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NAME

       git-merge - Join two or more development histories together

SYNOPSIS

       git merge [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash]
               [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>]
               [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
       git merge <msg> HEAD <commit>...
       git merge --abort

DESCRIPTION

       Incorporates changes from the named commits (since the time their histories diverged from
       the current branch) into the current branch. This command is used by git pull to
       incorporate changes from another repository and can be used by hand to merge changes from
       one branch into another.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

                     A---B---C topic
                    /
               D---E---F---G master

       Then "git merge topic" will replay the changes made on the topic branch since it diverged
       from master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master, and record the result
       in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message from the
       user describing the changes.

                     A---B---C topic
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master

       The second syntax (<msg> HEAD <commit>...) is supported for historical reasons. Do not use
       it from the command line or in new scripts. It is the same as git merge -m <msg>
       <commit>....

       The third syntax ("git merge --abort") can only be run after the merge has resulted in
       conflicts. git merge --abort will abort the merge process and try to reconstruct the
       pre-merge state. However, if there were uncommitted changes when the merge started (and
       especially if those changes were further modified after the merge was started), git merge
       --abort will in some cases be unable to reconstruct the original (pre-merge) changes.
       Therefore:

       Warning: Running git merge with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it
       leaves you in a state that is hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.

OPTIONS

       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override
           --no-commit.

           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not autocommit,
           to give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before
           committing.

       --edit, -e
           Invoke editor before committing successful merge to further edit the default merge
           message.

       --ff
           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch pointer, without
           creating a merge commit. This is the default behavior.

       --no-ff
           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a fast-forward.

       --ff-only
           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current HEAD is already
           up-to-date or the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line descriptions from
           at most <n> actual commits that are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being merged.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also controlled by the
           configuration option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge happened (except for the
           merge information), but do not actually make a commit or move the HEAD, nor record
           $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit.
           This allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch whose effect is
           the same as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
           override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to specify them in the
           order they should be tried. If there is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is
           used instead (git merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus
           otherwise).

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be removed in the
           future.

       -q, --quiet
           Operate quietly. Implies --no-progress.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       --progress, --no-progress
           Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified, progress is shown if
           standard error is connected to a terminal. Note that not all merge strategies may
           support progress reporting.

       -m <msg>
           Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in case one is created).

           If --log is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged will be appended to the
           specified message.

           The git fmt-merge-msg command can be used to give a good default for automated git
           merge invocations.

       --rerere-autoupdate, --no-rerere-autoupdate
           Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the result of auto-conflict
           resolution if possible.

       --abort
           Abort the current conflict resolution process, and try to reconstruct the pre-merge
           state.

           If there were uncommitted worktree changes present when the merge started, git merge
           --abort will in some cases be unable to reconstruct these changes. It is therefore
           recommended to always commit or stash your changes before running git merge.

           git merge --abort is equivalent to git reset --merge when MERGE_HEAD is present.

       <commit>...
           Commits, usually other branch heads, to merge into our branch. Specifying more than
           one commit will create a merge with more than two parents (affectionately called an
           Octopus merge).

           If no commit is given from the command line, and if merge.defaultToUpstream
           configuration variable is set, merge the remote tracking branches that the current
           branch is configured to use as its upstream. See also the configuration section of
           this manual page.

PRE-MERGE CHECKS

       Before applying outside changes, you should get your own work in good shape and committed
       locally, so it will not be clobbered if there are conflicts. See also git-stash(1). git
       pull and git merge will stop without doing anything when local uncommitted changes overlap
       with files that git pull/git merge may need to update.

       To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit, git pull and git merge will also
       abort if there are any changes registered in the index relative to the HEAD commit. (One
       exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that would result from the
       merge already.)

       If all named commits are already ancestors of HEAD, git merge will exit early with the
       message "Already up-to-date."

FAST-FORWARD MERGE

       Often the current branch head is an ancestor of the named commit. This is the most common
       case especially when invoked from git pull: you are tracking an upstream repository, you
       have committed no local changes, and now you want to update to a newer upstream revision.
       In this case, a new commit is not needed to store the combined history; instead, the HEAD
       (along with the index) is updated to point at the named commit, without creating an extra
       merge commit.

       This behavior can be suppressed with the --no-ff option.

TRUE MERGE

       Except in a fast-forward merge (see above), the branches to be merged must be tied
       together by a merge commit that has both of them as its parents.

       A merged version reconciling the changes from all branches to be merged is committed, and
       your HEAD, index, and working tree are updated to it. It is possible to have modifications
       in the working tree as long as they do not overlap; the update will preserve them.

       When it is not obvious how to reconcile the changes, the following happens:

        1. The HEAD pointer stays the same.

        2. The MERGE_HEAD ref is set to point to the other branch head.

        3. Paths that merged cleanly are updated both in the index file and in your working tree.

        4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three versions: stage 1 stores the
           version from the common ancestor, stage 2 from HEAD, and stage 3 from MERGE_HEAD (you
           can inspect the stages with git ls-files -u). The working tree files contain the
           result of the "merge" program; i.e. 3-way merge results with familiar conflict markers
           <<< === >>>.

        5. No other changes are made. In particular, the local modifications you had before you
           started merge will stay the same and the index entries for them stay as they were,
           i.e. matching HEAD.

       If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and want to start over, you can
       recover with git merge --abort.

HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED

       During a merge, the working tree files are updated to reflect the result of the merge.
       Among the changes made to the common ancestor’s version, non-overlapping ones (that is,
       you changed an area of the file while the other side left that area intact, or vice versa)
       are incorporated in the final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same
       area, however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to resolve
       it by leaving what both sides did to that area.

       By default, git uses the same style as that is used by "merge" program from the RCS suite
       to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:

           Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
           ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
           <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
           Conflict resolution is hard;
           let's go shopping.
           =======
           Git makes conflict resolution easy.
           >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
           And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.

       The area where a pair of conflicting changes happened is marked with markers <<<<<<<,
       =======, and >>>>>>>. The part before the ======= is typically your side, and the part
       afterwards is typically their side.

       The default format does not show what the original said in the conflicting area. You
       cannot tell how many lines are deleted and replaced with Barbie’s remark on your side. The
       only thing you can tell is that your side wants to say it is hard and you’d prefer to go
       shopping, while the other side wants to claim it is easy.

       An alternative style can be used by setting the "merge.conflictstyle" configuration
       variable to "diff3". In "diff3" style, the above conflict may look like this:

           Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
           ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
           <<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
           Conflict resolution is hard;
           let's go shopping.
           |||||||
           Conflict resolution is hard.
           =======
           Git makes conflict resolution easy.
           >>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
           And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.

       In addition to the <<<<<<<, =======, and >>>>>>> markers, it uses another ||||||| marker
       that is followed by the original text. You can tell that the original just stated a fact,
       and your side simply gave in to that statement and gave up, while the other side tried to
       have a more positive attitude. You can sometimes come up with a better resolution by
       viewing the original.

HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS

       After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:

       ·   Decide not to merge. The only clean-ups you need are to reset the index file to the
           HEAD commit to reverse 2. and to clean up working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; git
           merge --abort can be used for this.

       ·   Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in the working tree. Edit the files
           into shape and git add them to the index. Use git commit to seal the deal.

       You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:

       ·   Use a mergetool.  git mergetool to launch a graphical mergetool which will work you
           through the merge.

       ·   Look at the diffs.  git diff will show a three-way diff, highlighting changes from
           both the HEAD and MERGE_HEAD versions.

       ·   Look at the diffs from each branch.  git log --merge -p <path> will show diffs first
           for the HEAD version and then the MERGE_HEAD version.

       ·   Look at the originals.  git show :1:filename shows the common ancestor, git show
           :2:filename shows the HEAD version, and git show :3:filename shows the MERGE_HEAD
           version.

EXAMPLES

       ·   Merge branches fixes and enhancements on top of the current branch, making an octopus
           merge:

               $ git merge fixes enhancements

       ·   Merge branch obsolete into the current branch, using ours merge strategy:

               $ git merge -s ours obsolete

       ·   Merge branch maint into the current branch, but do not make a new commit
           automatically:

               $ git merge --no-commit maint

           This can be used when you want to include further changes to the merge, or want to
           write your own merge commit message.

           You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial changes into a merge
           commit. Small fixups like bumping release/version name would be acceptable.

MERGE STRATEGIES

       The merge mechanism (git-merge and git-pull commands) allows the backend merge strategies
       to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies can also take their own options, which can be
       passed by giving -X<option> arguments to git-merge and/or git-pull.

       resolve
           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and another branch you pulled
           from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge
           ambiguities and is considered generally safe and fast.

       recursive
           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When there is more than
           one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the
           common ancestors and uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has
           been reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing mis-merges by tests
           done on actual merge commits taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history.
           Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving renames. This is the default
           merge strategy when pulling or merging one branch.

           The recursive strategy can take the following options:

           ours
               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by favoring our
               version. Changes from the other tree that do not conflict with our side are
               reflected to the merge result.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which does not even look
               at what the other tree contains at all. It discards everything the other tree did,
               declaring our history contains all that happened in it.

           theirs
               This is opposite of ours.

           patience
               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to avoid mismerges
               that sometimes occur due to unimportant matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct
               functions). Use this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also
               git-diff(1) --patience.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as unchanged for the
               sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line
               are not ignored. See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, and --ignore-space-at-eol.

               ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a line, our version is
                   used;

               ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their version includes a
                   substantial change, their version is used;

               ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

           renormalize
               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when
               resolving a three-way merge. This option is meant to be used when merging branches
               with different clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
               branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5) for
               details.

           no-renormalize
               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the merge.renormalize
               configuration variable.

           rename-threshold=<n>
               Controls the similarity threshold used for rename detection. See also git-diff(1)
               -M.

           subtree[=<path>]
               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where the strategy makes
               a guess on how two trees must be shifted to match with each other when merging.
               Instead, the specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make
               the shape of two trees to match.

       octopus
           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a complex merge that
           needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch
           heads together. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than
           one branch.

       ours
           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the merge is always that
           of the current branch head, effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches.
           It is meant to be used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
           that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive merge strategy.

       subtree
           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B, if B corresponds to
           a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match the tree structure of A, instead of
           reading the trees at the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
           ancestor tree.

CONFIGURATION

       merge.conflictstyle
           Specify the style in which conflicted hunks are written out to working tree files upon
           merge. The default is "merge", which shows a <<<<<<< conflict marker, changes made by
           one side, a ======= marker, changes made by the other side, and then a >>>>>>> marker.
           An alternate style, "diff3", adds a ||||||| marker and the original text before the
           ======= marker.

       merge.defaultToUpstream
           If merge is called without any commit argument, merge the upstream branches configured
           for the current branch by using their last observed values stored in their remote
           tracking branches. The values of the branch.<current branch>.merge that name the
           branches at the remote named by branch.<current branch>.remote are consulted, and then
           they are mapped via remote.<remote>.fetch to their corresponding remote tracking
           branches, and the tips of these tracking branches are merged.

       merge.ff
           By default, git does not create an extra merge commit when merging a commit that is a
           descendant of the current commit. Instead, the tip of the current branch is
           fast-forwarded. When set to false, this variable tells git to create an extra merge
           commit in such a case (equivalent to giving the --no-ff option from the command line).
           When set to only, only such fast-forward merges are allowed (equivalent to giving the
           --ff-only option from the command line).

       merge.log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with at most the specified
           number of one-line descriptions from the actual commits that are being merged.
           Defaults to false, and true is a synonym for 20.

       merge.renameLimit
           The number of files to consider when performing rename detection during a merge; if
           not specified, defaults to the value of diff.renameLimit.

       merge.renormalize
           Tell git that canonical representation of files in the repository has changed over
           time (e.g. earlier commits record text files with CRLF line endings, but recent ones
           use LF line endings). In such a repository, git can convert the data recorded in
           commits to a canonical form before performing a merge to reduce unnecessary conflicts.
           For more information, see section "Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout
           attributes" in gitattributes(5).

       merge.stat
           Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge result at the end of the
           merge. True by default.

       merge.tool
           Controls which merge resolution program is used by git-mergetool(1). Valid built-in
           values are: "araxis", "bc3", "diffuse", "ecmerge", "emerge", "gvimdiff", "kdiff3",
           "meld", "opendiff", "p4merge", "tkdiff", "tortoisemerge", "vimdiff" and "xxdiff". Any
           other value is treated is custom merge tool and there must be a corresponding
           mergetool.<tool>.cmd option.

       merge.verbosity
           Controls the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Level 0 outputs
           nothing except a final error message if conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only
           conflicts, 2 outputs conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and above outputs debugging
           information. The default is level 2. Can be overridden by the GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
           environment variable.

       merge.<driver>.name
           Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level merge driver. See
           gitattributes(5) for details.

       merge.<driver>.driver
           Defines the command that implements a custom low-level merge driver. See
           gitattributes(5) for details.

       merge.<driver>.recursive
           Names a low-level merge driver to be used when performing an internal merge between
           common ancestors. See gitattributes(5) for details.

       branch.<name>.mergeoptions
           Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and supported options
           are the same as those of git merge, but option values containing whitespace characters
           are currently not supported.

SEE ALSO

       git-fmt-merge-msg(1), git-pull(1), gitattributes(5), git-reset(1), git-diff(1), git-ls-
       files(1), git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mergetool(1)

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite