Provided by: netpbm_10.0-15_amd64 bug

NAME

       netpbm - package of graphics manipulation programs and libraries

DESCRIPTION

       Netpbm is a package of graphics programs and programming libraries.

       There  are  over  220  separate  programs in the package, most of which have "pbm", "pgm",
       "ppm", or "pnm" in their names.  For example, pnmscale and giftopnm.

       For example, you might use pnmscale to shrink an image by 10%.  Or use pnmcomp to  overlay
       one  image  on  top of another.  Or use pbmtext to create an image of text.  Or reduce the
       number of colors in an image with pnmquant.

The Netpbm Formats

       All of the programs work with a set of  graphics  formats  called  the  "netpbm"  formats.
       Specifically,  these  formats  are pbm(5), pgm(5), ppm(5), and pam(5).  The first three of
       these are sometimes known generically as pnm.  Many of the Netpbm programs convert from  a
       Netpbm format to another format or vice versa.  This is so you can use the Netpbm programs
       to work on graphics of any format.  It is also common  to  use  a  combination  of  Netpbm
       programs  to  convert from one non-Netpbm format to another non-Netpbm format.  Netpbm has
       converters for over 80 graphics formats, and as a package Netpbm lets you do more graphics
       format conversions than any other computer graphics facility.

       The Netpbm formats are all raster formats, i.e. they describe an image as a matrix of rows
       and columns of pixels.  In the PBM format, the pixels are black and  white.   In  the  PGM
       format,  pixels are shades of gray.  In the PPM format, the pixels are in full color.  The
       PAM format is more sophisticated.  A replacement for all three of the  other  formats,  it
       can  represent  matrices  of  general  data  including but not limited to black and white,
       grayscale, and color images.

       Programs designed to work with PBM images have "pbm" in their names.  Programs designed to
       work with PGM, PPM, and PAM images similarly have "pgm", "ppm", and "pam" in their names.

       All  Netpbm  programs  designed to read PGM images see PBM images as if they were PGM too.
       All Netpbm programs designed to read PPM images see PGM and PBM images  as  if  they  were
       PPM.  See the section "Implied Format Conversion" below.

       Programs  that have "pnm" in their names read PBM, PGM, and PPM but unlike "ppm" programs,
       they distinguish between them and their function depends  on  the  format.   For  example,
       pnmtogif  creates  a  black  and  white GIF output image if its input is PBM or PGM, but a
       color GIF output image if its input is PPM.  And pnmscale produces an output image of  the
       same  format as the input.  A ppmscale program would read all three PNM input formats, but
       would see them all as PPM and would always generate PPM output.

       If it seems wasteful to you to have three separate PNM formats, be aware that there  is  a
       historical  reason  for it.  In the beginning, there were only PBMs.  PGMs came later, and
       then PPMs.  Much later came PAM,  which  realizes  the  possibility  of  having  just  one
       aggregate format.

       The formats are described in the man pages pbm(5), pgm(5), ppm(5), and pam(5),

Implied Format Conversion

       A program that uses the PGM library to read an image can read a PBM image as well as a PGM
       image.  The program sees the PBM image as if it were the  equivalent  PGM  image,  with  a
       maxval of 255.

       A program that uses the PPM library to read an image can read a PGM image as well as a PPM
       image and a PBM image as well as a PGM image.  The program sees the PBM or PGM image as if
       it were the equivalent PPM image, with a maxval of 255 in the PBM case and the same maxval
       as the PGM in the PGM case.

Netpbm and Transparency

       In many graphics format, there's a means of indicating that certain parts of the image are
       wholly  or  partially transparent, meaning that if it were displayed "over" another image,
       the other  image  would  show  through  there.   Netpbm  formats  deliberately  omit  that
       capability, since their purpose is to be extremely simple.

       In  Netpbm,  you  handle  transparency  via  a  transparency  mask in a separate (slightly
       redefined) PGM image.  In this pseudo-PGM, what would normally be a pixel's  intensity  is
       instead it an opaqueness value.  See pgm(5).  pnmcomp is an example of a program that uses
       a PGM transparency mask.

The Netpbm Programs

       The Netpbm programs are generally useful run by a person from a  command  shell,  but  are
       also  designed to be used by programs.  A common characteristic of Netpbm programs is that
       they are simple, fundamental building blocks.  They are  most  powerful  when  stacked  in
       pipelines.   Netpbm  programs  do not use graphical user interfaces (in fact, none of them
       display graphics at all, except for a very simple Linux Svgalib displayer) and do not seek
       input from a user.

       Each of these programs has its own man page.

Common Options

       There  are  a  few  options  that are present on all programs that are based on the Netpbm
       libraries, including virtually all Netpbm  programs.   These  are  not  mentioned  in  the
       individual man pages for the programs.

       -quiet Suppress  all  informational  messages  that  would otherwise be issued to Standard
              Error.  (To be precise, this only works to the extent that the program in  question
              implements  the  Netpbm  convention  of  issuing all informational messages via the
              pm_message() service of the Netpbm libraries).

       -version
              Instead of doing anything else, report the version of  the  libpbm  library  linked
              with  the  program  (it  may  have  been  linked  statically  into  the program, or
              dynamically linked at run time).  Normally, the Netpbm programs and  the  libraries
              are  installed  at  the same time, so this tells you the version of the program and
              all the other Netpbm libraries and files it uses as well.

              Here is a directory of the Netpbm programs.  You can also use man -k to search  for
              a program that does what you want.

   Converters
       ppmtompeg
              convert series of PPM frames to an MPEG movie

       jpegtopnm
              convert JFIF/JPEG/EXIF file to Netpbm format

       pnmtojpeg
              convert PPM to JPEG/JFIF/EXIF format

       anytopnm
              convert any graphics format to Netpbm format

       bmptoppm
              convert Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file to PPM

       ppmtobmp
              convert PPM to Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file

       winicontoppm
              convert Windows icon file to PPM

       ppmtowinicon
              convert PPM to Windows icon file

       giftopnm
              convert GIF to portable anymap

       ppmtogif
              convert PPM to GIF

       pnmtopng
              convert Netpbm format to Portable Network Graphics

       pngtopnm
              convert PNG (Portable Network Graphics) to Netpbm formats

       palmtopnm
              convert Palm pixmap to Netpbm formats

       pnmtopalm
              convert Netpbm formats to Palm pixmap

       jbigtopbm
              convert JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap) to PBM

       pamtopnm
              convert a PAM image to PBM, PGM, or PPM

       pbmtojbig
              convert PBM to JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap)

       pnmtofiasco
              convert Netpbm image to Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format

       fiascotopnm
              convert Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format to Netpbm image

       hpcdtoppm
              convert photo CD to PPM

       pbmtonokia
              convert PBM to Nokia Smart Messaging Format (SMF)

       pbmtowbmp
              convert PBM to WAP (Wireless App Protocol) Wireless Bitmap

       wbmptopbm
              convert WAP (Wireless App Protocol) Wireless Bitmap to PBM

       neotoppm
              convert Atari Neochrome (.neo) image to PPM

       ppmtoneo
              convert PPM image to Atari Neochrome (.neo)

       pbmtomda
              convert from PBM to Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs)

       mdatopbm
              convert from Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs) to PBM

       atktopbm
              convert Andrew Toolkit raster object to PBM

       pbmtoatk
              convert PBM to Andrew Toolkit raster object

       brushtopbm
              convert Xerox doodle brushes to PBM

       cmuwmtopbm
              convert CMU window manager format to PBM

       g3topbm
              convert Group 3 FAX to PBM

       pbmtog3
              convert PBM to Group 3 FAX

       icontopbm
              convert Sun icon to PBM

       pbmtoicon
              convert PBM to Sun icon

       gemtopnm
              convert GEM .img format to PBM or pixmap

       macptopbm
              convert MacPaint to PBM

       pbmtomacp
              convert PBM to MacPaint

       mgrtopbm
              convert MGR format to PBM

       pbmtomgr
              convert PBM to MGR format

       pi3topbm
              convert Atari Degas .pi3 to PBM

       pbmtopi3
              convert PBM to Atari Degas .pi3

       xbmtopbm
              convert X10 or X11 bitmap to PBM

       pbmtoxbm
              convert PBM to X11 bitmap

       pbmtox10bm
              convert PBM to X10 bitmap

       ybmtopbm
              convert Bennet Yee "face" file into PBM

       pbmtoybm
              convert PBM into Bennet Yee "face" file

       pbmto10x
              convert PBM to Gemini 10x printer graphics

       pbmtoascii
              convert PBM to ASCII graphic form

       asciitopgm
              convert ASCII character graphics to PGM

       pbmtobbnbg
              convert PBM to BBN BitGraph graphics

       pbmtocmuwm
              convert PBM to CMU window manager format

       pbmtoepson
              convert PBM to Epson printer graphics

       pbmtogem
              convert PBM into GEM .img file

       pbmtogo
              convert PBM to GraphOn graphics

       pbmtolj
              convert PBM to HP LaserJet black and white graphics

       ppmtolj
              convert PPM to HP LaserJet color graphics (PCL)

       pjtoppm
              convert HP PaintJet file to PPM

       ppmtopj
              convert PPM to HP PaintJet file

       thinkjettopbm
              convert HP Thinkjet printer stream to PBM

       pbmtoplot
              convert PBM into Unix plot(5) file

       pbmtoptx
              convert PBM to Printronix graphics

       pbmtozinc
              convert PBM to Zinc Interface Library icon

       fitstopnm
              convert FITS format to portable anymap

       pnmtofits
              convert Netpbm formats to FITS format

       fstopgm
              convert Usenix FaceSaver(tm) format to PGM

       pgmtofs
              convert PGM to Usenix FaceSaver(tm) format

       hipstopgm
              convert HIPS format to PGM

       lispmtopgm
              convert a Lisp Machine bitmap file into PGM format

       pgmtolispm
              convert PGM into Lisp Machine format

       pnmtops
              convert Netpbm formats to Postscript

       pstopnm
              convert Postscript to Netpbm formats

       psidtopgm
              convert PostScript "image" data to PGM

       pbmtolps
              convert PBM image to Postscript using lines

       pbmtoepsi
              convert a PBM image to encapsulated Postscript preview bitmap

       pbmtopsg3
              convert PBM images to Postscript using G3 fax compression.

       rawtopgm
              convert raw grayscale bytes to PGM

       pgmtopbm
              convert PGM to PBM

       gouldtoppm
              convert Gould scanner file to PPM

       ilbmtoppm
              convert IFF ILBM to PPM

       ppmtoilbm
              convert PPM to IFF ILBM

       imgtoppm
              convert Img-whatnot to PPM

       mtvtoppm
              convert MTV ray-tracer output to PPM

       pcxtoppm
              convert PC Paintbrush format to PPM

       pgmtoppm
              colorize a portable graymap into a PPM

       pi1toppm
              convert Atari Degas .pi1 to PPM

       ppmtopi1
              convert PPM to Atari Degas .pi1

       picttoppm
              convert Macintosh PICT to PPM

       ppmtopict
              convert PPM to Macintosh PICT

       qrttoppm
              convert QRT ray-tracer output to PPM

       rawtoppm
              convert raw RGB bytes to PPM

       sldtoppm
              convert an AutoCAD slide file into a PPM

       spctoppm
              convert Atari compressed Spectrum to PPM

       sputoppm
              convert Atari uncompressed Spectrum to PPM

       tgatoppm
              convert TrueVision Targa file to PPM

       ppmtotga
              convert PPM to TrueVision Targa file

       ximtoppm
              convert Xim to PPM

       xpmtoppm
              convert XPM format to PPM

       ppmtoxpm
              convert PPM to XPM format

       yuvtoppm
              convert Abekas YUV format to PPM

       eyuvtoppm
              convert Encoder/Berkeley YUV format to PPM

       ppmtoeyuv
              convert PPM to Encoder/Berkeley YUV format

       ppmtoyuv
              convert PPM to Abekas YUV format

       ppmtoyuvsplit
              convert PPM to 3 subsampled raw YUV files

       yuvsplittoppm
              merge 3 subsampled raw YUV files to one PPM

       ppmtoacad
              convert PPM to AutoCAD database or slide

       ppmtoicr
              convert PPM to NCSA ICR graphics

       ppmtopcx
              convert PPM to PC Paintbrush format

       ppmtopgm
              convert PPM to portable graymap

       ppmtopuzz
              convert PPM to X11 "puzzle" file

       rasttopnm
              convert Sun raster file to Netpbm formats

       pnmtorast
              convert Netpbm formats to Sun raster file

       tifftopnm
              convert TIFF file to portable anymap

       pnmtotiff
              convert Netpbm formats to TIFF RGB file

       pnmtotiffcmyk
              convert Netpbm formats to TIFF CMYK file

       xwdtopnm
              convert X10 or X11 window dump to Netpbm formats

       pnmtoxwd
              convert Netpbm formats to X11 window dump

       pnmtoplainpnm
              convert regular Netpbm format image into plain Netpbm format

       pbmtopgm
              convert PBM file to PGM by averaging areas

       411toppm
              convert 411 (Sony Mavica) to PPM

       ppmtosixel
              convert PPM to DEC sixel format

       ppmtouil
              convert PPM to Motif UIL icon file

       sbigtopgm
              convert Santa Barbara Instrument Group CCD file to PGM

       vidtoppm
              convert Parallax XVideo JPEG to sequence of PPM files

       pnmtorle
              convert PNM to Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file

       rletopnm
              convert Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file to PNM

       ppmtoleaf
              convert PPM to Interleaf

       leaftoppm
              convert Interleaf to PPM

       bioradtopgm
              convert Biorad confocal image to PGM

       pbmtoln03
              convert PGM image to Dec LN03+ Sixel image

       pbmtopk
              convert PBM image to packed format (PK) font

       pktopbm
              convert packed format (PK) font to PBM image

   Image Generators
       All of these generate Netpbm format output.

       pbmmake
              create a blank PBM image of a specified size

       ppmmake
              create a PPM image of a specified size and color

       pgmramp
              generate a grayscale ramp

       ppmpat create a pretty PPM image

       ppmrainbow
              create a spectrum-like image with colors fading together.

       pgmnoise
              create a PGM image of white noise

       pbmtext
              render text into a PBM image

       pbmupc create a Universal Product Code PBM image

       ppmcie generate a CIE color map PPM image

       pbmpage
              create a printer test pattern page in PBM format

       ppmcolors
              create a color map (PPM image) containing all possible colors of given maxval

   Image Editors
       All of these work on the Netpbm formats

       ppmlabel
              Add text to an image

       pnmshadow
              add a shadow to an image so it looks like it's floating

       ppmbrighten
              brighten or dim an image -- change saturation and value

       ppmdim dim an image - different way from ppmbrighten

       pbmreduce
              reduce a PBM N times, using Floyd-Steinberg

       pgmnorm
              normalize contrast in a PGM image

       ppmnorm
              normalize contrast in a PPM image

       pbmpscale
              enlarge a PBM image with edge smoothing

       pnmscale
              scale an image with high precision

       pnmscalefixed
              scale an image quickly with low precision

       pnmenlarge
              enlarge an image N times

       ppmdither
              ordered dither for color images

       pnmcolormap
              Choose the N best colors to represent an image; create a colormap

       pnmremap
              Replace colors in an image with those from a color map

       ppmquant
              quantize colors in a color image down to fewer colors

       pnmquant
              quantize colors/shades in a color or grayscale image down to fewer

       ppmquantall
              quantize colors on many files

       ppmrelief
              run a Laplacian Relief filter on a PPM

       pnmarith
              perform arithmetic on two images

       pnmcat concatenate images

       pnmpad add borders to an image

       pnmcomp
              create composite (overlay) of images

       ppmmix mix (overlay) two images.

       pnmcrop
              crop all like-colored borders off an image

       pamcut select a rectangular region from an image

       pnmcut obsolete version of pamcut (kept because it may have fewer bugs)

       pamdice
              slice an image into many horizontally and/or vertically

       pamdeinterlace
              remove every other row from an image

       pamchannel
              extract a single plane (channel, e.g. R, G, or B) from an image

       pnmdepth
              change the maxval in an image

       pnmflip
              perform one or more flip operations on an image

       pamstretch
              scale up an image by inserting interpolated pixels

       pamstretch-gen
              scale by non-integer values using pamstretch and pnmscale

       pnminvert
              invert an image

       pnmgamma
              perform gamma correction on an image

       pnmhisteq
              histogram equalize image to increase contrast

       pnmmargin
              add a margin to an image

       pnmpaste
              paste a rectangle into an image

       pnmrotate
              rotate an image

       pnmshear
              shear an image

       pnmsmooth
              smooth am image

       pnmtile
              replicate an image into a specified size

       pbmclean
              remove lone pixels (snow) from a PBM image

       pnmalias
              antialias an image

       ppmchange
              change all of one color to another in PPM image

       pnmnlfilt
              filter an image by replacing each pixel with a function of nearby pixels

       ppmshift
              shift lines of PPM image left or right a random amount

       ppmspread
              move pixels of PPM image a random amount

       pnmconvol
              general MxN convolution on an image

       rgb3toppm
              combine three portable graymaps into one PPM

       ppmtorgb3
              separate a PPM into three portable graymaps

       pbmlife
              apply Conway's rules of Life to a PBM image

       ppmdist
              map colors to high contrast grayscales arbitrarily

       ppmntsc
              adjust colors so they are legal for NTSC or PAL television

   Image Analyzers
       These all work on the Netpbm formats as input.

       pnmfile
              describe an image's vital characteristics

       pnmpsnr
              measure difference between two images

       pgmedge
              edge-detect a PGM image

       pgmenhance
              edge-enhance a PGM image

       pgmslice
              print grayscale values for a row or column of a PGM image

       pgmtexture
              calculate textural features on a PGM image

       pgmhist
              print a histogram of the values in a PGM image

       ppmhist
              print a histogram of a PPM

       pnmhistmap
              draw a histogram of a PGM or PPM

       ppmtomap
              generate a map of all colors in an image

       ppm3d  generate a blue/green 3D glasses image from two images

   Miscellaneous
       ppmsvgalib
              display a PPM image on a Linux virtual console using Svgalib

       pbmmask
              create a mask bitmap from a regular bitmap

       ppmcolormask
              create mask of areas of a certain color in an image

       pnmsplit
              split a multi-image Netpbm file into multiple 1-image files

       pnmindex
              build a visual index of a bunch of Netpbm images

       pcdindex
              build a visual index of a photo CD from PCD overview file

       pnmmontage
              build multiple Netpbm images into a single montage image

       pgmbentley
              Bentleyize a PGM image

       pgmcrater
              create cratered terrain by fractal forgery

       pamoil turn a PNM or PAM image into an oil painting

       ppmforge
              fractal forgeries of clouds, planets, and starry skies

       pgmkernel
              generate a convolution kernel

       ppmtv  Make an image lined so it looks like an old TV

       pbmto4425
              Display PBM image on AT&T 4425 ASCII terminal with gfx chars

   Uncatalogued As Yet
       pnmtoddif

       pnmtosgi

       pnmtosir

       ppmflash

       ppmqvga

       ppmtomitsu

       ppmtopjxl

       sgitopnm

       sirtopnm

       spottopgm

       xvminitoppm

       zeisstopnm

The Netpbm Libraries

       The  Netpbm programming libraries, libpbm(3), libpgm(3), libppm(3), and libpnm(3), make it
       easy to write programs that manipulate graphic images.  Their main function is to read and
       write  files  in the Netpbm format, and because the Netpbm package contains converters for
       all the popular graphics formats, if your program reads and writes the Netpbm formats, you
       can use it with any formats.

       But  the  libraries  also  contain  some  utility functions, such as character drawing and
       RGB/YCrCb conversion.

       The libraries have the conventional C linkage.   Virtually  all  programs  in  the  Netpbm
       package are based on the Netpbm libraries.

   Application Notes
       As  a collection of primitive tools, the power of Netpbm is multiplied by the power of all
       the other unix tools you can use with them.  These notes remind you of some  of  the  more
       useful ways to do this.  Often, when people want to add high level functions to the Netpbm
       tools, they have overlooked some existing tool that, in combination with  Netpbm,  already
       does it.

       Often, you need to apply some conversion or edit to a whole bunch of files.

       As  a  rule,  Netpbm  programs take one input file and produce one output file, usually on
       Standard Output.  This is for flexibility, since you so often have to pipeline many  tools
       together.

       Here  is  an  example of a shell command to convert all your of PNG files (named *.png) to
       JPEG files named *.jpg:

       for i in *.png; do pngtopnm $i | ppmtojpeg >`basename $i .png`.jpg; done

       Or you might just generate a stream of individual shell commands, one per file,  with  awk
       or perl.  Here's how to brighten 30 YUV images that make up one second of a movie, keeping
       the images in the same files:

       ls *.yuv .br | perl -ne 'chomp;
       print yuvtoppm $_ | ppmbrighten -v 100 | ppmtoyuv >tmp$$.yuv; ,
       mv tmp$$.yuv $_0
       ' .br | sh

       The tools find (with the -exec option) and xargs are also useful for  simple  manipulation
       of groups of files.

       Some  shells'  "process substitution" facility can help where a non-Netpbm program expects
       you to identify a disk file for input and you want it  to  use  the  result  of  a  Netpbm
       manipulation.   Say printcmyk takes the filename of a Tiff CMYK file as input and what you
       have is a PNG file abc.png.  Try:

       printcmyk <({ pngtopnm abc.png | pnmtotiffcmyk ; })

       It works in the other direction too, if you have a program that makes you name its  output
       file and you want the output to go through a Netpbm tool.

   Other Graphics Software
       Netpbm  contains  primitive  building  blocks.   It  certainly  is not a complete graphics
       library.

       The first thing you will need to make use of any of these tools is a viewer.   For  the  X
       inclined, there is xzgv.  See ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/graphics/viewers/X.

       xloadimage and its extension xli are also common ways to display a graphic image in X.

       ImageMagick  is  like  a visual version of Netpbm.  Using the X/Window system on Unix, you
       can do basic editing of images and lots of format conversions.  The package  does  include
       at  least  some  non-visual  tools.   Convert,  Mogrify,  Montage, and Animate are popular
       programs from the ImageMagick package.  ImageMagick runs on  Unix,  Windows,  Windows  NT,
       Macintosh, and VMS.

       The Gimp is a visual image editor for Unix and X, in the same category as the more famous,
       less  capable,  and  much  more  expensive  Adobe  Photoshop,  etc.  for   Windows.    See
       http://www.gimp.org.

       The  file  program  looks  at a file and tells you what kind of file it is.  It recognizes
       most of the graphics formats with which Netpbm deals, so it is pretty handy  for  graphics
       work.  Netpbm's anytopnm program depends on file.  See ftp://ftp.astron.com/pub/file.

       The  Utah  Raster  Toolkit  serves  a  lot  of the same purpose as Netpbm, but without the
       emphasis on format conversions.  This package is based on the RLE format,  which  you  can
       convert          to          and          from         the         Netpbm         formats.
       http://www.cs.utah.edu/research/projects/alpha1/urt.html gives  some  information  on  the
       Utah Raster Toolkit, but does not tell where to get it.

       There  are  some  Netpbm-like  graphics  tools  distributed  by  the Army High Performance
       Computing Research Center at http://www.arc.umn.edu/gvl-software/media-tools.html.   These
       operate  directly  on  non-Netpbm  format  images,  so  they aren't included in the Netpbm
       package.  However, you can use them with any image  format  by  using  the  Netpbm  format
       converters.

       Ivtools is a suite of free X Windows drawing editors for Postscript, Tex, and web graphics
       production, as well as an embeddable and extendable vector graphic  shell.   It  uses  the
       Netpbm facilities.  See http://www.ivtools.org.

       Ilib is a C subroutine library with functions for adding text to an image (as you might do
       at a higher level with pbmtext, pnmcomp, etc.).  It works with Netpbm  input  and  output.
       Find  it  at  http://www.radix.net/~cknudsen/Ilib.  Netpbm also includes character drawing
       functions in the libppm library, but they do not have  as  fancy  font  capabilities  (see
       ppmlabel for an example of use of the Netpbm character drawing functions).

       GD  is  a  library  of graphics routines that is part of PHP.  It has a subset of Netpbm's
       functions and has been found to resize images more slowly and with less quality.

       pnm2ppa converts to HP's "Winprinter" format (for HP 710, 720, 820, 1000, etc).  It  is  a
       superset  of  Netpbm's  pbmtoppa  and  handles,  notably, color.  However, it is more of a
       printer  driver  than   a   Netpbm-style   primitive   graphics   building   block.    See
       http://sourceforge.net/project/?group_id=1322.

       The program morph morphs one image into another.  It uses Targa format images, but you can
       use tgatoppm and ppmtotga to deal with that format.  You have to use the graphical  (X/Tk)
       Xmorph  to create the mesh files that you must feed to morph.  morph is part of the Xmorph
       package.  See http://www.colorado-research.com/~gourlay/software/Graphics/Xmorph.

       To create an animated GIF, or extract a frame from one, use gifsicle.   gifsicle  converts
       between animated GIF and still GIF, and you can use ppmtogif and giftopnm to connect up to
       all the Netpbm utilities.  See http://www.lcdf.org/gifsicle.

       To convert an image of text to text (optical character recongition - OCR), use gocr (think
       of it as an inverse of pbmtext).  See http://altmark.nat.uni-magdeburg.de/~jschulen/ocr/.

       http://schaik.com/pngsuite  contains  a  PNG  test  suite  --  a whole bunch of PNG images
       exploiting the various features of the PNG format.

       Another version of pnmtopng/pngtopnm is at  http://www.schaik.com/png/pnmtopng.html.   The
       version  in  Netpbm was actually based on that package a long time ago, and you can expect
       to find better exploitation of the PNG format, especially  recent  enhancements,  in  that
       package.   It  may be a little less consistent with the Netpbm project and less exploitive
       of recent Netpbm format enhancements, though.

       jpegtran Does some of the same transformations as Netpbm is  famous  for,  but  does  them
       specifically on JPEG files and does them without loss of information.  By contrast, if you
       were to use Netpbm, you would first decompress the  JPEG  image  to  Netpbm  format,  then
       transform  the  image,  then  compress it back to JPEG format.  In that recompression, you
       lose a little image information because JPEG is a lossy compression.  jpegtran comes  with
       the Independent Jpeg Group's (http://www.ijg.org) JPEG library.

       Some  tools  to  deal with EXIF files (see also Netpbm's jpegtopnm and pnmtojpeg): To dump
       (interpret) an EXIF header: Exifdump ((http://topo.math.u-psud.fr/~bousch/exifdump.py)  or
       Jhead (http://www.sentex.net/~mwandel/jhead).

       A Python EXIF library and dumper:  http://pyexif.sourceforge.net.

       Latex2html  converts Latex document source to HTML document source.  Part of that involves
       graphics, and Latex2html uses Netpbm tools for some of that.  But Latex2html  through  its
       history has had some rather esoteric codependencies with Netpbm.  Older Latex2html doesn't
       work with current Netpbm.  Latex2html-99.2beta8 works, though.

   Other Graphics Formats
       People never seem to tire of inventing new graphics formats,  often  completely  redundant
       with pre-existing ones.  Netpbm cannot keep up with them.  Here is a list of a few that we
       know Netpbm does not handle (yet).

         CAL   (originated   by   US   Department   Of   Defense,   favored    by    architects).
       http://www.landfield.com/faqs/graphics/fileformats-faq/part3/section-24.html

         array formats dx, general, netcdf, CDF, hdf, cm

         CGM+

         Windows  Meta  File  (.WMF).   Libwmf  converts from WMF to things like Latex, PDF, PNG.
       Some of these can be input to Netpbm.

         Microsoft Word, RTF.  Microsoft keeps a proprietary hold on these formats.  Any software
       you see that can handle them is likely to cost money.

         DXF (AutoCAD)

HISTORY

       Netpbm  has  a  long  history, starting with Jef Poskanzer's Pbmplus package in 1988.  The
       file HISTORY in the Netpbm source code  contains  a  historical  overview  as  well  as  a
       detailed history release by release.

AUTHOR

       Netpbm  is  based  on  the Pbmplus package by Jef Poskanzer, first distributed in 1988 and
       maintained by him until 1991.  But the package contains work by countless  other  authors,
       added since Jef's original work.  In fact, the name is derived from the fact that the work
       was contributed by people all over the world via the Internet, when such collaboration was
       still novel enough to merit naming the package after it.

       Bryan  Henderson has been maintaining Netpbm since 1999.  In addition to packaging work by
       others, Bryan has also written a significant amount of new material for the package.

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