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NAME

       git-whatchanged - Show logs with difference each commit introduces

SYNOPSIS

       git whatchanged <option>...

DESCRIPTION

       Shows commit logs and diff output each commit introduces. The command
       internally invokes git rev-list piped to git diff-tree, and takes
       command line options for both of these commands.

       This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.

OPTIONS

       -p
           Show textual diffs, instead of the git internal diff output format
           that is useful only to tell the changed paths and their nature of
           changes.

       -<n>
           Limit output to <n> commits.

       <since>..<until>
           Limit output to between the two named commits (bottom exclusive,
           top inclusive).

       -r
           Show git internal diff output, but for the whole tree, not just the
           top level.

       -m
           By default, differences for merge commits are not shown. With this
           flag, show differences to that commit from all of its parents.

           However, it is not very useful in general, although it is useful on
           a file-by-file basis.

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
           where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
           email, raw and format:<string>. See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section
           for some additional details for each format. When omitted, the
           format defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
           configuration (see git-config(1)).

       --abbrev-commit
           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
           show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
           specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
           it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
           people using 80-column terminals.

       --no-abbrev-commit
           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
           --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
           "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       --oneline
           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used
           together.

       --encoding[=<encoding>]
           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
           their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
           to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
           user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

       --notes[=<ref>]
           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
           showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
           git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
           core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
           environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the
           default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it
           is not qualified.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
           being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
           "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
           "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

       --no-notes
           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
           resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
           Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
           "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
           from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
           options instead.

PRETTY FORMATS

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       ·    oneline

               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       ·    short

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       ·    medium

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    full

               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    fuller

               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    email

               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       ·    raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
           commit object. Notably, the SHA1s are displayed in full, regardless
           of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor
           history simplification into account.

       ·    format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
           you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with
           the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
           would show something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           ·    %H: commit hash

           ·    %h: abbreviated commit hash

           ·    %T: tree hash

           ·    %t: abbreviated tree hash

           ·    %P: parent hashes

           ·    %p: abbreviated parent hashes

           ·    %an: author name

           ·    %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           ·    %ae: author email

           ·    %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or
               git-blame(1))

           ·    %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

           ·    %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %ar: author date, relative

           ·    %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %cn: committer name

           ·    %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ce: committer email

           ·    %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
               or git-blame(1))

           ·    %cd: committer date

           ·    %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

           ·    %cr: committer date, relative

           ·    %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

           ·    %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

           ·    %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

           ·    %e: encoding

           ·    %s: subject

           ·    %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

           ·    %b: body

           ·    %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

           ·    %N: commit notes

           ·    %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

           ·    %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

           ·    %gn: reflog identity name

           ·    %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %ge: reflog identity email

           ·    %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
               shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

           ·    %gs: reflog subject

           ·    %Cred: switch color to red

           ·    %Cgreen: switch color to green

           ·    %Cblue: switch color to blue

           ·    %Creset: reset color

           ·    %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.*
               config option

           ·    %m: left, right or boundary mark

           ·    %n: newline

           ·    %%: a raw %

           ·    %x00: print a byte from a hex code

           ·    %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
               option of git-shortlog(1).

           Note
           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
           traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
           an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
           git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration
           format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that
       immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
       placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       ·    tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
           provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
           In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
           (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
           between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
           format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
           "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               4da45be
               7134973

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
           interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
           these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

EXAMPLES

       git whatchanged -p v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
           Show as patches the commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any
           file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories

       git whatchanged --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk
           Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file gitk. The
           "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the branch named gitk

GIT

       Part of the git(1) suite