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NAME

       malloc, free, calloc, realloc - Allocate and free dynamic memory

SYNOPSIS

       #include <stdlib.h>

       void *malloc(size_t size);
       void free(void *ptr);
       void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
       void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);

DESCRIPTION

       The malloc() function allocates size bytes and returns a pointer to the
       allocated memory.  The memory is not initialized.  If size is  0,  then
       malloc()  returns either NULL, or a unique pointer value that can later
       be successfully passed to free().

       The free() function frees the memory space pointed  to  by  ptr,  which
       must  have  been  returned  by a previous call to malloc(), calloc() or
       realloc().  Otherwise, or if free(ptr) has already been called  before,
       undefined behavior occurs.  If ptr is NULL, no operation is performed.

       The  calloc()  function allocates memory for an array of nmemb elements
       of size bytes each and returns a pointer to the allocated memory.   The
       memory  is  set  to zero.  If nmemb or size is 0, then calloc() returns
       either NULL, or a unique pointer value that can later  be  successfully
       passed to free().

       The  realloc() function changes the size of the memory block pointed to
       by ptr to size bytes.  The contents will be unchanged in the range from
       the start of the region up to the minimum of the old and new sizes.  If
       the new size is larger than the old size, the added memory will not  be
       initialized.    If  ptr  is  NULL,  then  the  call  is  equivalent  to
       malloc(size), for all values of size; if size is equal to zero, and ptr
       is  not  NULL, then the call is equivalent to free(ptr).  Unless ptr is
       NULL, it must have been  returned  by  an  earlier  call  to  malloc(),
       calloc()  or  realloc().  If the area pointed to was moved, a free(ptr)
       is done.

RETURN VALUE

       The malloc() and calloc() functions return a pointer to  the  allocated
       memory  that  is  suitably aligned for any kind of variable.  On error,
       these functions return NULL.  NULL may also be returned by a successful
       call  to  malloc()  with  a  size  of  zero, or by a successful call to
       calloc() with nmemb or size equal to zero.

       The free() function returns no value.

       The realloc() function returns a pointer to the newly allocated memory,
       which is suitably aligned for any kind of variable and may be different
       from ptr, or NULL if the request fails.  If size was equal to 0, either
       NULL  or  a  pointer  suitable  to be passed to free() is returned.  If
       realloc() fails the original block is left untouched; it is  not  freed
       or moved.

CONFORMING TO

       C89, C99.

NOTES

       By  default,  Linux  follows  an optimistic memory allocation strategy.
       This means that when malloc() returns non-NULL there  is  no  guarantee
       that  the  memory  really  is available.  In case it turns out that the
       system is out of memory, one or more processes will be  killed  by  the
       OOM   killer.    For   more   information,   see   the  description  of
       /proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory and /proc/sys/vm/oom_adj in proc(5), and
       the kernel source file Documentation/vm/overcommit-accounting.

       Normally, malloc() allocates memory from the heap, and adjusts the size
       of the heap as required, using  sbrk(2).   When  allocating  blocks  of
       memory   larger   than   MMAP_THRESHOLD   bytes,   the  glibc  malloc()
       implementation allocates the memory  as  a  private  anonymous  mapping
       using  mmap(2).  MMAP_THRESHOLD is 128 kB by default, but is adjustable
       using mallopt(3).  Allocations performed using mmap(2)  are  unaffected
       by the RLIMIT_DATA resource limit (see getrlimit(2)).

       The  UNIX 98 standard requires malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to set
       errno to ENOMEM upon failure.  Glibc assumes that this is done (and the
       glibc  versions of these routines do this); if you use a private malloc
       implementation that does not set errno, then certain  library  routines
       may fail without having a reason in errno.

       Crashes  in  malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), or free() are almost always
       related to heap corruption, such as overflowing an allocated  chunk  or
       freeing the same pointer twice.

       Recent  versions  of  Linux  libc  (later  than 5.4.23) and glibc (2.x)
       include a malloc() implementation  which  is  tunable  via  environment
       variables.   When  MALLOC_CHECK_  is  set,  a  special (less efficient)
       implementation is used which is designed to be tolerant against  simple
       errors,  such  as  double  calls  of  free() with the same argument, or
       overruns of a single byte (off-by-one bugs).  Not all such  errors  can
       be  protected  against,  however,  and  memory  leaks  can  result.  If
       MALLOC_CHECK_ is set to 0, any detected  heap  corruption  is  silently
       ignored; if set to 1, a diagnostic message is printed on stderr; if set
       to 2, abort(3) is called immediately; if set to 3, a diagnostic message
       is  printed  on  stderr  and  the  program is aborted.  Using a nonzero
       MALLOC_CHECK_ value can be useful because otherwise a crash may  happen
       much  later,  and  the  true cause for the problem is then very hard to
       track down.

SEE ALSO

       brk(2), mallopt(3), mmap(2), alloca(3), posix_memalign(3)

COLOPHON

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