Provided by: inotify-tools_3.13-3_amd64 bug

NAME

       inotifywait - wait for changes to files using inotify

SYNOPSIS

       inotifywait  [-hcmrq]  [-e  <event> ] [-t <seconds> ] [--format <fmt> ] [--timefmt <fmt> ]
       <file> [ ... ]

DESCRIPTION

       inotifywait efficiently waits for changes to files using Linux's inotify(7) interface.  It
       is  suitable for waiting for changes to files from shell scripts.  It can either exit once
       an event occurs, or continually execute and output events as they occur.

OUTPUT

       inotifywait will output diagnostic information on standard error and event information  on
       standard  output.  The event output can be configured, but by default it consists of lines
       of the following form:

       watched_filename EVENT_NAMES event_filename

       watched_filename
              is the name of the file on which the event occurred.  If the file is a directory, a
              trailing slash is output.

       EVENT_NAMES
              are the names of the inotify events which occurred, separated by commas.

       event_filename
              is output only when the event occurred on a directory, and in this case the name of
              the file within the directory which caused this event is output.

              By default, any special characters in filenames are not escaped in any  way.   This
              can  make  the  output of inotifywait difficult to parse in awk scripts or similar.
              The --csv and --format options will be helpful in this case.

OPTIONS

       -h, --help
              Output some helpful usage information.

       @<file>
              When watching a directory tree recursively, exclude the specified file  from  being
              watched.   The file must be specified with a relative or absolute path according to
              whether a relative or absolute  path  is  given  for  watched  directories.   If  a
              specific path is explicitly both included and excluded, it will always be watched.

              Note:  If  you need to watch a directory or file whose name starts with @, give the
              absolute path.

       --fromfile <file>
              Read filenames to watch or  exclude  from  a  file,  one  filename  per  line.   If
              filenames  begin  with  @  they are excluded as described above.  If <file> is `-',
              filenames are read from standard input.  Use this option if you need to  watch  too
              many files to pass in as command line arguments.

       -m, --monitor
              Instead  of  exiting  after  receiving  a  single event, execute indefinitely.  The
              default behaviour is to exit after the first event occurs.

       -r, --recursive
              Watch all subdirectories of any directories passed as arguments.  Watches  will  be
              set up recursively to an unlimited depth.  Symbolic links are not traversed.  Newly
              created subdirectories will also be watched.

              Warning: If you use this option while watching the root directory of a large  tree,
              it  may  take  quite  a while until all inotify watches are established, and events
              will not be received  in  this  time.   Also,  since  one  inotify  watch  will  be
              established  per  subdirectory,  it  is possible that the maximum amount of inotify
              watches per user will be reached.  The default maximum is 8192; it can be increased
              by writing to /proc/sys/fs/inotify/max_user_watches.

       -q, --quiet
              If  specified  once,  the  program will be less verbose.  Specifically, it will not
              state when it has completed establishing all inotify watches.

              If specified twice, the program will output nothing at all, except in the  case  of
              fatal errors.

       --exclude <pattern>
              Do  not  process  any  events  whose  filename matches the specified POSIX extended
              regular expression, case sensitive.

       --excludei <pattern>
              Do not process any events whose  filename  matches  the  specified  POSIX  extended
              regular expression, case insensitive.

       -t <seconds>, --timeout <seconds>
              Exit  if  an  appropriate  event  has  not  occurred  within  <seconds> seconds. If
              <seconds> is zero (the default), wait indefinitely for an event.

       -e <event>, --event <event>
              Listen for specific event(s) only.  The events which can be listened for are listed
              in  the  EVENTS section.  This option can be specified more than once.  If omitted,
              all events are listened for.

       -c, --csv
              Output in CSV (comma-separated values) format.  This is useful when  filenames  may
              contain  spaces,  since  in  this case it is not safe to simply split the output at
              each space character.

       --timefmt <fmt>
              Set a time format  string  as  accepted  by  strftime(3)  for  use  with  the  `%T'
              conversion in the --format option.

       --format <fmt>
              Output  in  a  user-specified  format, using printf-like syntax.  The event strings
              output are limited to around 4000 characters and will be truncated to this  length.
              The following conversions are supported:

       %w     This will be replaced with the name of the Watched file on which an event occurred.

       %f     When an event occurs within a directory, this will be replaced with the name of the
              File which caused the event to occur.  Otherwise, this will  be  replaced  with  an
              empty string.

       %e     Replaced with the Event(s) which occurred, comma-separated.

       %Xe    Replaced  with  the Event(s) which occurred, separated by whichever character is in
              the place of `X'.

       %T     Replaced with the current Time in the format specified  by  the  --timefmt  option,
              which should be a format string suitable for passing to strftime(3).

EXIT STATUS

       0      The  program  executed successfully, and an event occurred which was being listened
              for.

       1      An error occurred in execution of the program, or an event occurred which  was  not
              being  listened  for.   The  latter  generally  occurs  if  something happens which
              forcibly removes the inotify watch, such as a watched file  being  deleted  or  the
              filesystem containing a watched file being unmounted.

       2      The  -t  option  was  used  and an event did not occur in the specified interval of
              time.

EVENTS

       The following events are valid for use with the -e option:

       access A watched file or a file within a watched directory was read from.

       modify A watched file or a file within a watched directory was written to.

       attrib The metadata of a watched file or a file within a watched directory  was  modified.
              This includes timestamps, file permissions, extended attributes etc.

       close_write
              A  watched file or a file within a watched directory was closed, after being opened
              in writeable mode.  This does not necessarily imply the file was written to.

       close_nowrite
              A watched file or a file within a watched directory was closed, after being  opened
              in read-only mode.

       close  A  watched  file or a file within a watched directory was closed, regardless of how
              it was opened.  Note that this is actually implemented simply by listening for both
              close_write  and  close_nowrite,  hence all close events received will be output as
              one of these, not CLOSE.

       open   A watched file or a file within a watched directory was opened.

       moved_to
              A file or directory was moved into a watched directory.  This event occurs even  if
              the file is simply moved from and to the same directory.

       moved_from
              A  file or directory was moved from a watched directory.  This event occurs even if
              the file is simply moved from and to the same directory.

       move   A file or directory was moved from or to a watched directory.  Note  that  this  is
              actually  implemented  simply  by listening for both moved_to and moved_from, hence
              all close events received will be output as one or both of these, not MOVE.

       move_self
              A watched file or directory was moved. After this event, the file or  directory  is
              no longer being watched.

       create A file or directory was created within a watched directory.

       delete A file or directory within a watched directory was deleted.

       delete_self
              A watched file or directory was deleted.  After this event the file or directory is
              no longer being watched.  Note that  this  event  can  occur  even  if  it  is  not
              explicitly being listened for.

       unmount
              The  filesystem  on which a watched file or directory resides was unmounted.  After
              this event the file or directory is no longer being watched.  Note that this  event
              can occur even if it is not explicitly being listened to.

EXAMPLES

   Example 1
       Running inotifywait at the command-line to wait for any file in the `test' directory to be
       accessed.  After running inotifywait, `cat test/foo' is run in a separate console.

       % inotifywait test
       Setting up watches.
       Watches established.
       test/ ACCESS foo

   Example 2
       A short shell script to efficiently wait for httpd-related log messages and  do  something
       appropriate.

       #!/bin/sh
       while inotifywait -e modify /var/log/messages; do
         if tail -n1 /var/log/messages | grep httpd; then
           kdialog --msgbox "Apache needs love!"
         fi
       done

   Example 3
       A  custom  output  format  is  used  to  watch  `~/test'.   Meanwhile, someone runs `touch
       ~/test/badfile; touch ~/test/goodfile; rm ~/test/badfile' in another console.

       % inotifywait -m -r --format '%:e %f' ~/test
       Setting up watches.  Beware: since -r was given, this may take a while!
       Watches established.
       CREATE badfile
       OPEN badfile
       ATTRIB badfile
       CLOSE_WRITE:CLOSE badfile
       CREATE goodfile
       OPEN goodfile
       ATTRIB goodfile
       CLOSE_WRITE:CLOSE goodfile
       DELETE badfile

BUGS

       There are race conditions in the recursive directory watching code which can cause  events
       to  be  missed  if  they occur in a directory immediately after that directory is created.
       This is probably not fixable.

       It is assumed the inotify event queue will never overflow.

AUTHORS

       inotifywait is written and maintained by Rohan McGovern <rohan@mcgovern.id.au>.

       inotifywait  is  part  of  inotify-tools.   The  inotify-tools  website  is  located   at:
       http://inotify-tools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO

       inotifywatch(1), strftime(3), inotify(7)