit graph:

                     .-A---M---N---O---P
                    /     /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E
                    \   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'

       The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The
       commits are:

       ·    I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf", and a file quux
           exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is
           !TREESAME.

       ·   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       ·    B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence TREESAME to all
           parents.

       ·    C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so it is not TREESAME
           to any parent.

       ·    D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to "foobarbaz";
           i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       ·    E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to "quux xyzzy".
           Despite appearing interesting, P is TREESAME to all parents.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether
       --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
       following settings are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be
           changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
           parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow
           only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                         .-A---N---O
                        /     /   /
                       I---------D

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B
           from consideration entirely.  C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
           are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the
           commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge,
           even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
           commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
           example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O

           P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent.  E, C and B were all
           walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the
           parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed,
           see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each
           parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

                         .-A---M---N---O---P
                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /
                         `-------------'

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because
           it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The
           same happened for C and N. Note also that P was included despite being TREESAME.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

       --dense
           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

       --sparse
           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents
           is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never
           walked.

       --simplify-merges
           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting
           does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit ‘C` to its replacement C’ in the final history according to
           the following rules:

           ·   Set ‘C’` to C.

           ·   Replace each parent ‘P` of C’ with its simplification ‘P’`. In the process, drop
               parents that are ancestors of other parents, and remove duplicates.

           ·   If after this parent rewriting, ‘C’` is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1
               parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced
               with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent
           rewriting. The example turns into:

                         .-A---M---N---O
                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /
                         `---------'

           Note the major differences in N and P over --full-history:

           ·    N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M.
               Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           ·    P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed completely, because
               it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       --ancestry-path
           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the "from"
           and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that are
           ancestor of the "to" commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                           D---E-------F
                          /     \       \
                         B---C---G---H---I---J
                        /                     \
                       A-------K---------------L--M

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M, but excludes the
           ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
           leading to M since D, in the sense that "what does M have that did not exist in D".
           The result in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of
           course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by
           D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D..M that are
           actually descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
           --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                               E-------F
                                \       \
                                 G---H---I---J
                                              \
                                               L--M

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the
       topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are
       marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
       above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths
       given on the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       --topo-order
           This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e. descendant commits are shown
           before their parents).

       --date-order
           This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that no parent comes before all of
           its children, but otherwise things are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.

       --reverse
           Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.

       --objects
           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.  --objects foo
           ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
           object bar, but not foo".

       --objects-edge
           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a "-"
           character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records
           objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to
           reduce network traffic.

       --unpacked
           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

       --no-walk
           Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.

       --do-walk
           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be
           one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. See the
           "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When omitted,
           the format defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see
           git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a
           partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
           (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using
           80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and
           those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

       --encoding[=<encoding>]
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding
           header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message
           in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
           UTF-8.

       --notes[=<ref>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit
           log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands
           when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the core.notesRef and
           notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See git-config(1)
           for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the default notes
           ref(s). The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are being displayed.
           Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
           --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by resetting the list of
           notes refs from which notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given on the
           command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show
           notes from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes options instead.

       --relative-date
           Synonym for --date=relative.

       --date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)
           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using
           "--pretty".  log.date config variable sets a default value for log command’s --date
           option.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

           --date=local shows timestamps in user’s local timezone.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in
           E-mail messages.

           --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

           --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw git format %s %z format.

           --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either committer’s or
           author’s).

       --parents
           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent..."). Also enables
           parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

       --children
           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child..."). Also enables
           parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

       --left-right
           Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from. Commits from the left
           side are prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with --boundary,
           those commits are prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

       --graph
           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side
           of the output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order
           for the graph history to be drawn properly.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also
           be specified.

   Diff Formatting
       Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output. Some of them are
       specific to git-rev-list(1), however other diff options may be given. See git-diff-
       files(1) for more options.

       -c
           With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the differences from each of
           the parents to the merge result simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff
           between a parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files which
           were modified from all parents.

       --cc
           This flag implies the -c options and further compresses the patch output by omitting
           uninteresting hunks whose contents in the parents have only two variants and the merge
           result picks one of them without modification.

       -m
           This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like regular commits; for each
           merge parent, a separate log entry and diff is generated. An exception is that only
           diff against the first parent is shown when --first-parent option is given; in that
           case, the output represents the changes the merge brought into the then-current
           branch.

       -r
           Show recursive diffs.

       -t
           Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies -r.

       -s
           Suppress diff output.

PRETTY FORMATS

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an
       additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and
       the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed
       commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
       your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a
       pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as
       described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       ·    oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       ·    short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       ·    medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.
           Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
           --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without
           taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

       ·    format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show.
           It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
           newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show
           something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           ·    %H: commit hash

           ·    %h: abbreviated commit hash

           ·    %T: tree hash

           ·    %t: abbreviated tree hash

           ·    %P: parent hashes

           ·    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           ·    %an: author name

           ·    %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ae: author email

           ·    %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           ·    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %ar: author date, relative

           ·    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %cn: committer name

           ·    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ce: committer email

           ·    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %cd: committer date

           ·    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %cr: committer date, relative

           ·    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           ·    %e: encoding

           ·    %s: subject

           ·    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           ·    %b: body

           ·    %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           ·    %N: commit notes

           ·    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

           ·    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

           ·    %gn: reflog identity name

           ·    %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
               blame(1))

           ·    %ge: reflog identity email

           ·    %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
               blame(1))

           ·    %gs: reflog subject

           ·    %Cred: switch color to red

           ·    %Cgreen: switch color to green

           ·    %Cblue: switch color to blue

           ·    %Creset: reset color

           ·    %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option

           ·    %m: left, right or boundary mark

           ·    %n: newline

           ·    %%: a raw %

           ·    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           ·    %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-
               shortlog(1).

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine.
           For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
           traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the
           "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately
       before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede
       the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before
       the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       ·    tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator"
           semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the
           message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator
           placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
           be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
           example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has
           tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

COMMON DIFF OPTIONS

       -p, -u, --patch
           Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
           Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual three. Implies -p.

       --raw
           Generate the raw format.

       --patch-with-raw
           Synonym for -p --raw.

       --minimal
           Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is produced.

       --patience
           Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

       --histogram
           Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

       --stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]
           Generate a diffstat. You can override the default output width for 80-column terminal
           by --stat=<width>. The width of the filename part can be controlled by giving another
           width to it separated by a comma. By giving a third parameter <count>, you can limit
           the output to the first <count> lines, followed by ...  if there are more.

           These parameters can also be set individually with --stat-width=<width>,
           --stat-name-width=<name-width> and --stat-count=<count>.

       --numstat
           Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation and
           pathname without abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For binary files,
           outputs two - instead of saying 0 0.

       --shortstat
           Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total number of modified
           files, as well as number of added and deleted lines.

       --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
           Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each sub-directory. The
           behavior of --dirstat can be customized by passing it a comma separated list of
           parameters. The defaults are controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable
           (see git-config(1)). The following parameters are available:

           changes
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have been removed from the
               source, or added to the destination. This ignores the amount of pure code
               movements within a file. In other words, rearranging lines in a file is not
               counted as much as other changes. This is the default behavior when no parameter
               is given.

           lines
               Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based diff analysis, and
               summing the removed/added line counts. (For binary files, count 64-byte chunks
               instead, since binary files have no natural concept of lines). This is a more
               expensive --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
               rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The resulting output is
               consistent with what you get from the other --*stat options.

           files
               Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files changed. Each changed
               file counts equally in the dirstat analysis. This is the computationally cheapest
               --dirstat behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents at all.

           cumulative
               Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as well. Note that
               when using cumulative, the sum of the percentages reported may exceed 100%. The
               default (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the noncumulative
               parameter.

           <limit>
               An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by default). Directories
               contributing less than this percentage of the changes are not shown in the output.

           Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring directories with less
           than 10% of the total amount of changed files, and accumulating child directory counts
           in the parent directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

       --summary
           Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as creations, renames
           and mode changes.

       --patch-with-stat
           Synonym for -p --stat.

       -z
           Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

           Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as
           output field terminators.

           Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes, and
           backslash characters replaced with \t, \n, \", and \\, respectively, and the pathname
           will be enclosed in double quotes if any of those replacements occurred.

       --name-only
           Show only names of changed files.

       --name-status
           Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of the --diff-filter
           option on what the status letters mean.

       --submodule[=<format>]
           Chose the output format for submodule differences. <format> can be one of short and
           log.  short just shows pairs of commit names, this format is used when this option is
           not given.  log is the default value for this option and lists the commits in that
           commit range like the summary option of git-submodule(1) does.

       --color[=<when>]
           Show colored diff. The value must be always (the default for <when>), never, or auto.
           The default value is never.

       --no-color
           Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

       --word-diff[=<mode>]
           Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By default, words are
           delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex below. The <mode> defaults to plain,
           and must be one of:

           color
               Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

           plain
               Show words as [-removed-] and {added}. Makes no attempts to escape the delimiters
               if they appear in the input, so the output may be ambiguous.

           porcelain
               Use a special line-based format intended for script consumption.
               Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the usual unified diff format,
               starting with a +/-/` ` character at the beginning of the line and extending to
               the end of the line. Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line
               of its own.

           none
               Disable word diff again.

           Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to highlight the changed
           parts in all modes if enabled.

       --word-diff-regex=<regex>
           Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs of non-whitespace to
           be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it was already enabled.

           Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word. Anything between
           these matches is considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
           differences. You may want to append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make
           sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a newline is
           silently truncated(!) at the newline.

           The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
           gitattributes(1) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly overrides any diff driver or
           configuration setting. Diff drivers override configuration settings.

       --color-words[=<regex>]
           Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)
           --word-diff-regex=<regex>.

       --no-renames
           Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives the default to do
           so.

       --check
           Warn if changes introduce whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
           controlled by core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
           (including lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space character that is
           immediately followed by a tab character inside the initial indent of the line are
           considered whitespace errors. Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not
           compatible with --exit-code.

       --full-index
           Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and post-image blob
           object names on the "index" line when generating patch format output.

       --binary
           In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be applied with git-apply.

       --abbrev[=<n>]
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in diff-raw format output
           and diff-tree header lines, show only a partial prefix. This is independent of the
           --full-index option above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
           number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
           Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create. This serves two
           purposes:

           It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a file not as a series
           of deletion and insertion mixed together with a very few lines that happen to match
           textually as the context, but as a single deletion of everything old followed by a
           single insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect of the -B
           option (defaults to 60%).  -B/70% specifies that less than 30% of the original should
           remain in the result for git to consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the
           resulting patch will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with context
           lines).

           When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as the source of a
           rename (usually -M only considers a file that disappeared as the source of a rename),
           and the number n controls this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20%
           specifies that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of the
           file’s size are eligible for being picked up as a possible source of a rename to
           another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
           If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For following files
           across renames while traversing history, see --follow. If n is specified, it is a
           threshold on the similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
           file’s size). For example, -M90% means git should consider a delete/add pair to be a
           rename if more than 90% of the file hasn’t changed.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
           Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If n is specified, it
           has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

       --find-copies-harder
           For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if the original file
           of the copy was modified in the same changeset. This flag makes the command inspect
           unmodified files as candidates for the source of copy. This is a very expensive
           operation for large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C option
           has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
           Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not the diff between the
           preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is not meant to be applied with patch nor
           git apply; this is solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
           text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack enough information to
           apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of the option.

           When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion part of a
           delete/create pair.

       -l<num>
           The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the number of
           potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents rename/copy detection from running
           if the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified number.

       --diff-filter=[(A|C|D|M|R|T|U|X|B)...[*]]
           Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D), Modified (M), Renamed
           (R), have their type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are
           Unmerged (U), are Unknown (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination
           of the filter characters (including none) can be used. When * (All-or-none) is added
           to the combination, all paths are selected if there is any file that matches other
           criteria in the comparison; if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing
           is selected.

       -S<string>
           Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of <string>. Note that this
           is different than the string simply appearing in diff output; see the pickaxe entry in
           gitdiffcore(7) for more details.

       -G<regex>
           Look for differences whose added or removed line matches the given <regex>.

       --pickaxe-all
           When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that changeset, not just the
           files that contain the change in <string>.

       --pickaxe-regex
           Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX regex to match.

       -O<orderfile>
           Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which has one shell glob
           pattern per line.

       -R
           Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk file to tree
           contents.

       --relative[=<path>]
           When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to exclude changes outside
           the directory and show pathnames relative to it with this option. When you are not in
           a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make
           the output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.

       -a, --text
           Treat all files as text.

       --ignore-space-at-eol
           Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
           Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at line end, and
           considers all other sequences of one or more whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
           Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences even if one line has
           whitespace where the other line has none.

       --inter-hunk-context=<lines>
           Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of lines, thereby
           fusing hunks that are close to each other.

       -W, --function-context
           Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

       --ext-diff
           Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an external diff driver with
           gitattributes(5), you need to use this option with git-log(1) and friends.

       --no-ext-diff
           Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
           Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when comparing binary
           files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because textconv filters are typically a
           one-way conversion, the resulting diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot
           be applied. For this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
           diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff plumbing commands.

       --ignore-submodules[=<when>]
           Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be either "none",
           "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default Using "none" will consider the
           submodule modified when it either contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD
           differs from the commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
           settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5). When "untracked" is
           used submodules are not considered dirty when they only contain untracked content (but
           they are still scanned for modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the
           work tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the superproject are
           shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using "all" hides all changes to
           submodules.

       --src-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

       --dst-prefix=<prefix>
           Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

       --no-prefix
           Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also gitdiffcore(7).

GENERATING PATCHES WITH -P

       When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run with a -p option, "git
       diff" without the --raw option, or "git log" with the "-p" option, they do not produce the
       output described above; instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation
       of such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables.

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional diff format:

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

               diff --git a/file1 b/file2

           The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is involved. Especially, even
           for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null is not used in place of the a/ or b/
           filenames.

           When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the source file of the
           rename/copy and the name of the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

               old mode <mode>
               new mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               copy from <path>
               copy to <path>
               rename from <path>
               rename to <path>
               similarity index <number>
               dissimilarity index <number>
               index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

           File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file type and file
           permission bits.

           Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/ prefixes.

           The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the dissimilarity index
           is the percentage of changed lines. It is a rounded down integer, followed by a
           percent sign. The similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files,
           while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it into the new
           one.

           The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change. The <mode> is
           included if the file mode does not change; otherwise, separate lines indicate the old
           and the new mode.

        3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames are represented as \t, \n,
           \" and \\, respectively. If there is need for such substitution then the whole
           pathname is put in double quotes.

        4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit, and all the file2
           files refer to files after the commit. It is incorrect to apply each change to each
           file sequentially. For example, this patch will swap a and b:

               diff --git a/a b/b
               rename from a
               rename to b
               diff --git a/b b/a
               rename from b
               rename to a

COMBINED DIFF FORMAT

       Any diff-generating command can take the ‘-c` or --cc option to produce a combined diff
       when showing a merge. This is the default format when showing merges with git-diff(1) or
       git-show(1). Note also that you can give the `-m’ option to any of these commands to force
       generation of diffs with individual parents of a merge.

       A combined diff format looks like this:

           diff --combined describe.c
           index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
           --- a/describe.c
           +++ b/describe.c
           @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
                   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
             }

           - static void describe(char *arg)
            -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
           ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
             {
            +      unsigned char sha1[20];
            +      struct commit *cmit;
                   struct commit_list *list;
                   static int initialized = 0;
                   struct commit_name *n;

            +      if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +      cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
            +      if (!cmit)
            +              usage(describe_usage);
            +
                   if (!initialized) {
                           initialized = 1;
                           for_each_ref(get_name);

        1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when -c option is
           used):

               diff --combined file

           or like this (when --cc option is used):

               diff --cc file

        2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example shows a merge with
           two parents):

               index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
               mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
               new file mode <mode>
               deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

           The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of the <mode> is
           different from the rest. Extended headers with information about detected contents
           movement (renames and copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
           <tree-ish> and are not used by combined diff format.

        3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

               --- a/file
               +++ b/file

           Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format, /dev/null is used to
           signal created or deleted files.

        4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally feeding it to
           patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for review of merge commit changes, and
           was not meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the extended index
           header:

               @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

           There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header for combined diff
           format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and B with a single
       column that has - (minus — appears in A but removed in B), + (plus — missing in A but
       added to B), or " " (space — unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files
       file1, file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column
       for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X’s line is different from
       it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but it does not appear
       in the result. A + character in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
       and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was added, from the point of
       view of that parent).

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from both files (hence two
       - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to mean one line that was added does not
       appear in either file1 nor file2). Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do
       not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge commit with the merge
       result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When shown by git diff-files -c, it compares
       the two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka
       "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

EXAMPLES

       git log --no-merges
           Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file in the include/scsi or
           drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The "--" is necessary to
           avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
           Show the commits that are in the "test" branch but not yet in the "release" branch,
           along with the list of paths each commit modifies.

       git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c
           Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including those commits that
           occurred before the file was given its present name.

       git log --branches --not --remotes=origin
           Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in any of remote-tracking
           branches for origin (what you have that origin doesn’t).

       git log master --not --remotes=*/master
           Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote repository master
           branches.

       git log -p -m --first-parent
           Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main branch" perspective,
           skipping commits that come from merged branches, and showing full diffs of changes
           introduced by the merges. This makes sense only when following a strict policy of
           merging all topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.

DISCUSSION

       At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as
           uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are
           recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to
           be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding
           translation.

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no
           encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and
       git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a
       particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid
       it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1.  git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it
           does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a
           legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding
           in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of
           this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit
           object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You
           can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is
           used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is
       made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
       necessarily a reversible operation.

CONFIGURATION

       See git-config(1) for core variables and git-diff(1) for settings related to diff
       generation.

       format.pretty
           Default for the --format option. (See "PRETTY FORMATS" above.) Defaults to "medium".

       i18n.logOutputEncoding
           Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See "Discussion", above.) Defaults to the value
           of i18n.commitEncoding if set, UTF-8 otherwise.

       log.date
           Default format for human-readable dates. (Compare the --date option.) Defaults to
           "default", which means to write dates like Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500.

       log.showroot
           If false, git log and related commands will not treat the initial commit as a big
           creation event. Any root commits in git log -p output would be shown without a diff
           attached. The default is true.

       mailmap.file
           See git-shortlog(1).

       notes.displayRef
           Which refs, in addition to the default set by core.notesRef or GIT_NOTES_REF, to read
           notes from when showing commit messages with the log family of commands. See git-
           notes(1).

           May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified multiple times. A
           warning will be issued for refs that do not exist, but a glob that does not match any
           refs is silently ignored.

           This setting can be disabled by the --no-notes option, overridden by the
           GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF environment variable, and overridden by the --notes=<ref>
           option.

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite