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NAME

       strptime - convert a string representation of time to a time tm structure

SYNOPSIS

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE       /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <time.h>

       char *strptime(const char *s, const char *format, struct tm *tm);

DESCRIPTION

       The strptime() function is the converse function to strftime(3) and converts the character
       string pointed to by s to values which are stored in the tm structure pointed  to  by  tm,
       using  the format specified by format.  Here format is a character string that consists of
       field descriptors and text characters, reminiscent of  scanf(3).   Each  field  descriptor
       consists of a % character followed by another character that specifies the replacement for
       the field descriptor.  All other characters in the format  string  must  have  a  matching
       character  in  the  input  string,  except  for  whitespace,  which  matches  zero or more
       whitespace  characters  in  the  input  string.   There  should  be  whitespace  or  other
       alphanumeric characters between any two field descriptors.

       The  strptime() function processes the input string from left to right.  Each of the three
       possible input elements (whitespace, literal, or format) are handled one after the  other.
       If  the input cannot be matched to the format string the function stops.  The remainder of
       the format and input strings are not processed.

       The supported input field descriptors are listed below.  In case a text string (such as  a
       weekday  or  month  name) is to be matched, the comparison is case insensitive.  In case a
       number is to be matched, leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %%     The % character.

       %a or %A
              The weekday name according to the current locale, in abbreviated form or  the  full
              name.

       %b or %B or %h
              The  month  name  according  to the current locale, in abbreviated form or the full
              name.

       %c     The date and time representation for the current locale.

       %C     The century number (0-99).

       %d or %e
              The day of month (1-31).

       %D     Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.  (This is the American style date, very confusing  to  non-
              Americans,  especially  since  %d/%m/%y  is  widely  used  in Europe.  The ISO 8601
              standard format is %Y-%m-%d.)

       %H     The hour (0-23).

       %I     The hour on a 12-hour clock (1-12).

       %j     The day number in the year (1-366).

       %m     The month number (1-12).

       %M     The minute (0-59).

       %n     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %p     The locale's equivalent of AM or PM.  (Note: there may be none.)

       %r     The 12-hour clock time (using  the  locale's  AM  or  PM).   In  the  POSIX  locale
              equivalent  to  %I:%M:%S  %p.   If  t_fmt_ampm  is empty in the LC_TIME part of the
              current locale then the behavior is undefined.

       %R     Equivalent to %H:%M.

       %S     The second (0-60; 60 may occur for leap seconds; earlier also 61 was allowed).

       %t     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %T     Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

       %U     The week number with Sunday the first day of the week (0-53).  The first Sunday  of
              January is the first day of week 1.

       %w     The weekday number (0-6) with Sunday = 0.

       %W     The  week number with Monday the first day of the week (0-53).  The first Monday of
              January is the first day of week 1.

       %x     The date, using the locale's date format.

       %X     The time, using the locale's time format.

       %y     The year within century (0-99).  When a century is not otherwise specified,  values
              in  the  range 69-99 refer to years in the twentieth century (1969-1999); values in
              the range 00-68 refer to years in the twenty-first century (2000-2068).

       %Y     The year, including century (for example, 1991).

       Some field descriptors can be modified by the E or O modifier characters to indicate  that
       an  alternative  format  or  specification  should  be used.  If the alternative format or
       specification does not exist in the current locale, the  unmodified  field  descriptor  is
       used.

       The  E  modifier  specifies that the input string may contain alternative locale-dependent
       versions of the date and time representation:

       %Ec    The locale's alternative date and time representation.

       %EC    The name of the base year (period) in the locale's alternative representation.

       %Ex    The locale's alternative date representation.

       %EX    The locale's alternative time representation.

       %Ey    The offset from %EC (year only) in the locale's alternative representation.

       %EY    The full alternative year representation.

       The O modifier specifies that the  numerical  input  may  be  in  an  alternative  locale-
       dependent format:

       %Od or %Oe
              The  day of the month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols; leading zeros
              are permitted but not required.

       %OH    The hour (24-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OI    The hour (12-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Om    The month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    The minutes using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    The seconds using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OU    The week number of the year (Sunday as  the  first  day  of  the  week)  using  the
              locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    The  number  of  the  weekday  (Sunday=0)  using  the  locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %OW    The week number of the year (Monday as  the  first  day  of  the  week)  using  the
              locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    The year (offset from %C) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       The broken-down time structure tm is defined in <time.h> as follows:

           struct tm {
               int tm_sec;        /* seconds */
               int tm_min;        /* minutes */
               int tm_hour;       /* hours */
               int tm_mday;       /* day of the month */
               int tm_mon;        /* month */
               int tm_year;       /* year */
               int tm_wday;       /* day of the week */
               int tm_yday;       /* day in the year */
               int tm_isdst;      /* daylight saving time */
           };

RETURN VALUE

       The return value of the function is a pointer to the first character not processed in this
       function call.  In case the input string contains more characters  than  required  by  the
       format  string  the return value points right after the last consumed input character.  In
       case the whole input string is consumed the return value points to the null  byte  at  the
       end of the string.  If strptime() fails to match all of the format string and therefore an
       error occurred the function returns NULL.

CONFORMING TO

       SUSv2, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES

       In principle, this function does not initialize tm but only stores the  values  specified.
       This  means  that  tm should be initialized before the call.  Details differ a bit between
       different UNIX systems.  The glibc implementation does not touch those  fields  which  are
       not  explicitly  specified, except that it recomputes the tm_wday and tm_yday field if any
       of the year, month, or day elements changed.

       This function is available since libc 4.6.8.  Linux libc4 and libc5  includes  define  the
       prototype  unconditionally; glibc2 includes provide a prototype only when _XOPEN_SOURCE or
       _GNU_SOURCE are defined.

       Before libc 5.4.13 whitespace (and the 'n' and 't' specifications) was not handled, no 'E'
       and  'O' locale modifier characters were accepted, and the 'C' specification was a synonym
       for the 'c' specification.

       The 'y' (year in century) specification is taken to specify a year in the 20th century  by
       libc4  and  libc5.   It  is taken to be a year in the range 1950-2049 by glibc 2.0.  It is
       taken to be a year in 1969-2068 since glibc 2.1.

   Glibc Notes
       For reasons of symmetry, glibc tries to support for strptime() the same format  characters
       as  for  strftime(3).  (In most cases the corresponding fields are parsed, but no field in
       tm is changed.)  This leads to

       %F     Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d, the ISO 8601 date format.

       %g     The year corresponding to the ISO week number, but without the century (0-99).

       %G     The year corresponding to the ISO week number.  (For example, 1991.)

       %u     The day of the week as a decimal number (1-7, where Monday = 1).

       %V     The ISO 8601:1988 week number as a decimal number (1-53).  If the week (starting on
              Monday)  containing  1  January  has  four or more days in the new year, then it is
              considered week 1.  Otherwise, it is the last week of the previous  year,  and  the
              next week is week 1.

       %z     An RFC-822/ISO 8601 standard timezone specification.

       %Z     The timezone name.

       Similarly,  because  of GNU extensions to strftime(3), %k is accepted as a synonym for %H,
       and %l should be accepted as a synonym for %I, and %P is accepted as  a  synonym  for  %p.
       Finally

       %s     The  number  of  seconds  since  the  Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 (UTC).  Leap
              seconds are not counted unless leap second support is available.

       The glibc implementation does not require whitespace between two field descriptors.

EXAMPLE

       The following example demonstrates the use of strptime() and strftime(3).

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <string.h>
       #include <time.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           struct tm tm;
           char buf[255];

           memset(&tm, 0, sizeof(struct tm));
           strptime("2001-11-12 18:31:01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", &tm);
           strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d %b %Y %H:%M", &tm);
           puts(buf);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO

       time(2), getdate(3), scanf(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3)

COLOPHON

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