Provided by: zsh_4.3.17-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


       Some  optional  parts of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of the shell.  Each of
       these modules may be linked in to the shell at build time, or can  be  dynamically  linked
       while  the shell is running if the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked
       at runtime with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function  based  completion

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical evaluations.

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution facility within the shell.

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration via styles.


       The  zsh/attr  module  is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The -h option causes
       all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of their targets.  The builtins in  this
       module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended attribute attribute from the specified filename. If the optional
              argument parameter is given, the attribute is set  on  that  parameter  instead  of
              being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set the extended attribute attribute on the specified filename to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename.

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set  on  the specified filename. If the
              optional argument parameter is given,  the  list  of  attributes  is  set  on  that
              parameter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zgetattr  and  zlistattr  allocate  memory  dynamically.   If  the  attribute  or  list of
       attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get them, they return 2.   On  all
       other  errors, 1 is returned.  This allows the calling function to check for this case and


       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability  sets.   If  the
       operating system does not support this interface, the builtins defined by this module will
       do nothing.  The builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process capability sets to the specified capabilities, otherwise
              display the shell's current capabilities.

       getcap filename ...
              This  is  a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.  It displays the
              capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the  POSIX  standard  utility.   It  sets  the
              capability sets on each specified filename to the specified capabilities.


       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the specified tty.  In
              the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY special parameters are changed  appropriately.
              $!  is  set  to  zero  in the new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original

              The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if successful, and non-zero
              on error.

              The target of clone should be an unused terminal, such as an unused virtual console
              or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty; while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

              Some words of explanation are warranted about this long xterm  command  line:  when
              doing  clone  on  a  pseudo-terminal, some other session ("session" meant as a unix
              session group, or SID) is already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh  cannot
              acquire the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the job control signals will go to the sh-started-by-xterm process
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with trap; otherwise
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not work.

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning  to  a  used (and unprepared) terminal will result in two processes reading
              simultaneously from the same terminal, with input bytes going  randomly  to  either

              clone is mostly useful as a shell built-in replacement for openvt.


       The  zsh/compctl  module  makes  available  two  builtin  commands.  compctl,  is the old,
       deprecated way to control completions for ZLE.   See  zshcompctl(1).   The  other  builtin
       command, compcall can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The  zsh/complete  module  makes  available  several builtin commands which can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion  listings:  the  ability  to
       highlight matches in such a list, the ability to scroll through long lists and a different
       style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or  ZLS_COLOURS  is  set  and  the  zsh/complist
       module  is  loaded  or  linked  into  the  shell, completion lists will be colored.  Note,
       however, that complist will not automatically be loaded  if  it  is  not  linked  in:   on
       systems with dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS describe how matches are highlighted.  To turn
       on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which case all the default values given  below
       will  be used.  The format of the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU
       version of  the  ls  command:  a  colon-separated  list  of  specifications  of  the  form
       `name=value'.   The  name  may be one of the following strings, most of which specify file
       types for which the value will be used.  The strings and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying something other than a matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the  special  value  target,  symbolic  links  are
              dereferenced and the target file used to determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined for ln)

       mi none
              for  a  non-existent  file  (default  is  the  value  defined for fi); this code is
              currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for files with an associated suffix alias;  this  is  only  tested  after  specific
              suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for  the  character  indicating  the  file  type   printed  after  filenames if the
              LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart from these strings, the name may also be an asterisk (`*') followed by  any  string.
       The  value  given  for  such  a string will be used for all files whose name ends with the
       string.  The  name  may  also  be  an  equals  sign  (`=')  followed  by  a  pattern;  the
       EXTENDED_GLOB option will be turned on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for
       this pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose  display  string  are
       matched  by  the  pattern.   Definitions  for  the  form  with the leading equal sign take
       precedence over the values defined for file types, which in turn take precedence over  the
       form with the leading asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts of the displayed strings to be colored
       differently.  For this, the pattern has to use the  `(#b)'  globbing  flag  and  pairs  of
       parentheses  surrounding  the parts of the strings that are to be colored differently.  In
       this case the value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.  The
       first  code  will  be  used  for all parts for which no explicit code is specified and the
       following codes will be used for the parts matched by  the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.
       For example, the specification `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which are
       at least two characters long and will use the code `3' for the first  character,  `7'  for
       the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All  three  forms  of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.  If this is given,
       the value will be used only for matches in groups whose names are matched by  the  pattern
       given  in the parentheses.  For example, `(g*)m*=43' highlights all matches beginning with
       `m' in groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In case of the `lc',
       `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note  also  that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear in the parameter
       value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the value for the file-type or the
       last  matching  specification  with  a `*', the value of rc, the string to display for the
       match itself, and then the value of ec if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and  rc
       if ec is not defined.

       The  default  values  are  ISO  6429  (ANSI) compliant and can be used on vt100 compatible
       terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the default values will have no visible
       effect.   The  colors function from the contribution can be used to get associative arrays
       containing  the  codes  for  ANSI  terminals  (see  the  section  `Other   Functions'   in
       zshcontrib(1)).   For  example,  after loading colors, one could use `$colors[red]' to get
       the code for foreground color red and `$colors[bg-green]'  for  the  code  for  background
       color green.

       If  the  completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters should not be set
       directly because the system controls them itself.  Instead, the list-colors  style  should
       be used (see the section `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To  enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter must be set.  Its
       value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty string,  a  default  prompt  will  be
       used.   The  value  may  contain  escapes of the form `%x'.  It supports the escapes `%B',
       `%b', `%S', `%s', `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and  `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L' is replaced by the
       number of the last line shown and the total number of lines in the form `number/total';  a
       `%m'  or  `%M' is replaced with the number of the last match shown and the total number of
       matches; and `%p' or `%P' is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position  of  the  first
       line  shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.  In each of these cases
       the form with the uppercase letter will be replaced with a string of fixed  width,  padded
       to the right with spaces, while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if the list should be
       shown.  Instead it immediately starts  displaying  the  list,  stopping  after  the  first
       screenful,  showing  the  prompt  at  the bottom, waiting for a keypress after temporarily
       switching to the listscroll keymap.  Some of the zle  functions  have  a  special  meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every  other  character stops listing and immediately processes the key as usual.  Any key
       that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is looked  up
       in the keymap currently selected.

       As  for  the  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not be set directly
       when using the shell function based completion system.   Instead,  the  list-prompt  style
       should be used.

   Menu selection
       The zsh/complist module also offers an alternative style of selecting matches from a list,
       called menu selection, which can be used if the shell is set up  to  return  to  the  last
       prompt   after   showing   a   completion  list  (see  the  ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT  option  in

       Menu selection can be invoked directly by the widget menu-select defined by  this  module.
       This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be bound to a key in the usual way as described in

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which gives the  minimum
       number  of  matches that must be present before menu selection is automatically turned on.
       This second method requires that menu completion be started, either directly from a widget
       such  as menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU being set.
       If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection will always be  started  during
       an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the MENUSELECT parameter should
       not be used (like the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters  described  above).   Instead,
       the menu style should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection  is  started, the matches will be listed. If there are more matches
       than fit on the screen, only the first screenful is shown.  The matches to insert into the
       command  line  can be selected from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using
       the value for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value for this
       is  `7'  which  forces  the  selected  match  to  be  highlighted using standout mode on a
       vt100-compatible terminal.  If  neither  ZLS_COLORS  nor  ZLS_COLOURS  is  set,  the  same
       terminal control sequence as for the `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there are more matches than fit on the screen and the parameter MENUPROMPT is set, its
       value will be shown  below  the  matches.   It  supports  the  same  escape  sequences  as
       LISTPROMPT,  but  the  number of the match or line shown will be that of the one where the
       mark is placed.  If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The MENUSCROLL parameter can be used  to  specify  how  the  list  is  scrolled.   If  the
       parameter  is  unset, this is done line by line, if it is set to `0' (zero), the list will
       scroll half the number of lines of the screen.  If the value is  positive,  it  gives  the
       number  of  lines to scroll and if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS  and  LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither  MENUPROMPT  nor
       MENUSCROLL  should  be set directly when using the shell function based completion system.
       Instead, the select-prompt and select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in the  list.   These
       hidden  matches  are  either  matches  for  which the completion function which added them
       explicitly requested that they not appear in the list (using the -n option of the  compadd
       builtin command) or they are matches which duplicate a string already in the list (because
       they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that are not displayed).  In the list
       used  for  menu selection, however, even these matches are shown so that it is possible to
       select them.  To highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the  ZLS_COLORS  and
       ZLS_COLOURS  parameters  are  supported  for  hidden matches of the first and second kind,

       Selecting matches is done by moving the mark around  using  the  zle  movement  functions.
       When  not all matches can be shown on the screen at the same time, the list will scroll up
       and down when crossing the top or bottom line.  The following zle functions  have  special
       meaning  during  menu  selection.   Note  that  the following always perform the same task
       within the menu selection map and cannot be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can  the
       set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match  and leave menu selection (but do not cause the command
              line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of the command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept the currently inserted match and continue selection allowing to  select  the
              next match to insert into the line

              accepts  the current match and then tries completion with menu selection again;  in
              the case of files this allows one to select a directory and immediately attempt  to
              complete  files in it;  if there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use
              undo to go back to completion on the previous level, every other  key  leaves  menu
              selection  (including  the  other  zle functions which are otherwise special during
              menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of  the  three  functions

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this  toggles  between  normal  and  interactive mode; in interactive mode the keys
              bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert into  the  command  line  as  in
              normal  editing  mode  but  without  leaving  menu  selection; after each character
              completion is tried again and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion  widgets  make the longest unambiguous string be inserted in the command
              line and undo and backward-delete-char go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches in the list  of  completions  displayed;  in  this
              mode,  accept-line  only  leaves  incremental search, going back to the normal menu
              selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function not listed  leaves
       menu  selection  and  executes that function.  It is possible to make widgets in the above
       list do the same by using the form of the widget with a `.' in front.   For  example,  the
       widget  `.accept-line'  has  the effect of leaving menu selection and accepting the entire
       command line.

       During this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key that is not  defined
       in  this  keymap  or  that  is bound to undefined-key is looked up in the keymap currently
       selected.  This is used to ensure that the  most  important  keys  used  during  selection
       (namely  the  cursor  keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can  be  modified  directly  using  the  bindkey  builtin  command  (see
       zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave menu selection without accepting
       the match currently selected one could call

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.


       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin  commands  that  are  used  by  some  of  the
       completion  functions in the completion system based on shell functions (see zshcompsys(1)
       ).  Except for compquote these builtin commands are very specialised  and  thus  not  very
       interesting  when  writing  your  own  completion  functions.   In  summary, these builtin
       commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments  function  to  do  the  argument  and  command  line
              parsing.   Like  compdescribe  it has an option -i to do the parsing and initialize
              some internal state and various options to access the state information  to  decide
              what should be completed.

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for the matches and to
              get the strings to add as matches with their options.  On the first call one of the
              options  -i  or  -I  should  be supplied as the first argument.  In the first case,
              display strings without the descriptions will be generated, in the second case, the
              string  used  to  separate the matches from their descriptions must be given as the
              second argument and the descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All  other  arguments
              are like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once  compdescribe  has  been called with either the -i or the -I option, it can be
              repeatedly called with the -g option and the names of five arrays as its arguments.
              This  will  step through the different sets of matches and store the options in the
              first array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the matches for these  in
              the third, the strings without descriptions in the fourth, and the matches for them
              in the fifth array.  These are then directly  given  to  compadd  to  register  the
              matches with the completion code.

              Used  by the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive filename generation
              (globbing).  It does three things.  With the -p and -P options it builds  the  glob
              patterns  to  use,  including  the paths already handled and trying to optimize the
              patterns with respect to the  prefix  and  suffix  from  the  line  and  the  match
              specification  currently  used.   The  -i  option  does the directory tests for the
              ignore-parents style and the -r option tests if a component for some of the matches
              are equal to the string on the line and removes all other matches if that is true.

              Used  by  the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the group-order style.
              This only takes its arguments as names of completion groups and creates the  groups
              for  it (all six types: sorted and unsorted, both without removing duplicates, with
              removing all duplicates and with removing consecutive duplicates).

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have  to  add  the  matches
              using  the  -Q  option  to  compadd  and  perform  quoting  themselves.  Instead of
              interpreting the first character of the all_quotes key  of  the  compstate  special
              association and using the q flag for parameter expansions, one can use this builtin
              command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array parameters and the  values
              of  these  parameters are quoted as needed for the innermost quoting level.  If the
              -p option is given, quoting is done as if there is some prefix before the values of
              the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero otherwise.

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.


       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command and various parameters.

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate  curses  windows.   All  uses  of  this  command  should be bracketed by
              `zcurses init' to initialise use of curses, and `zcurses end' to end  it;  omitting
              `zcurses end' can cause the terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The  subcommand  addwin  creates a window with nlines lines and ncols columns.  Its
              upper left corner will be placed at row begin_y and column begin_x of  the  screen.
              targetwin  is  a  string  and  refers to the name of a window that is not currently
              assigned.  Note in particular the curses convention  that  vertical  values  appear
              before horizontal values.

              If  addwin  is  given  an  existing window as the final argument, the new window is
              created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs from an ordinary new  window  in
              that  the  memory  of  the  window  contents  is  shared  with the parent's memory.
              Subwindows must be deleted before their  parent.   Note  that  the  coordinates  of
              subwindows are relative to the screen, not the parent, as with other windows.

              Use  the  subcommand  delwin to delete a window created with addwin.  Note that end
              does not implicitly delete windows, and that delwin does not erase the screen image
              of the window.

              The  window  corresponding  to  the full visible screen is called stdscr; it always
              exists after `zcurses init' and cannot be delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window targetwin; this is necessary to make any
              pending changes (such as characters you have prepared for output with char) visible
              on the screen.  refresh without an argument causes the screen  to  be  cleared  and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen is updated once at the end.

              The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.  This is necessary
              before refreshing windows if a window that was in front of  another  window  (which
              may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position in targetwin to new coordinates new_y
              and new_x.  Note that the subcommand string (but not the subcommand char)  advances
              the cursor position over the characters added.

              The  subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and no more than one)
              of three options may be specified.  With the option redraw, in  addition  the  next
              refresh  of  targetwin will cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the
              option eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor line.   With
              the  option  bot,  targetwin is cleared to the end of the window, i.e everything to
              the right and below the cursor is cleared.

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with targetwin into the
              array named array.  These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and strings are achieved by char and string respectively.

              To  draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that the border is not
              subsequently handled specially:  in other words, the border  is  simply  a  set  of
              characters  output  at  the  edge  of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can
              scroll off the window, etc.

              The subcommand attr will set targetwin's attributes or foreground/background  color
              pair  for any successive character output.  Each attribute given on the line may be
              prepended by a + to set or a - to unset that attribute; +  is  assumed  if  absent.
              The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse, standout, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col') sets the foreground
              and background  color  for  character  output.   The  color  default  is  sometimes
              available  (in  particular if the library is ncurses), specifying the foreground or
              background color with which the terminal started.  The color  pair  default/default
              is always available.

              bg  overrides  the color and other attributes of all characters in the window.  Its
              usual use is to set the background initially, but it will overwrite the  attributes
              of  any  characters  at  the  time when it is called.  In addition to the arguments
              allowed with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to be shown in otherwise
              blank  areas  of  the  window.   Owing  to  limitations  of curses this cannot be a
              multibyte character  (use  of  ASCII  characters  only  is  recommended).   As  the
              specified  set  of  attributes override the existing background, turning attributes
              off in the arguments is not useful, though this does not cause an error.

              The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or disable scrolling of
              a  window  when  the  cursor would otherwise move below the window due to typing or
              output.  It can also be used with a positive or  negative  integer  to  scroll  the
              window  up  or  down  the given number of lines without changing the current cursor
              position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite direction relative to the
              window).   In  the  second case, if scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to
              allow the window to be scrolled.

              The subcommand input reads a single character from the window  without  echoing  it
              back.   If param is supplied the character is assigned to the parameter param, else
              it is assigned to the parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in `keypad' mode.   In  this
              mode  special  keys such as function keys and arrow keys return the name of the key
              in the parameter kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the  curses.h  or
              ncurses.h with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the description of the parameter
              zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause a value to be set in param as before.  On
              a  successful  return  only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string; the
              other is set to an empty string.

              If mparam is also supplied, input attempts to handle mouse  input.   This  is  only
              available  with the ncurses library; mouse handling can be detected by checking for
              the exit status of `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or  double-  or  triple-clicked,  or pressed or released with a configurable delay
              from being clicked) then kparam is set to the string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an
              array consisting of the following elements:
              -      An  identifier  to discriminate different input devices; this is only rarely
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to the  full  screen,
                     as  three elements in that order (i.e. the y coordinate is, unusually, after
                     the x coordinate).  The z coordinate is only available  for  a  few  unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any  events that occurred as separate items; usually there will be just one.
                     An  event  consists  of  PRESSED,  RELEASED,  CLICKED,   DOUBLE_CLICKED   or
                     TRIPLE_CLICKED  followed  immediately (in the same element) by the number of
                     the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may be passed through to the terminal  window;  most  terminal
              emulators  handle  some  mouse  events  themselves.   Note  that the ncurses manual
              implies that using input both with and without mouse handling may cause  the  mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The  subcommand  mouse  can be used to configure the use of the mouse.  There is no
              window argument; mouse options are  global.   `zcurses  mouse'  with  no  arguments
              returns  status  0  if  mouse  handling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the
              possible arguments (which may be combined on the same command line) are as follows.
              delay  num  sets the maximum delay in milliseconds between press and release events
              to be considered as a click; the value 0 disables click resolution, and the default
              is  one  sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the default) or -
              turns on or off reporting of mouse  motion  in  addition  to  clicks,  presses  and
              releases,  which are always reported.  However, it appears reports for mouse motion
              are not currently implemented.

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value  for  input  from  targetwin.   If
              intval is negative, `zcurses input' waits indefinitely for a character to be typed;
              this is the default.  If intval is zero, `zcurses input'  returns  immediately;  if
              there  is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1 is returned.
              If intval is positive, `zcurses input' waits intval milliseconds for input  and  if
              there is none at the end of that period returns status 1.

              The subcommand querychar queries the character at the current cursor position.  The
              return values are stored in the array named param if supplied, else  in  the  array
              reply.  The first value is the character (which may be a multibyte character if the
              system supports them); the second is the color  pair  in  the  usual  fg_col/bg_col
              notation,  or  0  if  color is not supported.  Any attributes other than color that
              apply to the character, as set with  the  subcommand  attr,  appear  as  additional

              Readonly  integer.  The maximum number of colors the terminal supports.  This value
              is initialised by the curses library and is not  available  until  the  first  time
              zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  integer.   The  maximum  number  of color pairs fg_col/bg_col that may be
              defined in `zcurses attr' commands; note this limit applies to all color pairs that
              have been used whether or not they are currently active.  This value is initialised
              by the curses library and is not available until the first  time  zcurses  init  is

              Readonly  array.   The attributes supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the
              module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by  zsh/curses;  available  as  soon  as  the
              module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The values that may be returned in the second parameter supplied
              to `zcurses input' in the order in which they are  defined  internally  by  curses.
              Not all function keys are listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly  array.   The  current  list  of  windows, i.e. all windows that have been
              created with `zcurses addwin' and not removed with `zcurses delwin'.


       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format  format  to  parse  the  input  string
              timestring  and  output  the  number  of  seconds since the epoch at which the time
              occurred.  If no timezone is parsed, the current timezone is used; other parameters
              are  set  to  zero if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
              returns status 1; it will additionally print an error message unless the option  -q
              (quiet)  is  given.   If  timestring  matches  format  but  not  all  characters in
              timestring were used, the conversion succeeds; however, a warning is issued  unless
              the  option  -q  is  given.   The  matching  is  implemented by the system function
              strptime;  see  strptime(3).   This  means  that  zsh  format  extensions  are  not
              available,  however  for  reverse lookup they are not required.  If the function is
              not implemented, the command returns status 2 and (unless -q  is  given)  prints  a

              If  -s  scalar  is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in seconds if -r is
              given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available several parameters; all are readonly:

              A floating point value representing the number of seconds  since  the  epoch.   The
              notional  accuracy  is to nanoseconds if the clock_gettime call is available and to
              microseconds otherwise, but in practice the  range  of  double  precision  floating
              point and shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An integer value representing the number of seconds since the epoch.

              An  array  value  containing  the  number  of  seconds since the epoch in the first
              element and the remainder of the time since the epoch in nanoseconds in the  second
              element.   To  ensure the two elements are consistent the array should be copied or
              otherwise referenced as a single substitution before  the  values  are  used.   The
              following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do


       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read  a  character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor position up to and
              including the next (or, with repeat count n, the nth) instance of  that  character.
              Negative repeat counts mean delete backwards.

              This behaves like delete-to-char, except that the final occurrence of the character
              itself is not deleted.


       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a module.


       The zsh/files module makes  available  some  common  commands  for  file  manipulation  as
       builtins;  these  commands  are  probably not needed for many normal situations but can be
       useful in emergency recovery situations with constrained resources.  The commands  do  not
       implement all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For  all  commands,  a  variant  beginning zf_ is also available and loaded automatically.
       Using the features capability of zmodload will let you load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent to  chown  with  a  user-spec
              argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user; change group to user's primary group
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In  each  case,  the  `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if there is a `:'
              then the separator is `:', otherwise if there is a `.' then the separator  is  `.',
              otherwise there is no separator.

              Each  of user and group may be either a username (or group name, as appropriate) or
              a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation as a name takes precedence, if  there
              is an all-numeric username (or group name).

              If  the  target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to set the ownership
              of the link instead of its target.

              The -R option causes chown to recursively descend into  directories,  changing  the
              ownership  of  all  files  in  the  directory  after  changing the ownership of the
              directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension  to  chown  functionality.   It  enables  paranoid
              behaviour, intended to avoid security problems involving a chown being tricked into
              affecting files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse  to  follow  symbolic
              links,  so  that  (for  example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't accidentally
              chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.   It  will  also  check
              where  it  is  after  leaving  directories,  so  that  a  recursive chown of a deep
              directory tree can't end up recursively chowning /usr as a  result  of  directories
              being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates  hard  (or,  with  -s,  symbolic)  links.  In the first form, the specified
              destination is created, as a link to the specified filename.  In the  second  form,
              each  of  the filenames is taken in turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified
              directory that has the same last pathname component.

              Normally, ln will not attempt to create hard links to directories.  This check  can
              be  overridden  using  the  -d  option.  Typically only the super-user can actually
              succeed in creating hard links to directories.  This does  not  apply  to  symbolic
              links in any case.

              By  default,  existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i option causes the
              user to be queried about replacing existing files.  The -f option  causes  existing
              files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h  and  -n options are identical and both exist for compatibility; either one
              indicates that if the target is a symlink  then  it  should  not  be  dereferenced.
              Typically  this  is used in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points
              to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.   If  this  option  is
              used  with  multiple  filenames  and  the  target  is a symbolic link pointing to a
              directory then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p option, non-existing parent directories are first
              created  if  necessary,  and  there  will  be no complaint if the directory already
              exists.  The -m option can be used to specify (in octal) a set of file  permissions
              for  the created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current umask (see
              umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved to  the  specified
              destination.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in turn, and moved
              to a pathname in the specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing any file that the user cannot
              write  to,  but  writable files will be silently removed.  The -i option causes the
              user to be queried about replacing any existing files.  The -f  option  causes  any
              existing files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              Note  that  this mv will not move files across devices.  Historical versions of mv,
              when actual renaming is impossible, fall back on copying  and  removing  files;  if
              this  behaviour  is  desired,  use cp and rm manually.  This may change in a future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories (except  with  the  -r  option).   The  -d
              option  causes rm to try removing directories with unlink (see unlink(2)), the same
              method used for files.  Typically only  the  super-user  can  actually  succeed  in
              unlinking directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By  default, the user will be queried before removing any file that the user cannot
              write to, but writable files will be silently removed.  The -i  option  causes  the
              user  to  be  queried  about  removing any files.  The -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying, and suppresses all error indications.  -f takes

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories, deleting all files
              in the directory before removing the directory with  the  rmdir  system  call  (see

              The  -s  option  is  a  zsh  extension  to  rm  functionality.  It enables paranoid
              behaviour, intended to avoid common security problems involving a root-run rm being
              tricked into removing files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
              symbolic links, so that (for example)  ``rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't  accidentally
              remove  /etc/passwd  if  /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.  It will also check
              where it is after leaving directories, so  that  a  recursive  removal  of  a  deep
              directory  tree  can't  end up recursively removing /usr as a result of directories
              being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the same name (see sync(2)), which flushes  dirty  buffers
              to disk.  It might return before the I/O has actually been completed.


       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the names of files; the resulting value is the
              content of the file.  The value is treated identically to  any  other  text  coming
              from  a  parameter.   The  value may also be assigned to, in which case the file in
              question is written (whether or not it originally existed); or an  element  may  be
              unset,   which   will   delete   the   file   in  question.   For  example,  `vared
              mapfile[myfile]' works as expected, editing the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are  the  names  of  files  in  the
              current  directory,  and  the values are empty (to save a huge overhead in memory).
              Thus ${(k)mapfile} has the same affect as  the  glob  operator  *(D),  since  files
              beginning  with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions such as
              rm ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the current directory without the
              usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files referenced may not
              be written or deleted.

              A file may conveniently be read into an array as one line per element with the form
              `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.   The  double  quotes are necessary to prevent
              empty lines from being removed.

       Although reading and writing of  the  file  in  question  is  efficiently  handled,  zsh's
       internal  memory  management  may be arbitrarily baroque; however, mapfile is usually very
       much more efficient than anything involving a loop.  Note in  particular  that  the  whole
       contents  of  the  file  will  always  reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In  particular,  this
       means  handling of sufficiently long files (greater than the machine's swap space, or than
       the range of the pointer type) will be incorrect.

       No errors are printed or flagged for non-existent, unreadable, or unwritable files, as the
       parameter mechanism is too low in the shell execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate  that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet allow the user to
       specify the name of the shell parameter to be given the special behaviour.


       The zsh/mathfunc module provides standard mathematical functions for use  when  evaluating
       mathematical  formulae.   The  syntax  agrees  with  normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most functions take floating point arguments and return a floating point value.   However,
       any  necessary  conversions from or to integer type will be performed automatically by the
       shell.  Apart from atan with a second argument and the abs, int and float  functions,  all
       functions behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C function, except that
       any arguments out of range for the function in question will be detected by the shell  and
       an error reported.

       The  following  functions take a single floating point argument: acos, acosh, asin, asinh,
       atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp, expm1, fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0,  j1,
       lgamma,  log,  log10,  log1p, logb, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function
       can optionally take a second argument, in which case it behaves like the C function atan2.
       The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but returns an integer.

       The  function  signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which is the C variable
       of the same name, as described in  gamma(3).   Note  that  it  is  therefore  only  useful
       immediately  after a call to gamma or lgamma.  Note also that `signgam(RPAR' and `signgam'
       are distinct expressions.

       The following  functions  take  two  floating  point  arguments:  copysign,  fmod,  hypot,

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point second argument: jn, yn.

       The  following take a floating point first argument and an integer second argument: ldexp,

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it returns the absolute
       value  of  either  a  floating  point  number  or an integer.  The functions float and int
       convert  their  arguments  into  a  floating  point  or  integer  value  (by   truncation)

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation as the `**' operator
       and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical library  has  the  function
       erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point number between 0 and 1.  It takes a
       single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed is initialised by  three  calls  to
       the rand(3) function --- this produces the same random numbers as the next three values of

       If the argument is present, it gives the name of a  scalar  parameter  where  the  current
       random  number  seed  will  be stored.  On the first call, the value must contain at least
       twelve hexadecimal digits (the remainder of the string is ignored), or the  seed  will  be
       initialised in the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent calls
       to rand48(param) will then maintain the seed in the parameter param as a string of  twelve
       hexadecimal  digits,  with  no  base signifier.  The random number sequences for different
       parameters are completely independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to
       rand48 with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed  does  not exist, it will be initialised by the first call.  In the second
       call, the default seed is initialised; note, however, that because of  the  properties  of
       rand()  there  is a correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third  call  returns  to
       the  same sequence of random numbers used in the first call, unaffected by the intervening


       The zsh/newuser module is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS option  is  set,  and
       the  PRIVILEGED  option  is  not  set  (all  three are true by default).  This takes place
       immediately after commands in the global zshenv file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have
       been  executed.   If  the module is not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if it is not required.

       On loading, the module tests if any of the start-up files .zshenv,  .zprofile,  .zshrc  or
       .zlogin  exist  in  the directory given by the environment variable ZDOTDIR, or the user's
       home directory if that is not set.  The  test  is  not  performed  and  the  module  halts
       processing  if  the  shell  was  in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the file newuser first
       in a sitewide directory, usually the parent directory of the site-functions directory, and
       if that is not found the module searches in  a  version-specific  directory,  usually  the
       parent   of   the  functions  directory  containing  version-specific  functions.   (These
       directories can be configured when zsh is built using the --enable-site-scriptdir=dir  and
       --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to configure, respectively; the defaults are prefix/share/zsh
       and prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as  a  start-up  file.
       The  file  is expected to contain code to install start-up files for the user, however any
       valid shell code will be executed.

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note that it is possible to achieve exactly the same effect as the zsh/newuser  module  by
       adding  code  to  /etc/zshenv.   The  module  exists  simply  to  allow  the shell to make
       arrangements for new users without the need for intervention by  package  maintainers  and
       system administrators.

       The  script supplied with the module invokes the shell function zsh-newuser-install.  This
       may be invoked directly by the user even if the zsh/newuser  module  is  disabled.   Note,
       however,  that  if  the module is not installed the function will not be installed either.
       The function is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).


       The zsh/parameter module gives access to some of the internal  hash  tables  used  by  the
       shell by defining some special parameters.

              The  keys  for  this associative array are the names of the options that can be set
              and unset using the setopt and unsetopt builtins. The value of each key  is  either
              the  string  on  if the option is currently set, or the string off if the option is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is  like  setting  or  unsetting  the
              option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this array is like setting it to the value

              This array gives access to the command hash  table.  The  keys  are  the  names  of
              external commands, the values are the pathnames of the files that would be executed
              when the command would be invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new  entry
              in  this  table  in  the  same  way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key as in
              `unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given key from the  command  hash

              This  associative  array  maps  names  of  enabled  functions to their definitions.
              Setting a key in it is like defining a function with the name given by the key  and
              the  body  given  by  the  value.  Unsetting  a  key removes the definition for the
              function named by the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This associative array gives  information  about  the  builtin  commands  currently
              enabled.  The  keys are the names of the builtin commands and the values are either
              `undefined' for builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module if
              invoked or `defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The  keys  in  this  associative  array  are  the names of the parameters currently
              defined. The values are strings describing the type of the parameter, in  the  same
              format used by the t parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in
              this array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The keys are  the  names  of
              the  modules  loaded, registered to be autoloaded, or aliased. The value says which
              state the named module is in and is one of the strings `loaded',  `autoloaded',  or
              `alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased to.

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note that the output of
              the  dirs  builtin  command  includes  one  more  directory,  the  current  working

              This associative array maps history event numbers to the full history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This  associative  array maps job numbers to the directories from which the job was
              started (which may not be the current directory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually valid job numbers, and these are the
              values  output with, for example, ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job references may be
              used when looking up a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]}  refers  to  the  current

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the command lines that were
              used to start the jobs.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states  of  the  jobs  currently
              known.  The  keys  are  the  job  numbers  and  the  values are strings of the form
              `job-state:mark:pid=state...'. The job-state gives  the  state  the  whole  job  is
              currently  in,  one  of  `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the
              current job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This is followed by  one
              `pid=state'  for every process in the job. The pids are, of course, the process IDs
              and the state describes the state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of named directories to  the  pathnames  they
              stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their home directories.

              This  associative  array maps names of system groups of which the current user is a
              member to the corresponding group identifiers.  The contents are the  same  as  the
              groups output by the id command.

              This  array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding file names for the
              point where the current function, sourced file, or (if  EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval
              command  was  called.   The  array  is  of  the  same length as funcsourcetrace and
              functrace, but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file are the point
              of call, not the point of definition, and differs from functrace in that all values
              are absolute line numbers in  files,  rather  than  relative  to  the  start  of  a
              function, if any.

              This  array  contains  the  file  names  and  line  numbers of the points where the
              functions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval commands currently being
              executed  were  defined.   The line number is the line where the `function name' or
              `name ()' started.  In the case of an  autoloaded  function   the  line  number  is
              reported  as  zero.   The format of each element is filename:lineno.  For functions
              autoloaded from a file in native zsh format, where only the body  of  the  function
              occurs  in  the  file,  or  for  files that have been executed by the source or `.'
              builtins, the trace information is shown as filename:0, since the  entire  file  is
              the definition.

              Most  users  will  be  interested  in  the  information  in the funcfiletrace array

              This array contains the names of the functions, sourced files, and (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval commands. currently being executed. The first element is the name of
              the function using the parameter.

              This array contains the names and line numbers of the callers corresponding to  the
              functions  currently  being  executed.   The format of each element is name:lineno.
              Callers are also shown for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source
              or `.' command was executed.


       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option  -a  will  force  the  pattern  to  be  anchored.   Option -i will compile a
              case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m will compile a multi-line pattern; that is,  ^
              and  $  will match newlines within the pattern.  Option -x will compile an extended
              pattern, wherein whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s  makes  the  dot
              metacharacter match all characters, including those that indicate newline.

              Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster matching.

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches the previously-compiled PCRE.

              Upon  successful  match,  if the expression captures substrings within parentheses,
              pcre_match will set the array $match to those substrings, unless the -a  option  is
              given, in which case it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will
              be set to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the -v option is  given,
              in  which  case the variable var will be set.  No variables are altered if there is
              no successful match.  A -n option starts searching for a match from the byte offset
              position  in  string.  If the -b option is given, the variable ZPCRE_OP will be set
              to an offset pair string, representing the byte  offset  positions  of  the  entire
              matched  portion  within  the  string.   For  example,  a  ZPCRE_OP  set to "32 45"
              indicates that the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte offset
              44.   Here,  byte  offset  position  45  is the position directly after the matched
              portion.  Keep in mind that the byte position isn't necessarily  the  same  as  the
              character  position  when  UTF-8  characters  are involved.  Consequently, the byte
              offset positions are only to be  relied  on  in  the  context  of  using  them  for
              subsequent  searches  on  string, using an offset position as an argument to the -n
              option.  This is mostly used to implement the "find  all  non-overlapping  matches"

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains only "d's".


       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX extended regular expression.  On successful match,
              matched portion of the string will normally be placed in the  MATCH  variable.   If
              there are any capturing parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable
              will contain those.  If the match is not successful, then the variables will not be

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will automatically load
              this module as needed and will invoke the -regex-match operator.

              If BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set  instead  of  MATCH
              and match.


       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one parameter.

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make  an  entry  in  the  scheduled  list  of commands to execute.  The time may be
              specified in either absolute or relative time, and either  as  hours,  minutes  and
              (optionally) seconds separated by a colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number of
              seconds indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this  is  useful  in
              combination  with  the  features  in  the zsh/datetime module, see the zsh/datetime
              module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of scheduled commands.  If the scheduled command
              has the -o flag set, this is shown at the start of the command.

              With  the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.  The numbering of
              the list is continuous and entries are in time order, so the numbering  can  change
              when entries are added or deleted.

              Commands are executed either immediately before a prompt, or while the shell's line
              editor is waiting for input.  In the latter case it is useful to be able to produce
              output that does not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the option -o
              causes the shell to  clear  the  command  line  before  the  event  and  redraw  it
              afterwards.   This  should  be  used with any scheduled event that produces visible
              output to the terminal; it is not needed, for example, with output that  updates  a
              terminal emulator's title bar.

              The  sched builtin is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode
              emulating another shell.  It can be made available with the  command  `zmodload  -F
              zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A  readonly  array corresponding to the events scheduled by the sched builtin.  The
              indices of the array correspond to the numbers shown when  sched  is  run  with  no
              arguments (provided that the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array
              consists of the scheduled time in seconds since the epoch  (see  the  section  `The
              zsh/datetime  Module'  for  facilities for using this number), followed by a colon,
              followed by any options (which  may  be  empty  but  will  be  preceded  by  a  `-'
              otherwise), followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The  sched builtin should be used for manipulating the events.  Note that this will
              have an immediate effect on the contents of the array, so that indices  may  become


       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket  is  implemented  as  a  builtin  to  allow  full use of shell command line
              editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open a new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell parameter REPLY  will  be
              set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.  Currently, only stream
              connections are supported.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket  -l  will  open  a socket listening on filename.  The shell parameter REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor associated with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket  -a  will  accept  an  incoming  connection  to  the socket associated with
              listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor  associated
              with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              If -t is specified, zsocket will return  if  no  incoming  connection  is  pending.
              Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.


       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two possible names:

       zstat  [  -gnNolLtTrs  ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [ +element ] [ file
       ... ]
       stat ...
              The command acts as a front end to the stat system call (see  stat(2)).   The  same
              command  is  provided with two names; as the name stat is often used by an external
              command it is recommended that only the zstat form of the command  is  used.   This
              can  be  arranged  by  loading  the  module  with the command `zmodload -F zsh/stat

              If the stat call fails, the appropriate system error message printed and  status  1
              is  returned.   The fields of struct stat give information about the files provided
              as arguments to the command.  In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file on this device (`inode' number).

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access permissions.  With
                     the -s option, this will be returned as a string corresponding to the  first
                     column in the display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the owner of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed
                     as a user name.

              gid    The group ID of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed as a  group

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful for special devices.

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The   last  access,  modification  and  inode  change  times  of  the  file,
                     respectively, as the number of seconds since midnight GMT  on  1st  January,
                     1970.   With  the -s option, these are printed as strings for the local time
                     zone; the format can be altered with the -F option, and with the  -g  option
                     the times are in GMT.

                     The  number of bytes in one allocation block on the device on which the file

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L option is in effect, this contains the name
                     of  the file linked to, otherwise it is empty.  Note that if this element is
                     selected (``zstat +link'') then the -L option is automatically used.

              A particular element may be selected by including its name preceded by a `+' in the
              option  list;  only  one  element  is allowed.  The element may be shortened to any
              unique set of leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be  shown  for  all


              -A array
                     Instead  of  displaying  the  results  on standard output, assign them to an
                     array, one struct stat element per array element for each file in order.  In
                     this  case neither the name of the element nor the name of the files appears
                     in array unless the -t or -n options were given,  respectively.   If  -t  is
                     given,  the  element  name  appears  as  a  prefix  to the appropriate array
                     element; if -n is given, the file name appears as a separate  array  element
                     preceding all the others.  Other formatting options are respected.

              -H hash
                     Similar  to  -A,  but  instead  assign the values to hash.  The keys are the
                     elements listed above.  If the -n option is provided then the  name  of  the
                     file is included in the hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use  the  file on file descriptor fd instead of named files; no list of file
                     names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the formatting of the  time
                     elements.  The -s option is implied.

              -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s option is implied.

              -l     List  the  names  of  the  type  elements (to standard output or an array as
                     appropriate) and return immediately; options other than -A and arguments are

              -L     Perform  an  lstat  (see  lstat(2)) rather than a stat system call.  In this
                     case, if the file is a link, information about the link itself  rather  than
                     the  target  file  is  returned.   This  option is required to make the link
                     element useful.  It's important to note that this is the exact opposite from
                     ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these are only shown when output is
                     to standard output and there is more than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is  more  useful  for
                     human  consumption  than  the  default  of  decimal.  A leading zero will be
                     printed in this case.  Note that this does  not  affect  whether  a  raw  or
                     formatted  file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s options,
                     nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data (the  -s  format);
                     the string data appears in parentheses after the raw data.

              -s     Print  mode,  uid,  gid  and  the  three time elements as strings instead of
                     numbers.  In each case the format is like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always show the type names for the elements of struct stat.   Usually  these
                     are  only  shown when output is to standard output and no individual element
                     has been selected.

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.


       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and parameters.

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with  errno,  a  system  error
              number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead  of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT, may be used.  The
              set of names is the same as the contents of the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed in front of the error message, with no
              intervening space.

              If  errvar  is  supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is assigned to the
              parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A return status of 0 indicates the message was successfully  printed  (although  it
              may  not  be  useful  if  the error number was out of the system's range), a return
              status of 1 indicates an error  in  the  parameters,  and  a  return  status  of  2
              indicates the error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform  a  single  system  read  from file descriptor infd, or zero if that is not
              given.  The result of the read is stored in param or REPLY if that  is  not  given.
              If  countvar  is given, the number of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named
              by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is not  given,  however
              the command returns as soon as any number of bytes was successfully read.

              If  timeout  is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which may be zero to poll
              the file descriptor.  This is  handled  by  the  poll  system  call  if  available,
              otherwise the select system call if available.

              If  outfd is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes just read to the file
              descriptor outfd.  If this fails, because of a system error  other  than  EINTR  or
              because  of  an  internal  zsh  error  during  an interrupt, the bytes read but not
              written are stored in the parameter named by param if supplied (no default is  used
              in  this  case),  and  the  number  of  bytes read but not written is stored in the
              parameter named by countvar if that is supplied.  If it  was  successful,  countvar
              contains the full number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The  error  EINTR  (interrupted  system  call)  is handled internally so that shell
              interrupts are transparent to the caller.  Any other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At least one byte  of  data  was  successfully  read  and,  if  appropriate,

              1      There was an error in the parameters to the command.  This is the only error
                     for which a message is printed to standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling the input file descriptor  for
                     a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              3      Data  were  successfully read, but there was an error writing them to outfd.
                     The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set ERRNO as this is  not
                     a system error.

              5      No  system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This usually indicates
                     end of file.  The parameters are set according to the usual rules; no  write
                     to outfd is attempted.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The  data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file descriptor outfd, or 1
              if that is not given, using the write system call.  Multiple write  operations  may
              be used if the first does not write all the data.

              If  countvar  is given, the number of byte written is stored in the parameter named
              by countvar; this may not be the full length of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted  system  call)  is  handled  internally  by  retrying;
              otherwise  an  error  causes  the  command  to  return.   For  example, if the file
              descriptor is set to  non-blocking  output,  an  error  EAGAIN  (on  some  systems,
              EWOULDBLOCK) may result in the command returning early.

              The  return  status  may  be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the parameters to the
              command, or 2 for an error on the write; no error message is printed  in  the  last
              case, but the parameter ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand  flock  performs advisory file locking (via the
              fcntl(2) system call) over the entire contents of the given  file.   This  form  of
              locking  requires  the  processes accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious
              use is between two instances of the shell itself.

              In the first form the named file, which must already exist, is locked by opening  a
              file  descriptor  to the file and applying a lock to the file descriptor.  The lock
              terminates when the shell process that created the  lock  exits;  it  is  therefore
              often  convenient  to  create  file  locks  within  subshells,  since  the  lock is
              automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0 is returned if  the  lock
              succeeds, else status 1.

              In  the  second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic expression fd_expr
              is closed, releasing a lock.  The file descriptor can be queried by using  the  `-f
              var'  form  during the lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to
              the file descriptor used for locking.  The  lock  will  be  released  if  the  file
              descriptor  is  closed  by  any  other  means,  for  example using `exec {var}>&-';
              however, the form described here performs a safety check that the  file  descriptor
              is in use for file locking.

              By  default  the  shell  waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.  The option -t
              timeout specifies a timeout for the lock in seconds;  currently  this  must  be  an
              integer.  The shell will attempt to lock the file once a second during this period.
              If the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is preserved  when  the
              shell  uses  exec  to start a new process; otherwise it is closed at that point and
              the lock released.

              If the option -r is given, the lock is  only  for  reading,  otherwise  it  is  for
              reading and writing.  The file descriptor is opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The  builtin  zsystem's  subcommand  supports  tests  whether a given subcommand is
              supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status 1.  It operates silently  unless
              there was a syntax error (i.e. the wrong number of arguments), in which case status
              255 is returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand is known but
              not supported by the current operating system, or subcommand is not known (possibly
              because this is an older version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.  These are typically
              macros defined in C by including the system header file errno.h.  The index of each
              name (assuming the option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds  to  the  error  number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name are given the name
              Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns the process ID of the current process,  even  in  subshells.   Compare  $$,
              which returns the process ID of the main shell process.

       ppid   Returns  the  process  ID  of the parent of the current process, even in subshells.
              Compare $PPID, which returns the process  ID  of  the  parent  of  the  main  shell


       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp  is  implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing,
              file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the contents of its session table.

              If it is run with only the option -L, it will output the contents  of  the  session
              table  in  a format suitable for automatic parsing.  The option is ignored if given
              with a command to open or close a session.  The output consists of a set of  lines,
              one per session, each containing the following elements separated by spaces:

              File descriptor
                     The  file  descriptor in use for the connection.  For normal inbound (I) and
                     outbound (O) connections this may be read and written  by  the  usual  shell
                     mechanisms.  However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection created with `ztcp host ...'.

              The local host
                     This  is  usually  set  to  an  all-zero  IP  address  as the address of the
                     localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the connection is for listening.

              The remote host
                     This is the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if available,  else  an
                     IP  address.   It  is  an  all-zero  IP  address  for  a  session opened for

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it will default to port
              23.   The  connection  will  be  added to the session table and the shell parameter
              REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp  -l will open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be  set  to  the  file  descriptor
              associated with that listener.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp -a will accept an incoming connection to the port  associated  with  listenfd.
              The  connection  will  be  added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              If  -t  is  specified,  ztcp  will  return  if  no  incoming connection is pending.
              Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp -c will close the socket associated with fd.  The socket will be removed  from
              the  session  table.   If  fd  is  not specified, ztcp will close everything in the
              session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) )  cannot  be  closed  this
              way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use -f.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here  is  how to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.  We need to pick an
       unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen 5123.

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming connection.

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same machine):
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now on each host, $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the other.   For  example,
       on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd


       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output  the  termcap  value  corresponding  to  the  capability  cap, with optional

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their values.


       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output the terminfo value corresponding to the capability  cap,  instantiated  with
              arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps terminfo capability names to their values.


       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The  zsh/zftp  module  is  a  client  for  FTP  (file  transfer  protocol).   It is
              implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O,
              and  job  control  mechanisms.   Often,  users  will  access it via shell functions
              providing a more powerful interface; a set is provided with  the  zsh  distribution
              and is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is entirely usable in
              its own right.

              All commands consist of the command name zftp followed by the name of a subcommand.
              These  are  listed  below.   The  return  status  of each subcommand is supposed to
              reflect the success or failure of the remote operation.  See a description  of  the
              variable  ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from the server may be

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which may be the name of a TCP/IP connected host or
              an  IP  number  in  the  standard  dot  notation.   If  the argument is in the form
              host:port, open a connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port  21.
              This  may  be  the  name  of  a  TCP  service  or a number:  see the description of
              ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host should be surrounded by quoted
              square    brackets    to    distinguish    it    from   the   port,   for   example
              '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency this is allowed with  all  forms  of

              Remaining  arguments are passed to the login subcommand.  Note that if no arguments
              beyond host are supplied, open will not automatically call login.  If no  arguments
              at all are supplied, open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After  a  successful  open,  the  shell variables ZFTP_HOST, ZFTP_PORT, ZFTP_IP and
              ZFTP_SYSTEM are available; see `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login the user name with parameters password and account.  Any  of  the  parameters
              can  be  omitted,  and  will  be read from standard input if needed (name is always
              needed).  If standard input is a terminal, a prompt for each one will be printed on
              standard  error  and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters are not
              used, a warning message is printed.

              After a successful login, the shell variables ZFTP_USER, ZFTP_ACCOUNT and  ZFTP_PWD
              are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in, and the server will
              first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store the given parameters for a later open command with no arguments.  Only  those
              given  on  the  command  line  will  be remembered.  If no arguments are given, the
              parameters currently set are printed, although the password will appear as  a  line
              of stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero otherwise.

              Any  of  the  parameters  may be specified as a `?', which may need to be quoted to
              protect it from shell expansion.  In this case, the appropriate parameter  will  be
              read  from  stdin  as  with  the  login  subcommand,  including special handling of
              password.  If the `?' is followed by a string, that  is  used  as  the  prompt  for
              reading the parameter instead of the default message (any necessary punctuation and
              whitespace should be included at the end of the prompt).  The first letter  of  the
              parameter  (only)  may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word" guarantees
              that the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated  literally,  whether
              or not it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if any, are deleted.  In
              that case, calling open with no arguments will cause an error.

              The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it will be deleted  if
              the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will  store  the  host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then prompt the user
              for the corresponding password with the given prompt.

       test   Test the connection; if the server has reported that it has closed  the  connection
              (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2; if no connection was open anyway, return
              status 1; else return status 0.  The test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the connection closes.
              There is no network overhead for this test.

              The test is only supported on systems with either the select(2) or  poll(2)  system
              calls; otherwise the message `not supported on this system' is printed instead.

              The  test  subcommand  will  automatically  be  called  at  the  start of any other
              subcommand for the current session when a connection is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change the remote directory to the one higher in the directory tree.  Note that  cd
              .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX systems.

       dir [ args... ]
              Give  a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are passed directly to
              the server. The command's behaviour is implementation dependent, but a UNIX  server
              will  typically interpret args as arguments to the ls command and with no arguments
              return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args, produces a raw  list
              of  the  files  in  the  directory, one per line.  Otherwise, up to vagaries of the
              server implementation, behaves similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change the type for the transfer to type, or print the  current  type  if  type  is
              absent.   The  allowed  values are `A' (ASCII), `I' (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a
              synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds  that  the  remote
              host  is  a  UNIX  machine  with  8-bit byes, it will automatically switch to using
              binary for file transfers upon open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The transfer type is only passed to the remote  host  when  a  data  connection  is
              established; this command involves no network overhead.

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set  the  mode  type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is the default; block
              mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local files.   If  there
              is  more  than  one  item  on the list, the name of the file is printed first.  The
              first number is the file size, the second is the last modification time of the file
              in  the  format  CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  consisting of year, month, date, hour, minutes and
              seconds in GMT.  Note that this format, including the  length,  is  guaranteed,  so
              that  time strings can be directly compared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators,
              even if they are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not all servers support the commands for  retrieving  this  information.   In  that
              case,  the  remote  command  will  print nothing and return status 2, compared with
              status 1 for a file not found.

              The local command (but not remote) may be used with no arguments, in which case the
              information  comes  from  examining file descriptor zero.  This is the same file as
              seen by a put command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and sending them to standard

       put file [...]
              For  each  file,  read  a file from standard input and send that to the remote host
              with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended to  it  instead  of
              overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at the given point in
              the remote file.  This is  useful  for  appending  to  an  incomplete  local  file.
              However, note that this ability is not universally supported by servers (and is not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send a host-specific command to the server.  You will probably only  need  this  if
              instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send  the  raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be familiar with the
              FTP command set as defined in  RFC959  before  doing  this.   Useful  commands  may
              include STAT and HELP.  Note also the mechanism for returning messages as described
              for the variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in  particular  that  all  messages  from  the
              control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close  the  current  data  connection.  This unsets the shell parameters ZFTP_HOST,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows  multiple  FTP  sessions  to be used at once.  The name of the session is an
              arbitrary string of characters; the default session is called `default'.   If  this
              command  is called without an argument, it will list all the current sessions; with
              an argument, it will either switch to the  existing  session  called  sessname,  or
              create a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set of connection-specific
              shell parameters (the same set as are unset when a connection closes, as  given  in
              the  description  of  close),  and  any  user  parameters specified with the params
              subcommand.  Changing to a previous session restores those values;  changing  to  a
              new  session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had just been loaded.  The
              name of the current session is given by the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is deleted.   If  the
              current  session  is deleted, the earliest existing session becomes the new current
              session, otherwise the current session  is  not  changed.   If  the  session  being
              deleted  is the only one, a new session called `default' is created and becomes the
              current session; note that this is a new session even if the session being  deleted
              is  also  called  `default'.  It  is recommended that sessions not be deleted while
              background commands which use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by zftp.  Currently none of them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation  to  complete  before
              returning an error.  If this is not set when the module is loaded, it will be given
              the default value 60.  A value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs  on
              the  control  connection  it will be closed.  Use a larger value if this occurs too

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot notation.

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote server.  If the host was opened as an
              IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains  that  instead; this saves the overhead for a name
              lookup, as IP numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.  The number of the remote TCP port to which the connection is open  (even
              if  the  port  was  originally  specified as a named service).  Usually this is the
              standard FTP port, 21.

              In the unlikely event that your system does not  have  the  appropriate  conversion
              functions,  this  appears  in network byte order.  If your system is little-endian,
              the port then consists of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be  reported
              as  5376.   In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also need to be in
              this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string returned by the server in response to an FTP SYST
              request.   The  most  interesting case is a string beginning "UNIX Type: L8", which
              ensures maximum compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.  The type to be used for data transfers , either `A' or  `I'.    Use  the
              type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.   The  account  name  of  the  current user, if any.  Most servers do not
              require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply from the server as a  string.
              This  can still be read after the connection is closed, and is not changed when the
              current session changes.

              Readonly.  The last line of the last reply sent by the server.  This can  still  be
              read  after  the  connection is closed, and is not changed when the current session

              Readonly.  The name of the current FTP session; see the description of the  session

              A  string of preferences for altering aspects of zftp's behaviour.  Each preference
              is a single character.  The following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data  transfers.   This
                     is slightly more efficient than sendport mode.  If the letter S occurs later
                     in the string, zftp will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:  initiate transfers by the  FTP  PORT  command.   If  this  occurs
                     before any P in the string, passive mode will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:   use  only  the  bare  minimum  of  FTP  commands.  This prevents the
                     variables ZFTP_SYSTEM and  ZFTP_PWD  from  being  set,  and  will  mean  all
                     connections  default to ASCII type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set
                     during a transfer if the server does not send it anyway (many servers do).

              If ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to a default of  `PS',
              i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise fall back to sendport mode.

              A  string  of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which responses from the
              server should be printed.  All responses go to  standard  error.   If  any  of  the
              numbers 1 to 5 appear in the string, raw responses from the server with reply codes
              beginning with that digit will be printed to standard error.  The  first  digit  of
              the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It  should  be  noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service not available',
              which forces termination of a connection, is classified  as  421,  i.e.  `transient
              negative', an interesting interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The  code  0  is  special:   it  indicates  that all but the last line of multiline
              replies read from the server will be printed  to  standard  error  in  a  processed
              format.   By convention, servers use this mechanism for sending information for the
              user to read.  The appropriate reply code, if it matches the same  response,  takes

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to the default value
              450, i.e., messages destined for the user and all errors will be printed.   A  null
              string is valid and specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If  this function is set by the user, it is called every time the directory changes
              on the server, including when a user is logged in, or when a connection is  closed.
              In  the  last  case,  $ZFTP_PWD  will  be  unset; otherwise it will reflect the new

              If this function is set by the user, it will be called during a get, put or  append
              operation each time sufficient data has been received from the host.  During a get,
              the data is sent to standard output, so it is vital that this function should write
              to standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard output.

              When  it  is  called  with  a  transfer in progress, the following additional shell
              parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete file being transferred: the same as the first
                     value  provided  by  the remote and local subcommands for a particular file.
                     If the server cannot supply this value for a remote file being retrieved, it
                     will  not  be  set.   If input is from a pipe the value may be incorrect and
                     correspond simply to a full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a number between zero and $ZFTP_SIZE,
                     if that is set.  This number is always available.

              The   function  is  initially  called  with  ZFTP_TRANSFER  set  appropriately  and
              ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer  is  finished,  the  function  will  be
              called  one more time with ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy
              up.  It is otherwise never called twice with the same value of ZFTP_COUNT.

              Sometimes the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to the user to  decide
              whether the function should be defined and to use unfunction when necessary.

       A  connection  may  not  be  opened  in  the  left hand side of a pipe as this occurs in a
       subshell and the file information is not updated in the main shell.  In the case  of  type
       or  mode  changes or closing the connection in a subshell, the information is returned but
       variables are not updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in  subshells
       will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting  sessions  while  a  zftp command is active in the background can have unexpected
       effects, even if it does not use the session being deleted.  This  is  because  all  shell
       subprocesses  share  information  on  the state of all connections, and deleting a session
       changes the ordering of that information.

       On some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after  a  fork(),  so  that
       operations in subshells, on the left hand side of a pipeline, or in the background are not
       possible, as they should be.  This is presumably a bug in the operating system.


       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).


       The zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that  can  be  used  to  access
       internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zshzle(1)).

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This  associative  array  contains  one  entry  per widget defined. The name of the
              widget is the key and the value gives information about the widget.  It  is  either
              the  string  `builtin'  for  builtin  widgets, a string of the form `user:name' for
              user-defined widgets, where name is the name of the shell function implementing the
              widget,  or  it  is  a  string  of  the form `completion:type:name', for completion
              widgets. In the last case type is the name of the builtin  widgets  the  completion
              widget  imitates  in  its  behavior  and  name  is  the  name of the shell function
              implementing the completion widget.


       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The  profiling  results
       can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made available by this module.  There is no
       way to turn profiling off other than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists  profiling  results  to  standard  output.   The
              format is comparable to that of commands like gprof.

              At the top there is a summary listing all functions that were called at least once.
              This summary is sorted in decreasing order of the amount of  time  spent  in  each.
              The lines contain the number of the function in order, which is used in other parts
              of the list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the number of calls made  to  the
              function.   The  next  three  columns  list  the  time in milliseconds spent in the
              function and its descendants,  the  average  time  in  milliseconds  spent  in  the
              function and its descendants per call and the percentage of time spent in all shell
              functions used in this function and its descendants.  The following  three  columns
              give the same information, but counting only the time spent in the function itself.
              The final column shows the name of the function.

              After the summary, detailed information about every function that  was  invoked  is
              listed, sorted in decreasing order of the amount of time spent in each function and
              its descendants.  Each of these entries consists of descriptions for the  functions
              that  called  the  function  described, the function itself, and the functions that
              were called from it.  The description for the function itself has the  same  format
              as in the summary (and shows the same information).  The other lines don't show the
              number of the function at the beginning and have their function named  indented  to
              make  it  easier  to  distinguish  the  line  showing the function described in the
              section from the surrounding lines.

              The information shown in this case is almost the same as in the summary,  but  only
              refers  to the call hierarchy being displayed.  For example, for a calling function
              the column showing the total running time lists the time  spent  in  the  described
              function  and  its  descendants  only  for  the  times when it was called from that
              particular calling function.  Likewise, for a called function, this  columns  lists
              the  total time spent in the called function and its descendants only for the times
              when it was called from the function described.

              Also in this case, the column showing the number of calls to a function also  shows
              a slash and then the total number of invocations made to the called function.

              As  long  as  the  zsh/zprof  module is loaded, profiling will be done and multiple
              invocations of the zprof builtin command will show the times and numbers  of  calls
              since  the  module  was loaded.  With the -c option, the zprof builtin command will
              reset its internal counters and will not show the listing.


       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The arguments following name are concatenated with spaces between, then executed as
              a  command,  as  if  passed  to  the  eval builtin.  The command runs under a newly
              assigned pseudo-terminal; this is useful  for  running  commands  non-interactively
              which  expect an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the command, but
              is used to refer to this command in later calls to zpty.

              With the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up  so  that  input  characters  are

              With  the  -b  option,  input  to  and  output  from  the  pseudo-terminal are made

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands previously started,
              by  supplying  a  list  of  their  names.   If no names are given, all commands are
              deleted.  Deleting a command causes the HUP signal to be sent to the  corresponding

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The  -w  option  can be used to send the to command name the given strings as input
              (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not given, a newline is  added  at  the

              If  no  strings  are provided, the standard input is copied to the pseudo-terminal;
              this may stop before copying the full input if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees  this  input  as  if  it  were
              typed,  so  beware  when  sending special tty driver characters such as word-erase,
              line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read the output of the command name.  With only a name
              argument,   the  output  read  is  copied  to  the  standard  output.   Unless  the
              pseudo-terminal is non-blocking, copying continues  until  the  command  under  the
              pseudo-terminal  exits;  when  non-blocking,  only as much output as is immediately
              available is copied.  The return status is zero if any output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one  line  is  read  and  stored  in  the
              parameter named param.  Less than a full line may be read if the pseudo-terminal is
              non-blocking.  The return status is zero if at least one  character  is  stored  in

              If  a  pattern is given as well, output is read until the whole string read matches
              the pattern, even in the non-blocking case.  The  return  status  is  zero  if  the
              string  read  matches  the  pattern,  or if the command has exited but at least one
              character could still be read.  If the option -m is present, the return  status  is
              zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing, a maximum of one megabyte of
              output can be consumed this way; if a full megabyte is read  without  matching  the
              pattern, the return status is non-zero.

              In  all  cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be read, and is 2 if
              this is because the command has finished.

              If the -r option is combined with the -t  option,  zpty  tests  whether  output  is
              available  before  trying  to  read.   If  no output is available, zpty immediately
              returns the status 1.  When used with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed poll  is
              similar  to  when the command has exited:  the return value is zero if at least one
              character could still be read even if the pattern failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether the command name is
              still  running.   It returns a zero status if the command is running and a non-zero
              value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The last form, without any arguments,  is  used  to  list  the  commands  currently
              defined.   If the -L option is given, this is done in the form of calls to the zpty


       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call, which blocks  until
              a  file descriptor is ready for reading or writing, or has an error condition, with
              an optional timeout.  If this is not available on your system, the  command  prints
              an  error  message  and returns status 2 (normal errors return status 1).  For more
              information, see your systems  documentation  for  select(3).   Note  there  is  no
              connection with the shell builtin of the same name.

              Arguments  and  options may be intermingled in any order.  Non-option arguments are
              file descriptors, which must be decimal integers.  By default, file descriptors are
              to  be  tested  for  reading, i.e. zselect will return when data is available to be
              read from the file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read  operation  from  the
              file  descriptor will not block.  After a -r, -w and -e, the given file descriptors
              are to be tested for reading, writing, or error conditions.  These options  and  an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The  presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the documentation for
              many implementations of the select system call.  According to  recent  versions  of
              the  POSIX  specification,  it  is really an exception condition, of which the only
              standard example is out-of-band data received  on  a  socket.   So  zsh  users  are
              unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a second.  This may be
              zero, in which case the file descriptors will simply be  polled  and  zselect  will
              return  immediately.  It is possible to call zselect with no file descriptors and a
              non-zero timeout for use as a finer-grained replacement for `sleep'; note, however,
              the return status is always 1 for a timeout.

              The  option  `-a  array'  indicates  that  array should be set to indicate the file
              descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option is not given, the array reply will be
              used  for  this  purpose.  The array will contain a string similar to the arguments
              for zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r 0 -w  1'  to  show
              that both file descriptors are ready for the requested operations.

              The  option  `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc should be set to
              indicate the file descriptor(s( which are ready.  This option overrides the  option
              -a,  nor  will  reply be modified.  The keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and
              the corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate the condition.

              The command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready  for  reading.   If
              the  operation  timed out, or a timeout of 0 was given and no file descriptors were
              ready, or there was an error, it returns status 1 and the array  will  not  be  set
              (nor  modified  in  any  way).   If  there was an error in the select operation the
              appropriate error message is printed.


       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This builtin command is used to define and lookup  styles.   Styles  are  pairs  of
              names  and  values,  where  the  values consist of any number of strings.  They are
              stored together with patterns and lookup is done by giving  a  string,  called  the
              `context',  which is compared to the patterns.  The definition stored for the first
              matching pattern will be returned.

              For ordering of comparisons, patterns are searched  from  most  specific  to  least
              specific,  and patterns that are equally specific keep the order in which they were
              defined.  A pattern is considered to be more specific than another if  it  contains
              more  components  (substrings  separated  by  colons)  or  if  the patterns for the
              components are more specific, where  simple  strings  are  considered  to  be  more
              specific than patterns and complex patterns are considered to be more specific than
              the pattern `*'.

              The first form (without arguments) lists the  definitions.   Styles  are  shown  in
              alphabetic order and patterns are shown in the order zstyle will test them.

              If  the  -L  option  is given, listing is done in the form of calls to zstyle.  The
              optional first argument is a pattern which  will  be  matched  against  the  string
              supplied as the pattern for the context; note that this means, for example, `zstyle
              -L ":completion:*"' will match any supplied pattern beginning  `:completion:',  not
              just  ":completion:*":   use  ":completion:\*"  to match that.  The optional second
              argument limits the output to  a  specific  style  (not  a  pattern).   -L  is  not
              compatible with any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines  the  given style for the pattern with the strings as the value.  If
                     the -e option is given, the  strings  will  be  concatenated  (separated  by
                     spaces) and the resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it is
                     done by the eval builtin command) when the style is looked up.  In this case
                     the parameter `reply' must be assigned to set the strings returned after the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset, and if it is still
                     unset after the evaluation, the style is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete  style  definitions.  Without  arguments all definitions are deleted,
                     with a pattern all definitions for that  pattern  are  deleted  and  if  any
                     styles are given, then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve  a  style  definition.  The name is used as the name of an array in
                     which the results are stored. Without any further  arguments,  all  patterns
                     defined are returned. With a pattern the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style,  the  value  strings  of  that
                     combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The parameter name is set to the value of the style interpreted as a string.
                     If the value contains several strings they are concatenated with spaces  (or
                     with the sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The  value  is  stored in name as a boolean, i.e. as the string `yes' if the
                     value has only one string and that string is equal to one of `yes',  `true',
                     `on',  or `1'. If the value is any other string or has more than one string,
                     the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The value is stored in  name  as  an  array.  If  name  is  declared  as  an
                     associative  array,  the first, third, etc. strings are used as the keys and
                     the other strings are used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test the value of a style, i.e. the -t option only returns  a  status  (sets
                     $?).   Without any strings the return status is zero if the style is defined
                     for at least one matching pattern, has only one string  in  its  value,  and
                     that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or `1'. If any strings are given
                     the status is zero if and only if at least one of the strings is equal to at
                     least  one  of the strings in the value. If the style is defined but doesn't
                     match, the return status is 1. If the style is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but it  returns  status
                     zero (rather than 2) if the style is not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match  a  value.  Returns status zero if the pattern matches at least one of
                     the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The first form is selected
              with  the  -f  option. In this case the format string will be modified by replacing
              sequences starting with a percent sign in it with strings  from  the  specs.   Each
              spec  should  be of the form `char:string' which will cause every appearance of the
              sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by the string.  The `%' sequence may also
              contain optional minimum and maximum field width specifications between the `%' and
              the `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is given first and
              if  the  maximum field width is used, it has to be preceded by a dot.  Specifying a
              minimum field width makes the result be padded with spaces  to  the  right  if  the
              string is shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left can be achieved by
              giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum field width is specified,  the
              string  will  be truncated after that many characters.  After all `%' sequences for
              the given specs have  been  processed,  the  resulting  string  is  stored  in  the
              parameter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form used by prompts.  The
              % is followed by a `(' and then an ordinary format specifier character as described
              above.   There may be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these specify
              a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative  numbers  are  also  allowed.   An
              arbitrary  delimiter character follows the format specifier, which is followed by a
              piece of `true' text, the delimiter character again, a piece of `false' text, and a
              closing  parenthesis.  The complete expression (without the digits) thus looks like
              `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the `.' character is arbitrary.   The  value  given
              for  the  format  specifier  in  the  char:string  expressions  is  evaluated  as a
              mathematical expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are the  same,
              text1  is  output,  else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as
              %).  Either of text1 or text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the format specifier  c
              is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the ternary expression.

              The  second form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning strings.  Here, the
              specs are of the form `left:right' where `left' and `right' are arbitrary  strings.
              These  strings  are  modified by replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
              the left strings with spaces to the right so that the sep  strings  in  the  result
              (and hence the right strings after them) are all aligned if the strings are printed
              below each other.  All strings without a colon are left unchanged and  all  strings
              with  an  empty  right  string  have the trailing colon removed.  In both cases the
              lengths of the strings are not used to determine how the other strings  are  to  be
              aligned.  The resulting strings are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This  builtin  simplifies the parsing of options in positional parameters, i.e. the
              set of arguments given by $*.  Each spec describes one option and must  be  of  the
              form  `opt[=array]'.   If  an  option  described  by opt is found in the positional
              parameters it is copied into the  array  specified  with  the  -a  option;  if  the
              optional `=array' is given, it is instead copied into that array.

              Note  that it is an error to give any spec without an `=array' unless one of the -a
              or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given,  parsing  stops  at  the  first  string  that  isn't
              described  by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing always stops at a positional
              parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The opt description must be one of the following.  Any of  the  special  characters
              can appear in the option name provided it is preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The  name  is  the name of the option without the leading `-'.  To specify a
                     GNU-style long option, one of the usual two leading `-' must be included  in
                     name; for example, a `--file' option is represented by a name of `-file'.

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option is appended to array each time it is
                     found in the positional parameters; without the `+' only the last occurrence
                     of the option is preserved.

                     If  one  of  these  forms  is used, the option takes no argument, so parsing
                     stops if the next positional parameter does not also begin with `-'  (unless
                     the -E option is used).

              name:: If  one  or  two  colons  are  given, the option takes an argument; with one
                     colon, the argument is mandatory and with two colons it  is  optional.   The
                     argument is appended to the array after the option itself.

                     An  optional  argument is put into the same array element as the option name
                     (note that this makes empty  strings  as  arguments  indistinguishable).   A
                     mandatory  argument  is  added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is
                     used, in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name and the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As described above, this names the default array in which to store  the  recognised

       -A assoc
              If  this  is  given,  the options and their values are also put into an associative
              array with the option names as keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If this option is  given,  all  options  found  are  removed  from  the  positional
              parameters  of the calling shell or shell function, up to but not including any not
              described by the specs.  This is similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With this option, the arrays specified with the -a and  -A  options  and  with  the
              `=array'  forms  are  kept unchanged when none of the specs for them is used.  This
              allows assignment of default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This changes the assignment rules to implement a map among equivalent option names.
              If  any spec uses the `=array' form, the string array is interpreted as the name of
              another spec, which is used to choose where to store the values.  If no other  spec
              is found, the values are stored as usual.  This changes only the way the values are
              stored, not the way $* is parsed, so results may be  unpredicable  if  the  `name+'
              specifier is used inconsistently.

       -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the first string that isn't described
              by one of the specs.  It can be used to test for or  (if  used  together  with  -D)
              extract  options and their arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments that
              may be in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e., the option -b and its arguments are taken from the  positional  parameters  and  put
       into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

              bar=(-a '' -b xyz)