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NAME

       git-show - Show various types of objects

SYNOPSIS

       git show [options] <object>...

DESCRIPTION

       Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

       For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents the merge commit
       in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc.

       For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.

       For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls-tree with --name-only).

       For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

       The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to control how the
       changes the commit introduces are shown.

       This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.

OPTIONS

       <object>...
           The names of objects to show. For a more complete list of ways to spell object names,
           see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be
           one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. See the
           "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When omitted,
           the format defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see
           git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a
           partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>"
           (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using
           80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and
           those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

       --encoding[=<encoding>]
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding
           header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message
           in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
           UTF-8.

       --notes[=<ref>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit
           log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands
           when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the core.notesRef and
           notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See git-config(1)
           for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the default notes
           ref(s). The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are being displayed.
           Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo
           --notes" will show both notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by resetting the list of
           notes refs from which notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given on the
           command line, so e.g. "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show
           notes from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes options instead.

PRETTY FORMATS

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an
       additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and
       the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed
       commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
       your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a
       pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as
       described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       ·    oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       ·    short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       ·    medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.
           Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
           --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without
           taking grafts nor history simplification into account.

       ·    format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show.
           It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
           newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show
           something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           ·    %H: commit hash

           ·    %h: abbreviated commit hash

           ·    %T: tree hash

           ·    %t: abbreviated tree hash

           ·    %P: parent hashes

           ·    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           ·    %an: author name

           ·    %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ae: author email

           ·    %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           ·    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %ar: author date, relative

           ·    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %cn: committer name

           ·    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ce: committer email

           ·    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %cd: committer date

           ·    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %cr: committer date, relative

           ·    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           ·    %e: encoding

           ·    %s: subject

           ·    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           ·    %b: body

           ·    %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           ·    %N: commit notes

           ·    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

           ·    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

           ·    %gn: reflog identity name

           ·    %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
               blame(1))

           ·    %ge: reflog identity email

           ·    %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-
               blame(1))

           ·    %gs: reflog subject

           ·    %Cred: switch color to red

           ·    %Cgreen: switch color to green

           ·    %Cblue: switch color to blue

           ·    %Creset: reset color

           ·    %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option

           ·    %m: left, right or boundary mark

           ·    %n: newline

           ·    %%: a raw %

           ·    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           ·    %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-
               shortlog(1).

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine.
           For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
           traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the
           "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately
       before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede
       the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before
       the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       ·    tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator"
           semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the
           message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator
           placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
           be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For
           example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has
           tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

EXAMPLES

       git show v1.0.0
           Shows the tag v1.0.0, along with the object the tags points at.

       git show v1.0.0^{tree}
           Shows the tree pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show -s --format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}
           Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show next~10:Documentation/README
           Shows the contents of the file Documentation/README as they were current in the 10th
           last commit of the branch next.

       git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile
           Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head of the branch master.

DISCUSSION

       At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

       ·   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as
           uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are
           recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected to
           be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname encoding
           translation.

       ·   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no
           encoding translation at the core level.

       ·   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and
       git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a
       particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git does not forbid
       it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1.  git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it
           does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a
           legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding
           in its encoding header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of
           this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit
           object, and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You
           can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config
           file, like this:

               [i18n]
                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is
           used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is
       made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not
       necessarily a reversible operation.

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite