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NAME

       git-remote-helpers - Helper programs to interact with remote repositories

SYNOPSIS

       git remote-<transport> <repository> [<URL>]

DESCRIPTION

       Remote helper programs are normally not used directly by end users, but they are invoked
       by git when it needs to interact with remote repositories git does not support natively. A
       given helper will implement a subset of the capabilities documented here. When git needs
       to interact with a repository using a remote helper, it spawns the helper as an
       independent process, sends commands to the helper’s standard input, and expects results
       from the helper’s standard output. Because a remote helper runs as an independent process
       from git, there is no need to re-link git to add a new helper, nor any need to link the
       helper with the implementation of git.

       Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which git uses to determine what
       other commands the helper will accept. Those other commands can be used to discover and
       update remote refs, transport objects between the object database and the remote
       repository, and update the local object store.

       Git comes with a "curl" family of remote helpers, that handle various transport protocols,
       such as git-remote-http, git-remote-https, git-remote-ftp and git-remote-ftps. They
       implement the capabilities fetch, option, and push.

INPUT FORMAT

       Git sends the remote helper a list of commands on standard input, one per line. The first
       command is always the capabilities command, in response to which the remote helper must
       print a list of the capabilities it supports (see below) followed by a blank line. The
       response to the capabilities command determines what commands Git uses in the remainder of
       the command stream.

       The command stream is terminated by a blank line. In some cases (indicated in the
       documentation of the relevant commands), this blank line is followed by a payload in some
       other protocol (e.g., the pack protocol), while in others it indicates the end of input.

   Capabilities
       Each remote helper is expected to support only a subset of commands. The operations a
       helper supports are declared to git in the response to the capabilities command (see
       COMMANDS, below).

       option
           For specifying settings like verbosity (how much output to write to stderr) and depth
           (how much history is wanted in the case of a shallow clone) that affect how other
           commands are carried out.

       connect
           For fetching and pushing using git’s native packfile protocol that requires a
           bidirectional, full-duplex connection.

       push
           For listing remote refs and pushing specified objects from the local object store to
           remote refs.

       fetch
           For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history to the local object store.

       import
           For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history as a fast-import stream.

       refspec <refspec>
           This modifies the import capability, allowing the produced fast-import stream to
           modify refs in a private namespace instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes
           directly. It is recommended that all importers providing the import capability use
           this.

           A helper advertising the capability refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/* is
           saying that, when it is asked to import refs/heads/topic, the stream it outputs will
           update the refs/svn/origin/branches/topic ref.

           This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first applicable refspec takes
           precedence. The left-hand of refspecs advertised with this capability must cover all
           refs reported by the list command. If no refspec capability is advertised, there is an
           implied refspec *:*.

   Capabilities for Pushing
       connect
           Can attempt to connect to git receive-pack (for pushing), git upload-pack, etc for
           communication using the packfile protocol.

           Supported commands: connect.

       push
           Can discover remote refs and push local commits and the history leading up to them to
           new or existing remote refs.

           Supported commands: list for-push, push.

       If a helper advertises both connect and push, git will use connect if possible and fall
       back to push if the helper requests so when connecting (see the connect command under
       COMMANDS).

   Capabilities for Fetching
       connect
           Can try to connect to git upload-pack (for fetching), git receive-pack, etc for
           communication using the packfile protocol.

           Supported commands: connect.

       fetch
           Can discover remote refs and transfer objects reachable from them to the local object
           store.

           Supported commands: list, fetch.

       import
           Can discover remote refs and output objects reachable from them as a stream in
           fast-import format.

           Supported commands: list, import.

       If a helper advertises connect, git will use it if possible and fall back to another
       capability if the helper requests so when connecting (see the connect command under
       COMMANDS). When choosing between fetch and import, git prefers fetch. Other frontends may
       have some other order of preference.

       refspec <refspec>
           This modifies the import capability.

           A helper advertising refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/* in its
           capabilities is saying that, when it handles import refs/heads/topic, the stream it
           outputs will update the refs/svn/origin/branches/topic ref.

           This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first applicable refspec takes
           precedence. The left-hand of refspecs advertised with this capability must cover all
           refs reported by the list command. If no refspec capability is advertised, there is an
           implied refspec *:*.

INVOCATION

       Remote helper programs are invoked with one or (optionally) two arguments. The first
       argument specifies a remote repository as in git; it is either the name of a configured
       remote or a URL. The second argument specifies a URL; it is usually of the form
       <transport>://<address>, but any arbitrary string is possible. The GIT_DIR environment
       variable is set up for the remote helper and can be used to determine where to store
       additional data or from which directory to invoke auxiliary git commands.

       When git encounters a URL of the form <transport>://<address>, where <transport> is a
       protocol that it cannot handle natively, it automatically invokes git remote-<transport>
       with the full URL as the second argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the
       command line, the first argument is the same as the second, and if it is encountered in a
       configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.

       A URL of the form <transport>::<address> explicitly instructs git to invoke git
       remote-<transport> with <address> as the second argument. If such a URL is encountered
       directly on the command line, the first argument is <address>, and if it is encountered in
       a configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.

       Additionally, when a configured remote has remote.<name>.vcs set to <transport>, git
       explicitly invokes git remote-<transport> with <name> as the first argument. If set, the
       second argument is remote.<name>.url; otherwise, the second argument is omitted.

COMMANDS

       Commands are given by the caller on the helper’s standard input, one per line.

       capabilities
           Lists the capabilities of the helper, one per line, ending with a blank line. Each
           capability may be preceded with *, which marks them mandatory for git version using
           the remote helper to understand (unknown mandatory capability is fatal error).

       list
           Lists the refs, one per line, in the format "<value> <name> [<attr> ...]". The value
           may be a hex sha1 hash, "@<dest>" for a symref, or "?" to indicate that the helper
           could not get the value of the ref. A space-separated list of attributes follows the
           name; unrecognized attributes are ignored. The list ends with a blank line.

           If push is supported this may be called as list for-push to obtain the current refs
           prior to sending one or more push commands to the helper.

       option <name> <value>
           Sets the transport helper option <name> to <value>. Outputs a single line containing
           one of ok (option successfully set), unsupported (option not recognized) or error
           <msg> (option <name> is supported but <value> is not valid for it). Options should be
           set before other commands, and may influence the behavior of those commands.

           Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.

       fetch <sha1> <name>
           Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects to the database. Fetch
           commands are sent in a batch, one per line, terminated with a blank line. Outputs a
           single blank line when all fetch commands in the same batch are complete. Only objects
           which were reported in the ref list with a sha1 may be fetched this way.

           Optionally may output a lock <file> line indicating a file under GIT_DIR/objects/pack
           which is keeping a pack until refs can be suitably updated.

           Supported if the helper has the "fetch" capability.

       push +<src>:<dst>
           Pushes the given local <src> commit or branch to the remote branch described by <dst>.
           A batch sequence of one or more push commands is terminated with a blank line (if
           there is only one reference to push, a single push command is followed by a blank
           line). For example, the following would be two batches of push, the first asking the
           remote-helper to push the local ref master to the remote ref master and the local HEAD
           to the remote branch, and the second asking to push ref foo to ref bar (forced update
           requested by the +).

               push refs/heads/master:refs/heads/master
               push HEAD:refs/heads/branch
               \n
               push +refs/heads/foo:refs/heads/bar
               \n

           Zero or more protocol options may be entered after the last push command, before the
           batch’s terminating blank line.

           When the push is complete, outputs one or more ok <dst> or error <dst> <why>?  lines
           to indicate success or failure of each pushed ref. The status report output is
           terminated by a blank line. The option field <why> may be quoted in a C style string
           if it contains an LF.

           Supported if the helper has the "push" capability.

       import <name>
           Produces a fast-import stream which imports the current value of the named ref. It may
           additionally import other refs as needed to construct the history efficiently. The
           script writes to a helper-specific private namespace. The value of the named ref
           should be written to a location in this namespace derived by applying the refspecs
           from the "refspec" capability to the name of the ref.

           Especially useful for interoperability with a foreign versioning system.

           Just like push, a batch sequence of one or more import is terminated with a blank
           line. For each batch of import, the remote helper should produce a fast-import stream
           terminated by a done command.

           Supported if the helper has the "import" capability.

       connect <service>
           Connects to given service. Standard input and standard output of helper are connected
           to specified service (git prefix is included in service name so e.g. fetching uses
           git-upload-pack as service) on remote side. Valid replies to this command are empty
           line (connection established), fallback (no smart transport support, fall back to dumb
           transports) and just exiting with error message printed (can’t connect, don’t bother
           trying to fall back). After line feed terminating the positive (empty) response, the
           output of service starts. After the connection ends, the remote helper exits.

           Supported if the helper has the "connect" capability.

       If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to stderr and exits. The
       caller should expect that a suitable error message has been printed if the child closes
       the connection without completing a valid response for the current command.

       Additional commands may be supported, as may be determined from capabilities reported by
       the helper.

REF LIST ATTRIBUTES

       for-push
           The caller wants to use the ref list to prepare push commands. A helper might chose to
           acquire the ref list by opening a different type of connection to the destination.

       unchanged
           This ref is unchanged since the last import or fetch, although the helper cannot
           necessarily determine what value that produced.

OPTIONS

       option verbosity <n>
           Changes the verbosity of messages displayed by the helper. A value of 0 for <n> means
           that processes operate quietly, and the helper produces only error output. 1 is the
           default level of verbosity, and higher values of <n> correspond to the number of -v
           flags passed on the command line.

       option progress {true|false}
           Enables (or disables) progress messages displayed by the transport helper during a
           command.

       option depth <depth>
           Deepens the history of a shallow repository.

       option followtags {true|false}
           If enabled the helper should automatically fetch annotated tag objects if the object
           the tag points at was transferred during the fetch command. If the tag is not fetched
           by the helper a second fetch command will usually be sent to ask for the tag
           specifically. Some helpers may be able to use this option to avoid a second network
           connection.

       option dry-run {true|false}: If true, pretend the operation completed successfully, but
       don’t actually change any repository data. For most helpers this only applies to the push,
       if supported.

       option servpath <c-style-quoted-path>
           Sets service path (--upload-pack, --receive-pack etc.) for next connect. Remote helper
           may support this option, but must not rely on this option being set before connect
           request occurs.

SEE ALSO

       git-remote(1)

       git-remote-testgit(1)

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite