Provided by: zsh_4.3.17-1ubuntu1_i386 bug


       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked  in  to  the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked at  runtime
       with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins   for   manipulating   POSIX.1e   (POSIX.6)  capability
              (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard   scientific   functions   for   use   in  mathematical

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution  facility  within  the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.


       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.   The
       -h  option  causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended  attribute  attribute  from   the   specified
              filename.  If  the  optional  argument  parameter  is given, the
              attribute is set on that parameter instead of being  printed  to

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set  the  extended attribute attribute on the specified filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the  extended  attribute  attribute  from  the  specified

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set on the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the  list
              of  attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If  the  attribute
       or  list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get
       them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This  allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.


       The   zsh/cap  module  is  used  for  manipulating  POSIX.1e  (POSIX.6)
       capability sets.   If  the  operating  system  does  not  support  this
       interface,  the  builtins  defined by this module will do nothing.  The
       builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process  capability  sets  to  the  specified
              capabilities,    otherwise    display    the   shell's   current

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It sets the capability sets on each specified  filename  to  the
              specified capabilities.


       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the
              specified tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY  special
              parameters  are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin  is  zero  in  both  shells  if
              successful, and non-zero on error.

              The  target  of  clone  should be an unused terminal, such as an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;  while  :;  do  sleep
              100000000; done'

              Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some  other
              session  ("session"  meant  as  a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the  job  control  signals  will  go  to the sh-started-by-xterm
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with  trap;
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result  in  two
              processes  reading  simultaneously  from the same terminal, with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful  as  a  shell  built-in  replacement  for


       The  zsh/compctl  module makes available two builtin commands. compctl,
       is the old,  deprecated  way  to  control  completions  for  ZLE.   See
       zshcompctl(1).   The  other  builtin  command,  compcall can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands  which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to  scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist module is loaded or  linked  into  the  shell,  completion
       lists   will  be  colored.   Note,  however,  that  complist  will  not
       automatically be loaded if it  is  not  linked  in:   on  systems  with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS  and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe how matches are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case  all  the  default values given below will be used.  The format of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the  ls  command:  a colon-separated list of specifications of the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following  strings,  most  of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying  something  other  than  a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for  symbolic  links.   If  this  has  the special value target,
              symbolic links are dereferenced and  the  target  file  used  to
              determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for  a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined  for  fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for  files  with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the  character  indicating  the  file  type   printed  after
              filenames if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart  from  these  strings,  the  name  may  also be an asterisk (`*')
       followed by any string. The value given for such a string will be  used
       for all files whose name ends with the string.  The name may also be an
       equals sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option  will
       be  turned  on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string  are  matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the
       leading equal sign take precedence over the  values  defined  for  file
       types,  which  in  turn  take precedence over the form with the leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts  of  the  displayed
       strings  to  be  colored differently.  For this, the pattern has to use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of  the  strings  that are to be colored differently.  In this case the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the  specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which  are  at  least
       two  characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a  pattern  in  parentheses.
       If  this  is  given,  the value will be used only for matches in groups
       whose names are matched by the pattern given in the  parentheses.   For
       example,  `(g*)m*=43'  highlights  all  matches  beginning  with `m' in
       groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In  case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in the parameter value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the  value  for
       the  file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then  the  value
       of  ec  if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and  can  be  used  on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors  function  from
       the  contribution  can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes  for  ANSI  terminals  (see  the  section  `Other  Functions'  in
       zshcontrib(1)).   For  example,  after  loading  colors,  one could use
       `$colors[red]'  to  get  the  code  for  foreground   color   red   and
       `$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the  system  controls  them  itself.
       Instead,  the  list-colors  style  should  be  used  (see  the  section
       `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must  be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes
       of  the  form  `%x'.   It  supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the  total  number
       of  lines  in  the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p'  or  `%P'  is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In  each  of  these  cases  the  form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list,  stopping  after  the  first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a  keypress  after  temporarily  switching  to  the
       listscroll  keymap.   Some  of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes  the  key
       as  usual.   Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound  to  undefined-key  is  looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion  system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The  zsh/complist  module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be  used  if  the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can  be  invoked  directly  by  the  widget  menu-select
       defined  by  this  module.   This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives  the  minimum  number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu  completion  be  started,  either  directly  from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or  AUTO_MENU
       being  set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When  using  the  completion  system  based  on  shell  functions,  the
       MENUSELECT  parameter  should  not  be  used  (like  the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters  described  above).   Instead,  the  menu  style
       should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the  first  screenful  is
       shown.   The  matches  to  insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using  the  value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout  mode  on  a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as  for  the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there  are  more  matches  than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will  be  shown  below  the  matches.   It
       supports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark  is  placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter  can  be  used  to  specify  how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if  it
       is  set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines  to
       scroll  and  if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither
       MENUPROMPT  nor  MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based  completion  system.   Instead,  the  select-prompt  and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden  matches  are  either  matches  for  which  the
       completion function which added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or  they  are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that  are
       not  displayed).   In  the  list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to  select  them.   To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches  of  the  first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting  matches  is  done  by  moving  the mark around using the zle
       movement functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at
       the  same  time, the list will scroll up and down when crossing the top
       or bottom line.  The  following  zle  functions  have  special  meaning
       during menu selection.  Note that the following always perform the same
       task within the menu selection map  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
       defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of  the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently  inserted  match  and  continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries  completion  with  menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous  level,  every  other  key
              leaves  menu  selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into  the  command  line  as  in normal editing mode but without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again  and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion  widgets  make  the  longest  unambiguous  string  be
              inserted  in  the command line and undo and backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches  in  the  list  of  completions
              displayed;  in  this  mode,  accept-line only leaves incremental
              search, going back to the normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not  listed  leaves  menu  selection and executes that function.  It is
       possible to make widgets in the above list do the  same  by  using  the
       form  of  the  widget  with  a  `.'  in front.  For example, the widget
       `.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection  and  accepting
       the entire command line.

       During  this  selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked  up  in  the  keymap currently selected.  This is used to ensure
       that the most important keys used during selection (namely  the  cursor
       keys,  return,  and  TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can be modified directly using  the  bindkey  builtin
       command  (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.


       The  zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by
       some of the completion functions in  the  completion  system  based  on
       shell  functions  (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).   Except  for compquote these
       builtin commands are very specialised and  thus  not  very  interesting
       when  writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these builtin
       commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments function to do the  argument  and
              command  line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i to
              do the parsing and initialize some internal  state  and  various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the  matches and to get the strings to add as matches with their
              options.  On the first call one of the options -i or  -I  should
              be  supplied  as the first argument.  In the first case, display
              strings without the  descriptions  will  be  generated,  in  the
              second  case, the string used to separate the matches from their
              descriptions must be  given  as  the  second  argument  and  the
              descriptions  (if  any)  will be shown.  All other arguments are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once compdescribe has been called with either the -i or  the  -I
              option,  it  can be repeatedly called with the -g option and the
              names of five arrays as its arguments.  This will  step  through
              the different sets of matches and store the options in the first
              array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the  matches
              for  these in the third, the strings without descriptions in the
              fourth, and the matches for them in the fifth array.  These  are
              then  directly given to compadd to register the matches with the
              completion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize  complex  recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use,  including
              the  paths  already  handled and trying to optimize the patterns
              with respect to the prefix and suffix  from  the  line  and  the
              match  specification  currently  used.   The  -i option does the
              directory tests for the ignore-parents style and the  -r  option
              tests  if  a  component for some of the matches are equal to the
              string on the line and removes all  other  matches  if  that  is

              Used  by  the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the
              group-order style.  This only takes its arguments  as  names  of
              completion  groups and creates the groups for it (all six types:
              sorted and unsorted,  both  without  removing  duplicates,  with
              removing   all   duplicates   and   with   removing  consecutive

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have  to
              add  the  matches  using  the  -Q  option to compadd and perform
              quoting themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character
              of  the  all_quotes key of the compstate special association and
              using the q flag for parameter  expansions,  one  can  use  this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters and the values of  these  parameters  are  quoted  as
              needed  for  the  innermost  quoting level.  If the -p option is
              given, quoting is done as if there is  some  prefix  before  the
              values  of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not
              be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in  case  of  an  error  and  zero

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.


       The  zsh/curses  module makes available one builtin command and various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All uses of this command  should  be
              bracketed  by  `zcurses  init'  to initialise use of curses, and
              `zcurses end' to end it; omitting `zcurses end'  can  cause  the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The  subcommand  addwin  creates  a window with nlines lines and
              ncols columns.  Its upper left corner  will  be  placed  at  row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and refers to the  name  of  a  window  that  is  not  currently
              assigned.    Note  in  particular  the  curses  convention  that
              vertical values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from an ordinary new window in that the  memory  of  the  window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted before their  parent.   Note  that  the  coordinates  of
              subwindows  are  relative to the screen, not the parent, as with
              other windows.

              Use the subcommand  delwin  to  delete  a  window  created  with
              addwin.   Note  that end does not implicitly delete windows, and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The window corresponding to the full visible  screen  is  called
              stdscr;  it  always  exists  after  `zcurses init' and cannot be
              delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window  targetwin;  this  is
              necessary  to  make  any pending changes (such as characters you
              have prepared for output  with  char)  visible  on  the  screen.
              refresh  without an argument causes the screen to be cleared and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen  is  updated
              once at the end.

              The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The  subcommand  move  moves the cursor position in targetwin to
              new coordinates new_y  and  new_x.   Note  that  the  subcommand
              string  (but  not  the  subcommand  char)  advances  the  cursor
              position over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no  more  than one) of three options may be specified.  With the
              option redraw, in addition the next refresh  of  targetwin  will
              cause  the  screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the option
              eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current  cursor
              line.   With  the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of
              the window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor  is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and  strings  are  achieved  by  char  and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the border is not  subsequently  handled  specially:   in  other
              words,  the  border  is simply a set of characters output at the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The   subcommand   attr   will  set  targetwin's  attributes  or
              foreground/background color pair for  any  successive  character
              output.   Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by a
              + to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The   attributes   supported  are  blink,  bold,  dim,  reverse,
              standout, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on  bg_col')
              sets  the  foreground and background color for character output.
              The color default is sometimes available (in particular  if  the
              library  is  ncurses),  specifying  the foreground or background
              color  with  which  the  terminal  started.   The   color   pair
              default/default is always available.

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the window.  Its usual use is to set the  background  initially,
              but  it  will  overwrite the attributes of any characters at the
              time when it is called.  In addition to  the  arguments  allowed
              with  attr,  an argument @char specifies a character to be shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses  this  cannot  be  a  multibyte  character  (use of ASCII
              characters only  is  recommended).   As  the  specified  set  of
              attributes  override the existing background, turning attributes
              off in the arguments is not useful, though this does  not  cause
              an error.

              The  subcommand  scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or
              disable scrolling of a window when the  cursor  would  otherwise
              move  below  the window due to typing or output.  It can also be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or  down  the given number of lines without changing the current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction  relative  to  the  window).   In  the second case, if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The  subcommand  input  reads a single character from the window
              without echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character  is
              assigned  to  the  parameter  param,  else it is assigned to the
              parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam  are  supplied,  the  key  is  read  in
              `keypad'  mode.  In this mode special keys such as function keys
              and arrow keys return the name  of  the  key  in  the  parameter
              kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the curses.h or
              ncurses.h  with  the  prefix  `KEY_'  removed;  see   also   the
              description of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys
              cause a value to be set in param as  before.   On  a  successful
              return  only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string;
              the other is set to an empty string.

              If mparam is also  supplied,  input  attempts  to  handle  mouse
              input.   This  is only available with the ncurses library; mouse
              handling can be detected by checking  for  the  exit  status  of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed  or  released  with  a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an array  consisting  of  the
              following elements:
              -      An  identifier  to  discriminate different input devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the  full  screen,  as three elements in that order (i.e.
                     the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x  coordinate).
                     The  z  coordinate  is  only  available for a few unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will   be  just  one.   An  event  consists  of  PRESSED,
                     followed  immediately (in the same element) by the number
                     of the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may  be  passed  through  to  the  terminal
              window;   most  terminal  emulators  handle  some  mouse  events
              themselves.  Note that the ncurses  manual  implies  that  using
              input  both  with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure  the  use  of  the
              mouse.   There  is no window argument; mouse options are global.
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments  returns  status  0  if  mouse
              handling  is  possible,  else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible
              arguments (which may be combined on the same command  line)  are
              as  follows.   delay  num sets the maximum delay in milliseconds
              between press and release events to be considered  as  a  click;
              the  value  0  disables click resolution, and the default is one
              sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by  an  optional  `+'  (the
              default)  or  -  turns  on  or  off reporting of mouse motion in
              addition to clicks,  presses  and  releases,  which  are  always
              reported.   However, it appears reports for mouse motion are not
              currently implemented.

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input  from
              targetwin.    If  intval  is  negative,  `zcurses  input'  waits
              indefinitely for a character to be typed; this is  the  default.
              If intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there
              is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status  1
              is  returned.   If  intval  is  positive,  `zcurses input' waits
              intval milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end of
              that period returns status 1.

              The  subcommand  querychar  queries the character at the current
              cursor position.  The return values  are  stored  in  the  array
              named  param  if  supplied,  else in the array reply.  The first
              value is the character (which may be a  multibyte  character  if
              the  system  supports them); the second is the color pair in the
              usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color  is  not  supported.
              Any  attributes other than color that apply to the character, as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number  of  colors  the  terminal
              supports.   This  value is initialised by the curses library and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  integer.   The   maximum   number   of   color   pairs
              fg_col/bg_col  that  may  be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
              note this limit applies to all color pairs that have  been  used
              whether  or  not  they  are  currently  active.   This  value is
              initialised by the curses library and is not available until the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly   array.    The  attributes  supported  by  zsh/curses;
              available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by  zsh/curses;  available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The values that may be returned in the second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are  defined  internally  by  curses.  Not all function keys are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e.  all  windows
              that  have  been  created  with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.


       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format format to parse the
              input  string  timestring and output the number of seconds since
              the epoch at which the time occurred.  If no timezone is parsed,
              the  current  timezone is used; other parameters are set to zero
              if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
              returns  status  1;  it will additionally print an error message
              unless the option -q (quiet) is given.   If  timestring  matches
              format  but  not  all  characters  in  timestring were used, the
              conversion succeeds; however, a warning  is  issued  unless  the
              option  -q  is given.  The matching is implemented by the system
              function strptime; see strptime(3).  This means that zsh  format
              extensions  are  not  available, however for reverse lookup they
              are not required.  If  the  function  is  not  implemented,  the
              command  returns  status  2  and  (unless  -q is given) prints a

              If -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time  in
              seconds if -r is given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The  zsh/datetime  module  makes  available several parameters; all are

              A floating point value representing the number of seconds  since
              the  epoch.   The  notional  accuracy  is  to nanoseconds if the
              clock_gettime call is available and to  microseconds  otherwise,
              but in practice the range of double precision floating point and
              shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An integer value representing the number of  seconds  since  the

              An  array value containing the number of seconds since the epoch
              in the first element and the remainder of  the  time  since  the
              epoch  in  nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure the two
              elements are consistent the array should be copied or  otherwise
              referenced  as a single substitution before the values are used.
              The following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do


       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read a character from the keyboard, and delete from  the  cursor
              position  up to and including the next (or, with repeat count n,
              the nth) instance of that  character.   Negative  repeat  counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This   behaves   like  delete-to-char,  except  that  the  final
              occurrence of the character itself is not deleted.


       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to  write  a


       The  zsh/files  module  makes  available  some common commands for file
       manipulation as builtins; these commands are probably  not  needed  for
       many  normal  situations  but  can  be  useful  in  emergency  recovery
       situations with constrained resources.  The commands do  not  implement
       all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For  all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and loaded
       automatically.  Using the features capability of zmodload will let  you
       load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes  group  of files specified.  This is equivalent to chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user;  change  group  to  user's  primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there  is
              a  `.'  then  the  separator  is  `.',  otherwise  there  is  no

              Each of user and group may be either a username (or group  name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric  username
              (or group name).

              If  the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The  -R  option  causes  chown  to  recursively   descend   into
              directories,   changing  the  ownership  of  all  files  in  the
              directory after changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension  to  chown  functionality.   It
              enables  paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security problems
              involving a chown being tricked into affecting files other  than
              the  ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
              that  (for  example)  ``chown  luser   /tmp/foo/passwd''   can't
              accidentally  chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link
              to  /etc.   It  will  also  check  where  it  is  after  leaving
              directories,  so that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree
              can't  end  up  recursively  chowning  /usr  as  a   result   of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates  hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified  directory  that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally,   ln   will  not  attempt  to  create  hard  links  to
              directories.  This check can be overridden using the -d  option.
              Typically  only  the super-user can actually succeed in creating
              hard links to directories.  This  does  not  apply  to  symbolic
              links in any case.

              By  default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i
              option causes the user to be queried  about  replacing  existing
              files.   The  -f  option  causes  existing  files to be silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h  and  -n  options  are  identical  and  both  exist  for
              compatibility;  either  one  indicates  that  if the target is a
              symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically  this  is
              used  in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points
              to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If
              this  option is used with multiple filenames and the target is a
              symbolic link pointing to a directory  then  the  result  is  an

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates  directories.   With  the -p option, non-existing parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used to specify (in octal) a set of  file  permissions  for  the
              created  directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to  the  specified destination.  In the second form, each of the
              filenames is taken in turn, and  moved  to  a  pathname  in  the
              specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By  default,  the user will be queried before replacing any file
              that the user cannot  write  to,  but  writable  files  will  be
              silently  removed.   The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about replacing any existing files.  The -f  option  causes  any
              existing  files  to  be  silently deleted, without querying.  -f
              takes precedence.

              Note  that  this  mv  will  not  move  files   across   devices.
              Historical  versions  of mv, when actual renaming is impossible,
              fall back on copying and removing files; if  this  behaviour  is
              desired,  use  cp  and rm manually.  This may change in a future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories  (except  with  the  -r
              option).   The  -d  option causes rm to try removing directories
              with unlink (see unlink(2)), the same  method  used  for  files.
              Typically  only the super-user can actually succeed in unlinking
              directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By default, the user will be queried before  removing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  removing  any  files.   The  -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying,  and  suppresses  all  error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories,
              deleting  all  files  in  the  directory  before  removing   the
              directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The  -s  option  is  a  zsh  extension  to rm functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to  avoid  common  security
              problems  involving  a  root-run  rm being tricked into removing
              files other than the ones intended.  It will  refuse  to  follow
              symbolic  links,  so  that  (for example) ``rm /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to  be
              a  link  to  /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive removal  of  a  deep  directory
              tree  can't  end  up  recursively  removing  /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the  same  name  (see  sync(2)),  which
              flushes  dirty  buffers to disk.  It might return before the I/O
              has actually been completed.


       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This  associative  array  takes  as keys the names of files; the
              resulting value is the  content  of  the  file.   The  value  is
              treated  identically  to any other text coming from a parameter.
              The value may also be assigned to, in which  case  the  file  in
              question  is  written (whether or not it originally existed); or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For  example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected, editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files  in  the  current  directory, and the values are empty (to
              save a huge overhead in memory).   Thus  ${(k)mapfile}  has  the
              same  affect  as  the  glob operator *(D), since files beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such  as  rm  ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A  file  may  conveniently be read into an array as one line per
              element with the form `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.   The
              double  quotes  are  necessary to prevent empty lines from being

       Although reading and writing of the file  in  question  is  efficiently
       handled,  zsh's  internal memory management may be arbitrarily baroque;
       however, mapfile is usually very  much  more  efficient  than  anything
       involving  a  loop.   Note in particular that the whole contents of the
       file will always reside physically in memory  when  accessed  (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular, this means handling of  sufficiently  long  files  (greater
       than  the  machine's swap space, or than the range of the pointer type)
       will be incorrect.

       No errors are printed  or  flagged  for  non-existent,  unreadable,  or
       unwritable  files,  as  the parameter mechanism is too low in the shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It is unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does  not  yet
       allow  the  user to specify the name of the shell parameter to be given
       the special behaviour.


       The zsh/mathfunc module provides standard  mathematical  functions  for
       use  when  evaluating  mathematical  formulae.   The syntax agrees with
       normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most functions take floating point  arguments  and  return  a  floating
       point  value.   However,  any  necessary conversions from or to integer
       type will be performed automatically by the  shell.   Apart  from  atan
       with  a  second  argument  and  the  abs,  int and float functions, all
       functions behave as noted in the manual page for  the  corresponding  C
       function,  except  that  any arguments out of range for the function in
       question will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The following functions take a single floating  point  argument:  acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1, fabs, floor, gamma, j0, j1, lgamma,  log,  log10,  log1p,  logb,
       sin,  sinh,  sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function can optionally
       take a second argument, in which case it behaves like  the  C  function
       atan2.   The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but
       returns an integer.

       The function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer,  which
       is  the  C  variable  of the same name, as described in gamma(3).  Note
       that it is therefore only useful immediately after a call to  gamma  or
       lgamma.   Note  also  that  `signgam(RPAR'  and  `signgam' are distinct

       The following functions take two floating  point  arguments:  copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The  following  take  an  integer  first  argument and a floating point
       second argument: jn, yn.

       The following take a floating  point  first  argument  and  an  integer
       second argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The  function  abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it
       returns the absolute value of either a  floating  point  number  or  an
       integer.   The  functions  float and int convert their arguments into a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary  math  evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The  function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If  the  argument is not present, the random number seed is initialised
       by three calls to the rand(3)  function  ---  this  produces  the  same
       random numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If  the  argument  is  present, it gives the name of a scalar parameter
       where the current random number seed will  be  stored.   On  the  first
       call,  the  value  must contain at least twelve hexadecimal digits (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the  same  manner as for a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent
       calls to rand48(param) will then maintain the  seed  in  the  parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The random number sequences for  different  parameters  are  completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming $seed does not exist, it will  be  initialised  by  the  first
       call.   In  the  second  call,  the  default seed is initialised; note,
       however,  that  because  of  the  properties  of  rand()  there  is   a
       correlation  between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third
       call  returns  to the same sequence of random numbers used in the first
       call, unaffected by the intervening rand48().


       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is  available,  the  RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv  file  (typically  /etc/zshenv), if any, have been executed.  If
       the module is not available it is silently ignored by  the  shell;  the
       module  may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if
       it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any  of  the  start-up  files  .zshenv,
       .zprofile,  .zshrc  or  .zlogin  exist  in  the  directory given by the
       environment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if  that  is
       not  set.  The test is not performed and the module halts processing if
       the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file  newuser  first  in  a  sitewide  directory,  usually  the  parent
       directory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the
       module searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent  of
       the  functions directory containing version-specific functions.  (These
       directories  can  be  configured  when   zsh   is   built   using   the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir   and   --enable-scriptdir=dir   flags   to
       configure,  respectively;  the  defaults   are   prefix/share/zsh   and
       prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If  the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as
       a start-up file.  The file is  expected  to  contain  code  to  install
       start-up  files  for  the  user,  however  any valid shell code will be

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible to achieve exactly  the  same  effect  as  the
       zsh/newuser  module  by  adding code to /etc/zshenv.  The module exists
       simply to allow the shell to make arrangements for  new  users  without
       the   need   for   intervention   by  package  maintainers  and  system

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.   This may be invoked directly by the user even if
       the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the  module
       is  not  installed  the  function  will  not  be installed either.  The
       function is documented in the section User Configuration  Functions  in


       The  zsh/parameter  module  gives  access  to some of the internal hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that  can  be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and unsetopt
              builtins. The value of each key is either the string on  if  the
              option  is  currently  set,  or  the string off if the option is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting  the  option,  respectively.  Unsetting  a key in this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys  are
              the  names of external commands, the values are the pathnames of
              the files that would be  executed  when  the  command  would  be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a  key
              as  in  `unset  "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given
              key from the command hash table.

              This associative array maps names of enabled functions to  their
              definitions.  Setting  a  key  in it is like defining a function
              with the name given by the key and the body given by the  value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This associative  array  gives  information  about  the  builtin
              commands  currently  enabled.  The  keys  are  the  names of the
              builtin commands and  the  values  are  either  `undefined'  for
              builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module
              if invoked or `defined' for builtin commands  that  are  already

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This  maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The keys  in  this  associative  array  are  the  names  of  the
              parameters  currently defined. The values are strings describing
              the type of the parameter, in the same  format  used  by  the  t
              parameter  flag,  see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in
              this array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The  keys
              are   the   names  of  the  modules  loaded,  registered  to  be
              autoloaded, or aliased. The value says  which  state  the  named
              module  is  in and is one of the strings `loaded', `autoloaded',
              or `alias:name', where name is the name the  module  is  aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that the output of the dirs builtin command  includes  one  more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This  associative  array  maps history event numbers to the full
              history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This associative array maps job numbers to the directories  from
              which  the  job  was  started  (which  may  not  be  the current
              directory of the job).

              The keys  of  the  associative  arrays  are  usually  valid  job
              numbers,  and  these  are  the  values output with, for example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job  references  may  be  used  when
              looking  up  a  value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]} refers to the
              current job.

              This associative array maps job numbers  to  the  texts  of  the
              command lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling  of  the  keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs  currently  known.  The  keys  are  the job numbers and the
              values are strings of  the  form  `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.
              The job-state gives the state the whole job is currently in, one
              of `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is  `+'  for  the
              current  job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This
              is followed by one `pid=state' for every process in the job. The
              pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
              state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array  is  as  described
              for jobdirs above.

              This  associative  array  maps the names of named directories to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This  associative array maps names of system groups of which the
              current user is a member to the corresponding group identifiers.
              The  contents  are  the  same  as  the  groups  output by the id

              This array contains the absolute line numbers and  corresponding
              file  names  for  the  point where the current function, sourced
              file, or (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was  called.   The
              array  is  of  the same length as funcsourcetrace and functrace,
              but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and  file  are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This  array  contains  the  file  names  and line numbers of the
              points where the functions, sourced files, and  (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval  commands  currently being executed were defined.
              The line number is the line where the `function name'  or  `name
              ()'  started.   In  the case of an autoloaded function  the line
              number is reported as zero.   The  format  of  each  element  is
              filename:lineno.  For functions autoloaded from a file in native
              zsh format, where only the body of the function  occurs  in  the
              file,  or for files that have been executed by the source or `.'
              builtins, the trace information is shown  as  filename:0,  since
              the entire file is the definition.

              Most  users  will  be  interested  in  the  information  in  the
              funcfiletrace array instead.

              This array contains the names of the functions,  sourced  files,
              and  (if  EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval  commands. currently being
              executed. The first element is the name of  the  function  using
              the parameter.

              This  array  contains  the names and line numbers of the callers
              corresponding to the functions currently  being  executed.   The
              format  of  each element is name:lineno.  Callers are also shown
              for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source  or
              `.' command was executed.


       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile a case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m  will  compile  a
              multi-line  pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines within
              the pattern.   Option  -x  will  compile  an  extended  pattern,
              wherein  whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies  the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches  the  previously-compiled

              Upon  successful  match,  if  the expression captures substrings
              within parentheses, pcre_match will  set  the  array  $match  to
              those  substrings,  unless the -a option is given, in which case
              it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable  MATCH  will
              be  set  to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the
              -v option is given, in which case the variable var will be  set.
              No  variables are altered if there is no successful match.  A -n
              option starts  searching  for  a  match  from  the  byte  offset
              position  in  string.   If  the -b option is given, the variable
              ZPCRE_OP will be set to an offset pair string, representing  the
              byte  offset  positions of the entire matched portion within the
              string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45"  indicates  that
              the  matched  portion  began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte
              offset 44.  Here,  byte  offset  position  45  is  the  position
              directly  after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the byte
              position isn't necessarily the same as  the  character  position
              when  UTF-8  characters  are  involved.   Consequently, the byte
              offset positions are only to be relied  on  in  the  context  of
              using  them  for  subsequent searches on string, using an offset
              position as an argument to the -n option.  This is  mostly  used
              to    implement   the   "find   all   non-overlapping   matches"

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text  variable  contains
              only "d's".


       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches  a  string  against a POSIX extended regular expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be  placed  in  the  MATCH variable.  If there are any capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain  those.   If  the  match  is  not  successful,  then the
              variables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically  load  this  module  as needed and will invoke the
              -regex-match operator.

              If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be  set
              instead of MATCH and match.


       The  zsh/sched  module  makes  available  one  builtin  command and one

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time  may  be specified in either absolute or relative time, and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon,   or  seconds  alone.   An  absolute  number  of  seconds
              indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00);  this  is
              useful  in  combination  with  the  features in the zsh/datetime
              module, see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of  scheduled  commands.   If
              the  scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The  numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in time
              order, so the numbering can change when  entries  are  added  or

              Commands  are  executed  either  immediately before a prompt, or
              while the shell's line editor is  waiting  for  input.   In  the
              latter  case it is useful to be able to produce output that does
              not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the  option
              -o  causes  the shell to clear the command line before the event
              and  redraw  it  afterwards.   This  should  be  used  with  any
              scheduled event that produces visible output to the terminal; it
              is not needed, for example, with output that updates a  terminal
              emulator's title bar.

              The  sched  builtin  is  not  made available by default when the
              shell starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be  made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A  readonly  array  corresponding to the events scheduled by the
              sched builtin.  The indices  of  the  array  correspond  to  the
              numbers shown when sched is run with no arguments (provided that
              the KSH_ARRAYS option is not  set).   The  value  of  the  array
              consists  of  the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch (see
              the section `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities  for  using
              this  number),  followed  by  a  colon,  followed by any options
              (which may be empty but will be preceded by  a  `-'  otherwise),
              followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The  sched  builtin  should be used for manipulating the events.
              Note that this will have an immediate effect on the contents  of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.


       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new  Unix  domain  connection  to  filename.   The  shell
              parameter  REPLY  will  be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that connection.  Currently, only  stream  connections  are

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The  shell
              parameter  REPLY  will  be set to the file descriptor associated
              with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket  -a  will  accept  an  incoming connection to the socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is  specified,  zsocket  will  return  if  no   incoming
              connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.


       The  zsh/stat  module  makes  available  one  builtin command under two
       possible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt  ]  [
       +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The  command  acts  as  a front end to the stat system call (see
              stat(2)).  The same command is provided with two names;  as  the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that only the zstat form of the command is used.   This  can  be
              arranged  by  loading  the  module with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If the stat call fails, the  appropriate  system  error  message
              printed  and  status  1  is returned.  The fields of struct stat
              give information about the files provided as  arguments  to  the
              command.   In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file  on  this  device  (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.  With the -s option, this will  be  returned
                     as  a  string  corresponding  to  the first column in the
                     display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the  owner  of  the  file.   With  the  -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The  group  ID  of the file.  With the -s option, this is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful  for  special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The  last  access, modification and inode change times of
                     the file, respectively, as the number  of  seconds  since
                     midnight  GMT  on 1st January, 1970.  With the -s option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If  the  file  is  a link and the -L option is in effect,
                     this contains the name of the file linked  to,  otherwise
                     it  is  empty.   Note  that  if  this element is selected
                     (``zstat +link'') then the  -L  option  is  automatically

              A  particular  element  may  be  selected  by including its name
              preceded by a `+' in  the  option  list;  only  one  element  is
              allowed.   The  element  may  be  shortened to any unique set of
              leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be  shown  for
              all files.


              -A array
                     Instead  of  displaying  the  results on standard output,
                     assign them to an array,  one  struct  stat  element  per
                     array  element  for  each  file  in  order.  In this case
                     neither the name of the element nor the name of the files
                     appears  in array unless the -t or -n options were given,
                     respectively.  If -t is given, the element  name  appears
                     as  a  prefix  to the appropriate array element; if -n is
                     given, the file name appears as a separate array  element
                     preceding  all  the others.  Other formatting options are

              -H hash
                     Similar to -A, but instead assign  the  values  to  hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is provided then the name of the file is included in  the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use  the  file  on  file  descriptor  fd instead of named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime  (see  strftime(3))  string  for  the
                     formatting  of  the  time  elements.   The  -s  option is

              -g     Show the time elements in the  GMT  time  zone.   The  -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List  the  names of the type elements (to standard output
                     or an  array  as  appropriate)  and  return  immediately;
                     options other than -A and arguments are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.  In this case, if the file is a  link,  information
                     about  the  link  itself  rather  than the target file is
                     returned.  This option  is  required  to  make  the  link
                     element  useful.  It's important to note that this is the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these  are  only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more  useful  for  human  consumption than the default of
                     decimal.  A leading zero will be printed  in  this  case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and  -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the -s format); the string data appears  in  parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print  mode,  uid,  gid  and  the  three time elements as
                     strings instead of numbers.  In each case the  format  is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always  show  the  type  names for the elements of struct
                     stat.  Usually these are only shown  when  output  is  to
                     standard  output  and  no  individual  element  has  been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.


       The zsh/system module makes  available  various  builtin  commands  and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may  be  used.   The set of names is the same as the contents of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed  in  front  of  the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0  indicates  the  message  was  successfully
              printed  (although  it may not be useful if the error number was
              out of the system's range), a return status of  1  indicates  an
              error  in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform a single system read from file descriptor infd, or  zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The  maximum  number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is
              not given, however the command returns as soon as any number  of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If  timeout  is  given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll  system call if available, otherwise the select system call
              if available.

              If outfd is given, an attempt is made to  write  all  the  bytes
              just  read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails, because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error  during  an  interrupt, the bytes read but not written are
              stored in the parameter named by param if supplied  (no  default
              is  used  in  this  case),  and the number of bytes read but not
              written is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that  is
              supplied.   If  it  was  successful,  countvar contains the full
              number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled  internally
              so  that  shell  interrupts  are transparent to the caller.  Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At least one byte of data was successfully read  and,  if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There  was  an  error  in  the parameters to the command.
                     This is the only error for which a message is printed  to
                     standard error.

              2      There  was  an error on the read, or on polling the input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data  were  successfully  read,  but  there  was an error
                     writing them to outfd.  The  parameter  ERRNO  gives  the

              4      The  attempt  to  read timed out.  Note this does not set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually  indicates  end  of file.  The parameters are set
                     according to the  usual  rules;  no  write  to  outfd  is

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The  data  (a  single  string  of bytes) are written to the file
              descriptor outfd, or 1 if that is not  given,  using  the  write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If countvar is given, the number of byte written  is  stored  in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled  internally
              by  retrying;  otherwise  an error causes the command to return.
              For example, if the  file  descriptor  is  set  to  non-blocking
              output,  an  error  EAGAIN  (on  some  systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may
              result in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an  error  in  the
              parameters  to  the  command, or 2 for an error on the write; no
              error message is printed in the last  case,  but  the  parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand flock performs advisory file
              locking (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire  contents
              of  the given file.  This form of locking requires the processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In  the  first form the named file, which must already exist, is
              locked by opening a file descriptor to the file and  applying  a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process that created the  lock  exits;  it  is  therefore  often
              convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock
              is automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0  is
              returned if the lock succeeds, else status 1.

              In  the  second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic
              expression fd_expr  is  closed,  releasing  a  lock.   The  file
              descriptor  can be queried by using the `-f var' form during the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file  descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released if
              the file descriptor is closed by any other  means,  for  example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a safety check that the file  descriptor  is  in  use  for  file

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The option -t timeout  specifies  a  timeout  for  the  lock  in
              seconds;  currently  this  must  be  an integer.  The shell will
              attempt to lock the file once a second during this  period.   If
              the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If  the  option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is
              preserved when the shell uses  exec  to  start  a  new  process;
              otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If  the  option  -r  is  given,  the  lock  is only for reading,
              otherwise it is for reading and writing.  The file descriptor is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The  builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.   It  operates silently unless there was a syntax error (i.e.
              the wrong number of arguments), in  which  case  status  255  is
              returned.   Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand
              is known but not supported by the current operating  system,  or
              subcommand  is  not  known  (possibly  because  this is an older
              version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on  the  system.
              These  are typically macros defined in C by including the system
              header file errno.h.  The  index  of  each  name  (assuming  the
              option  KSH_ARRAYS  is  unset)  corresponds to the error number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns  the  process  ID  of  the  current  process,  even   in
              subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process ID of the main
              shell process.

       ppid   Returns the process ID of the parent  of  the  current  process,
              even  in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns the process ID
              of the parent of the main shell process.


       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to  allow  full  use  of  shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If  ztcp  is run with no options, it will output the contents of
              its session table.

              If it is run with  only  the  option  -L,  it  will  output  the
              contents of the session table in a format suitable for automatic
              parsing.  The option is ignored if given with a command to  open
              or  close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines, one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The  file  descriptor  in  use  for  the connection.  For
                     normal inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this  may
                     be  read  and  written  by  the  usual  shell mechanisms.
                     However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection  created  with  `ztcp  host

              The local host
                     This  is  usually  set  to  an all-zero IP address as the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the  connection  is  for

              The remote host
                     This  is  the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if
                     available, else an IP address.   It  is  an  all-zero  IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open  a  new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it
              will default to port 23.  The connection will be  added  to  the
              session  table  and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp  -l  will  open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will  be  set  to  the  file  descriptor  associated  with  that

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp   -a  will  accept  an  incoming  connection  to  the  port
              associated with listenfd.  The connection will be added  to  the
              session  table  and the shell parameter REPLY will be set to the
              file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If  -t  is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with  fd.   The  socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two  instances  of  zsh.
       We  need  to  pick  an unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second  from  last  command  blocks  until  there  is  an  incoming

       Now  create  a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor  for  talking  to  the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd


       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output  the  termcap  value corresponding to the capability cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their


       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output  the  terminfo value corresponding to the capability cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that  maps  terminfo  capability  names  to
              their values.


       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The   zsh/zftp  module  is  a  client  for  FTP  (file  transfer
              protocol).  It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use  of
              shell   command   line   editing,  file  I/O,  and  job  control
              mechanisms.  Often, users will access  it  via  shell  functions
              providing  a more powerful interface; a set is provided with the
              zsh distribution and is described  in  zshzftpsys(1).   However,
              the zftp command is entirely usable in its own right.

              All  commands  consist  of the command name zftp followed by the
              name of a subcommand.   These  are  listed  below.   The  return
              status  of each subcommand is supposed to reflect the success or
              failure of the remote  operation.   See  a  description  of  the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from
              the server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which  may  be  the  name  of  a
              TCP/IP  connected  host  or  an  IP  number  in the standard dot
              notation.  If the argument is in  the  form  host:port,  open  a
              connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.
              This may be the name of a TCP service  or  a  number:   see  the
              description of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If  IPv6  addresses in colon format are used, the host should be
              surrounded by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from  the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining arguments are passed to the  login  subcommand.   Note
              that  if  no  arguments  beyond host are supplied, open will not
              automatically call login.  If no arguments at all are  supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After   a   successful  open,  the  shell  variables  ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT,  ZFTP_IP   and   ZFTP_SYSTEM   are   available;   see
              `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login  the  user name with parameters password and account.  Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal, a prompt for each one  will  be  printed  on  standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After  a  successful  login,  the  shell  variables   ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This  command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store the given parameters for a  later  open  command  with  no
              arguments.   Only  those  given  on  the  command  line  will be
              remembered.  If no arguments are given, the parameters currently
              set  are printed, although the password will appear as a line of
              stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set,  zero

              Any  of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may need
              to be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this  case,
              the  appropriate  parameter  will be read from stdin as with the
              login subcommand, including special handling  of  password.   If
              the  `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt for
              reading the  parameter  instead  of  the  default  message  (any
              necessary  punctuation  and whitespace should be included at the
              end of the prompt).  The first letter of  the  parameter  (only)
              may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees
              that the string from the shell parameter $word will  be  treated
              literally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If  instead  a  single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if
              any, are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no  arguments
              will cause an error.

              The  list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt  the  user  for the corresponding password with the given

       test   Test the connection; if the server  has  reported  that  it  has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if no connection was open anyway, return status 1;  else  return
              status  0.   The  test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The  test is only supported on systems with either the select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any other subcommand for the current session when  a  connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in  the  directory
              tree.   Note  that  cd  ..  will also work correctly on non-UNIX

       dir [ args... ]
              Give a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args  are
              passed  directly  to  the  server.  The  command's  behaviour is
              implementation dependent,  but  a  UNIX  server  will  typically
              interpret  args  as  arguments  to  the  ls  command and with no
              arguments return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is  listed
              to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give  a  (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise,  up to vagaries of the server implementation, behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print  the  current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that  the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it will
              automatically switch to using binary  for  file  transfers  upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The  transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a data
              connection is established;  this  command  involves  no  network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set  the  mode  type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.   If there is more than one item on the list, the name of
              the file is printed first.  The first number is the  file  size,
              the  second  is  the  last  modification time of the file in the
              format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of  year,  month,  date,  hour,
              minutes  and  seconds  in GMT.  Note that this format, including
              the length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be  directly
              compared  via  the  [[ builtin's < and > operators, even if they
              are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not  all  servers  support  the  commands  for  retrieving  this
              information.   In  that  case,  the  remote  command  will print
              nothing and return status 2, compared with status 1 for  a  file
              not found.

              The  local  command  (but  not  remote)  may  be  used  with  no
              arguments, in which case the information  comes  from  examining
              file  descriptor  zero.   This is the same file as seen by a put
              command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files  from  the  server,  concatenating  them  and
              sending them to standard output.

       put file [...]
              For  each file, read a file from standard input and send that to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is  appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the given  point  in  the  remote  file.   This  is  useful  for
              appending  to an incomplete local file.  However, note that this
              ability is not universally supported  by  servers  (and  is  not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send  a  host-specific command to the server.  You will probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should  be
              familiar  with  the  FTP command set as defined in RFC959 before
              doing this.  Useful commands may include STAT  and  HELP.   Note
              also  the  mechanism for returning messages as described for the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in  particular  that  all  messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close  the  current  data  connection.   This  unsets  the shell
              parameters   ZFTP_HOST,   ZFTP_PORT,    ZFTP_IP,    ZFTP_SYSTEM,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows  multiple  FTP  sessions to be used at once.  The name of
              the session is an arbitrary string of  characters;  the  default
              session  is called `default'.  If this command is called without
              an argument, it will list all  the  current  sessions;  with  an
              argument,  it  will either switch to the existing session called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set  of
              connection-specific  shell parameters (the same set as are unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and  any  user  parameters specified with the params subcommand.
              Changing to a previous session restores those  values;  changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just been loaded.  The name of the current session is  given  by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.  If  the  current  session  is  deleted,  the  earliest
              existing  session becomes the new current session, otherwise the
              current session is not changed.  If the session being deleted is
              the  only  one,  a  new  session called `default' is created and
              becomes the current session; note that this  is  a  new  session
              even  if  the session being deleted is also called `default'. It
              is recommended that sessions not  be  deleted  while  background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The  following  shell  parameters  are used by zftp.  Currently none of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module is loaded, it will be given  the  default  value  60.   A
              value  of  zero  turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on the
              control connection it will be closed.  Use  a  larger  value  if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.   The  IP  address  of  the  current connection in dot

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote  server.   If  the
              host  was  opened  as  an  IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains that
              instead; this saves the  overhead  for  a  name  lookup,  as  IP
              numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.   The  number  of  the  remote  TCP  port to which the
              connection is open (even if the port was originally specified as
              a named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In  the  unlikely  event  that  your  system  does  not have the
              appropriate conversion functions, this appears in  network  byte
              order.   If your system is little-endian, the port then consists
              of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be  reported  as
              5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also
              need to be in this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string  returned  by  the  server  in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string  beginning  "UNIX  Type:  L8",  which   ensures   maximum
              compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.   The  type to be used for data transfers , either `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user, if  any.   Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.   The  three digit code of the last FTP reply from the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  last line of the last reply sent by the server.
              This can still be read after the connection is  closed,  and  is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  name  of  the  current  FTP  session;  see  the
              description of the session subcommand.

              A  string  of  preferences  for  altering  aspects   of   zftp's
              behaviour.    Each   preference  is  a  single  character.   The
              following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.  If the letter S occurs later in the  string,  zftp
                     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:   initiate  transfers  by the FTP PORT command.
                     If this occurs before any P in the string,  passive  mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:   use  only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This
                     prevents the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and  ZFTP_PWD  from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set  during  a
                     transfer  if  the  server  does  not send it anyway (many
                     servers do).

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set  to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive,  specifying  which
              responses  from  the server should be printed.  All responses go
              to standard error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear  in  the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with that digit will be printed to standard  error.   The  first
              digit  of  the  three  digit  reply code is defined by RFC959 to
              correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not  available',  which  forces  termination of a connection, is
              classified as 421, i.e.  `transient  negative',  an  interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The  code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last line
              of multiline replies read from the server  will  be  printed  to
              standard  error  in  a processed format.  By convention, servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The  appropriate  reply  code,  if it matches the same response,
              takes priority.

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will  be  set
              to  the  default value 450, i.e., messages destined for the user
              and all errors will be printed.  A  null  string  is  valid  and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during  a
              get,  put or append operation each time sufficient data has been
              received from the host.  During a  get,  the  data  is  sent  to
              standard  output, so it is vital that this function should write
              to standard error or directly to the terminal, not  to  standard

              When  it  is  called  with a transfer in progress, the following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete  file  being  transferred:
                     the  same  as  the first value provided by the remote and
                     local subcommands for a particular file.  If  the  server
                     cannot   supply  this  value  for  a  remote  file  being
                     retrieved, it will not be set.  If input is from  a  pipe
                     the  value  may  be  incorrect and correspond simply to a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a  number  between
                     zero  and  $ZFTP_SIZE,  if  that  is set.  This number is
                     always available.

              The  function  is  initially  called  with   ZFTP_TRANSFER   set
              appropriately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is
              finished, the  function  will  be  called  one  more  time  with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is  otherwise  never  called  twice  with  the  same  value   of

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this
       occurs in a subshell and the file information is  not  updated  in  the
       main  shell.   In  the  case  of  type  or  mode changes or closing the
       connection in a subshell, the information is returned but variables are
       not  updated  until  the  next  call  to zftp.  Other status changes in
       subshells will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should
       be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions while a zftp command is active in the background can
       have unexpected effects, even if it does  not  use  the  session  being
       deleted.   This  is because all shell subprocesses share information on
       the state of all  connections,  and  deleting  a  session  changes  the
       ordering of that information.

       On  some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after a
       fork(), so that operations in subshells, on the left  hand  side  of  a
       pipeline,  or  in  the  background are not possible, as they should be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.


       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).


       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can  be
       used  to  access  internal  information  of  the  Zsh  Line Editor (see

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry  per  widget  defined.
              The  name  of  the  widget  is  the  key  and  the  value  gives
              information about the widget. It is either the string  `builtin'
              for  builtin  widgets,  a  string  of  the  form `user:name' for
              user-defined widgets, where  name  is  the  name  of  the  shell
              function  implementing the widget, or it is a string of the form
              `completion:type:name', for completion widgets. In the last case
              type  is  the  name of the builtin widgets the completion widget
              imitates in its behavior and name  is  the  name  of  the  shell
              function implementing the completion widget.


       When  loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The
       profiling results can be obtained with the zprof builtin  command  made
       available  by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.   The  format  is  comparable  to  that of commands like

              At the top there is a summary listing all  functions  that  were
              called  at  least  once.   This  summary is sorted in decreasing
              order of the amount of time spent in each.   The  lines  contain
              the  number  of  the  function  in order, which is used in other
              parts of the list in suffixes of  the  form  `[num]',  then  the
              number  of  calls  made to the function.  The next three columns
              list the time in milliseconds spent  in  the  function  and  its
              descendants,  the  average  time  in  milliseconds  spent in the
              function and its descendants per call and the percentage of time
              spent  in  all  shell  functions  used  in this function and its
              descendants.   The  following  three  columns  give   the   same
              information,  but  counting  only the time spent in the function
              itself.  The final column shows the name of the function.

              After the summary, detailed  information  about  every  function
              that  was  invoked  is listed, sorted in decreasing order of the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called the function described,  the  function  itself,  and  the
              functions  that  were  called  from it.  The description for the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the function at the beginning  and  have  their  function  named
              indented  to  make it easier to distinguish the line showing the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The information shown in this case is almost the same as in  the
              summary,  but only refers to the call hierarchy being displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running  time lists the time spent in the described function and
              its descendants only for the times when it was called from  that
              particular  calling  function.  Likewise, for a called function,
              this columns lists the total time spent in the  called  function
              and  its  descendants only for the times when it was called from
              the function described.

              Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls  to  a
              function  also  shows  a  slash  and  then  the  total number of
              invocations made to the called function.

              As long as the zsh/zprof module is  loaded,  profiling  will  be
              done  and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With  the  -c  option,  the zprof builtin command will reset its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.


       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are  concatenated  with  spaces
              between,  then  executed  as a command, as if passed to the eval
              builtin.    The   command   runs   under   a   newly    assigned
              pseudo-terminal;   this   is   useful   for   running   commands
              non-interactively which expect an interactive environment.   The
              name  is  not  part of the command, but is used to refer to this
              command in later calls to zpty.

              With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that  input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete  commands
              previously  started,  by supplying a list of their names.  If no
              names are given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting  a  command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The  -w option can be used to send the to command name the given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If  no strings are provided, the standard input is copied to the
              pseudo-terminal; this may stop before copying the full input  if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note  that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this input
              as if it were typed, so beware when sending special  tty  driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The  -r  option  can  be  used to read the output of the command
              name.  With only a name argument, the output read is  copied  to
              the    standard   output.    Unless   the   pseudo-terminal   is
              non-blocking, copying continues  until  the  command  under  the
              pseudo-terminal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as
              is immediately available is copied.  The return status  is  zero
              if any output is copied.

              When  also  given a param argument, at most one line is read and
              stored in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line  may
              be  read  if  the  pseudo-terminal  is non-blocking.  The return
              status is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read  until  the  whole
              string  read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.
              The return status  is  zero  if  the  string  read  matches  the
              pattern, or if the command has exited but at least one character
              could still be read.  If the option -m is  present,  the  return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could  be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If  the  -r  option  is  combined with the -t option, zpty tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is  available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When used
              with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed  poll  is  similar  to
              when  the  command  has  exited:  the return value is zero if at
              least one character could still be  read  even  if  the  pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The  -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether
              the command name is still running.  It returns a zero status  if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The  last  form,  without  any  arguments,  is  used to list the
              commands currently defined.  If the -L option is given, this  is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.


       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The  zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call,
              which blocks until a file descriptor is  ready  for  reading  or
              writing,  or  has  an error condition, with an optional timeout.
              If this is not available on your system, the command  prints  an
              error  message and returns status 2 (normal errors return status
              1).  For more information, see your  systems  documentation  for
              select(3).   Note  there is no connection with the shell builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments  and  options  may  be  intermingled  in  any   order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.  By default, file descriptors are  to  be  tested  for
              reading,  i.e.  zselect will return when data is available to be
              read from the file descriptor, or more precisely,  when  a  read
              operation  from the file descriptor will not block.  After a -r,
              -w and -e, the given file  descriptors  are  to  be  tested  for
              reading,  writing,  or  error  conditions.  These options and an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation  for  many  implementations  of  the select system
              call.  According to recent versions of the POSIX  specification,
              it  is really an exception condition, of which the only standard
              example is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh  users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The  option  `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a
              second.  This may be zero, in which case  the  file  descriptors
              will  simply  be polled and zselect will return immediately.  It
              is possible to call zselect  with  no  file  descriptors  and  a
              non-zero  timeout  for  use  as  a finer-grained replacement for
              `sleep'; note, however, the return status  is  always  1  for  a

              The  option  `-a  array'  indicates  that array should be set to
              indicate the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the  option
              is  not  given,  the  array reply will be used for this purpose.
              The array will contain a string similar  to  the  arguments  for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0 -w 1' to show that both file descriptors  are  ready  for  the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should be set to  indicate  the  file  descriptor(s(  which  are
              ready.   This  option overrides the option -a, nor will reply be
              modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors,  and  the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are  ready
              for  reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0 was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it  returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor modified
              in any way).  If there was an error in the select operation  the
              appropriate error message is printed.


       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This  builtin  command  is  used  to  define  and lookup styles.
              Styles are pairs of names and values, where the  values  consist
              of  any  number  of  strings.   They  are  stored  together with
              patterns and lookup is done  by  giving  a  string,  called  the
              `context',  which  is  compared to the patterns.  The definition
              stored for the first matching pattern will be returned.

              For ordering of comparisons, patterns  are  searched  from  most
              specific  to  least  specific,  and  patterns  that  are equally
              specific keep the order in which they were defined.   A  pattern
              is  considered  to  be more specific than another if it contains
              more components (substrings  separated  by  colons)  or  if  the
              patterns  for  the  components  are  more specific, where simple
              strings are considered to be more  specific  than  patterns  and
              complex  patterns  are  considered  to be more specific than the
              pattern `*'.

              The  first  form  (without  arguments)  lists  the  definitions.
              Styles  are  shown in alphabetic order and patterns are shown in
              the order zstyle will test them.

              If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of  calls
              to  zstyle.  The optional first argument is a pattern which will
              be matched against the string supplied as the  pattern  for  the
              context;   note   that  this  means,  for  example,  `zstyle  -L
              ":completion:*"'  will  match  any  supplied  pattern  beginning
              `:completion:',  not just ":completion:*":  use ":completion:\*"
              to match that.  The optional second argument limits  the  output
              to  a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not compatible with
              any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the  strings
                     as  the  value.   If  the -e option is given, the strings
                     will  be  concatenated  (separated  by  spaces)  and  the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is done by the eval builtin command) when  the  style  is
                     looked  up.   In  this case the parameter `reply' must be
                     assigned  to  set  the   strings   returned   after   the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset,
                     and if it is still unset after the evaluation, the  style
                     is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete   style   definitions.   Without   arguments   all
                     definitions are deleted, with a pattern  all  definitions
                     for that pattern are deleted and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of  an array in which the results are stored. Without any
                     further arguments, all  patterns  defined  are  returned.
                     With  a  pattern  the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the  value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The  parameter  name  is  set  to  the value of the style
                     interpreted as a string.  If the value  contains  several
                     strings  they  are  concatenated with spaces (or with the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The value is stored in name as a  boolean,  i.e.  as  the
                     string  `yes'  if  the value has only one string and that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the  value  is  any  other  string  or  has more than one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in name  as  an  array.  If  name  is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings are used as the keys and the  other  strings  are
                     used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test  the  value  of  a  style,  i.e.  the -t option only
                     returns a status (sets  $?).   Without  any  strings  the
                     return  status  is  zero  if  the style is defined for at
                     least one matching pattern, has only one  string  in  its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'. If any strings are given the status is zero  if  and
                     only  if at least one of the strings is equal to at least
                     one of the strings in the value. If the style is  defined
                     but  doesn't  match, the return status is 1. If the style
                     is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t,  but
                     it  returns  status  zero (rather than 2) if the style is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This  builtin  provides  two  different forms of formatting. The
              first form is selected with the -f  option.  In  this  case  the
              format  string  will be modified by replacing sequences starting
              with a percent sign in it with strings  from  the  specs.   Each
              spec  should be of the form `char:string' which will cause every
              appearance of the sequence `%char' in format to be  replaced  by
              the  string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional minimum
              and maximum field width specifications between the `%'  and  the
              `char'  in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded  by  a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width makes the
              result be padded with spaces to  the  right  if  the  string  is
              shorter  than  the  requested width.  Padding to the left can be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field  width  is  specified,  the string will be truncated after
              that many characters.  After all `%'  sequences  for  the  given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions  in  the  form
              used  by  prompts.   The  %  is  followed  by  a `(' and then an
              ordinary format specifier character as described  above.   There
              may  be  a  set  of digits either before or after the `('; these
              specify a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative numbers
              are  also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows the
              format specifier, which is followed by a piece of  `true'  text,
              the  delimiter  character  again, a piece of `false' text, and a
              closing  parenthesis.   The  complete  expression  (without  the
              digits)  thus looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.'
              character  is  arbitrary.   The  value  given  for  the   format
              specifier  in  the  char:string  expressions  is  evaluated as a
              mathematical expression, and compared with the test number.   If
              they  are  the  same,  text1 is output, else text2 is output.  A
              parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of  text1  or
              text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs  "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The  second  form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning
              strings.  Here, the specs are of  the  form  `left:right'  where
              `left'  and  `right'  are  arbitrary strings.  These strings are
              modified by replacing the colons by the sep string  and  padding
              the  left  strings  with  spaces  to  the  right so that the sep
              strings in the result (and hence the right strings  after  them)
              are  all  aligned  if  the strings are printed below each other.
              All strings without a colon are left unchanged and  all  strings
              with  an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.  In
              both cases the lengths of the strings are not used to  determine
              how  the other strings are to be aligned.  The resulting strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This builtin simplifies the parsing  of  options  in  positional
              parameters,  i.e.  the  set of arguments given by $*.  Each spec
              describes one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.   If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional  `=array'  is  given,  it  is  instead copied into that

              Note that it is an error to give any spec  without  an  `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The  opt  description  must be one of the following.  Any of the
              special characters can appear in the option name provided it  is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The  name  is  the name of the option without the leading
                     `-'.  To specify a GNU-style  long  option,  one  of  the
                     usual  two  leading  `-'  must  be  included in name; for
                     example, a `--file' option is represented by  a  name  of

                     If  a  `+'  appears after name, the option is appended to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If one of these  forms  is  used,  the  option  takes  no
                     argument,   so  parsing  stops  if  the  next  positional
                     parameter does not also begin with  `-'  (unless  the  -E
                     option is used).

              name:: If  one  or  two  colons  are  given, the option takes an
                     argument; with one colon, the argument is  mandatory  and
                     with two colons it is optional.  The argument is appended
                     to the array after the option itself.

                     An optional argument is put into the same  array  element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments indistinguishable).  A  mandatory  argument  is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name  and
                     the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As  described  above,  this  names the default array in which to
              store the recognised options.

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also put into
              an  associative  array  with  the  option  names as keys and the
              arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If this option is given, all options found are removed from  the
              positional parameters of the calling shell or shell function, up
              to but not including any not described by the  specs.   This  is
              similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With  this  option,  the  arrays  specified  with  the -a and -A
              options and with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
              of  the  specs  for  them  is  used.   This allows assignment of
              default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This changes the assignment  rules  to  implement  a  map  among
              equivalent  option  names.   If any spec uses the `=array' form,
              the string array is interpreted as the  name  of  another  spec,
              which  is used to choose where to store the values.  If no other
              spec is found, the values are stored  as  usual.   This  changes
              only the way the values are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so
              results may be unpredicable if the  `name+'  specifier  is  used

       -E     This  changes  the parsing rules to not stop at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  It  can  be  used  to
              test for or (if used together with -D) extract options and their
              arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that may  be
              in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e.,  the  option  -b  and its arguments are taken from the positional
       parameters and put into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

              bar=(-a '' -b xyz)