Provided by: groff_1.21-7_i386 bug

NAME

       groff_man - groff `man' macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS

       groff -man [options ...] [files ...]
       groff -m man [options ...] [files ...]

DESCRIPTION

       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by
       James Clark.  This document provides a brief summary of the use of each
       macro in that package.

OPTIONS

       The  man  macros  understand  the following command line options (which
       define various registers).

       -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff  mode)  creates  a  single,
              very long page instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable
              it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page  is  given  on  the  command  line,
              number the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided  printing.   Footers  for  even  and  odd pages are
              formatted differently.

       -rFT=dist
              Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
              negative  or  relative  to  the top if positive.  The default is
              -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
              Set hyphenation flags.   Possible  values  are  1  to  hyphenate
              without  restrictions,  2  to  not  hyphenate the last word on a
              page, 4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word,  and
              8  to  not  hyphenate the first two characters of a word.  These
              values are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
              Set body text indentation to  width.   The  default  is  7n  for
              nroff,  7.2n  for troff.  For nroff, this value should always be
              an integer multiple of unit `n' to get consistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
              Set line length.  If this option is not given, the  line  length
              is set to respect any value set by a prior `.ll' request, (which
              must be in effect when the `.TH'  macro  is  invoked),  if  this
              differs  from  the built-in default for the formatter; otherwise
              it defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

              Note that the use of a `.ll'  request  to  initialize  the  line
              length   is  supported  for  backward  compatibility  with  some
              versions of the man program; direct initialization of  the  `LL'
              register  should  always  be  preferred  to  the  use  of such a
              request.  In particular, note that a `.ll 65n' request does  not
              preserve  the normal nroff default line length, (the man default
              initialization to 78n prevails), whereas, the `-rLL=65n' option,
              or  an  equivalent `.nr LL 65n' request preceding the use of the
              `TH' macro, does set a line length of 65n.

       -rLT=title-length
              Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length
              defaults to the line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base  document  font size is xx points (xx can be 10, 11, or 12)
              rather than 10 points.

       -rSN=width
              Set sub-subheading indentation to width.  The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After page nnn, number pages as  nnna,  nnnb,  nnnc,  etc.   For
              example,  the option `-rX2' produces the following page numbers:
              1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE

       This section describes the available  macros  for  manual  pages.   For
       further customization, put additional macros and requests into the file
       man.local which is loaded immediately after the man package.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
              Set the title of the man  page  to  title  and  the  section  to
              section,  which must take on a value between 1 and 8.  The value
              section may also have a string appended, e.g. `.pm', to indicate
              a  specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and section
              are positioned at the left and right in the  header  line  (with
              section in parentheses immediately appended to title.  extra1 is
              positioned  in  the  middle  of  the  footer  line.   extra2  is
              positioned  at  the  left  in the footer line (or at the left on
              even pages and  at  the  right  on  odd  pages  if  double-sided
              printing is active).  extra3 is centered in the header line.

              For HTML output, headers and footers are completely suppressed.

              Additionally,  this macro starts a new page; the new line number
              is 1 again (except if the `-rC1' option is given on the  command
              line)  --  this feature is intended only for formatting multiple
              man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro
              at the beginning of the file.

       .SH [text for a heading]
              Set  up  an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left.
              Prints out all the text following SH up to the end of  the  line
              (or  the  text in the next input line if there is no argument to
              SH) in bold face (or the font specified by the string  HF),  one
              size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left
              margin and the indentation for the following text  is  reset  to
              the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
              Set  up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.  Prints out all
              the text following SS up to the end of the line (or the text  in
              the  next input line if there is no argument to SS) in bold face
              (or the font specified by the string HF), at the  same  size  as
              the  base  document size.  Additionally, the left margin and the
              indentation for the following  text  is  reset  to  the  default
              values.

       .TP [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph with label.  The indentation is set
              to nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n'  if
              omitted),  otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value
              specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of
              them have been used yet).

              The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted
              as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a
              label.   It  is not interpreted as part of a paragraph, so there
              is no attempt  to  fill  the  first  line  with  text  from  the
              following  input  lines.   Nevertheless,  if the label is not as
              wide as the indentation the paragraph starts at  the  same  line
              (but indented), continuing on the following lines.  If the label
              is wider than  the  indentation  the  descriptive  part  of  the
              paragraph  begins  on  the  line  following  the label, entirely
              indented.  Note that neither font shape nor  font  size  of  the
              label  is set to a default value; on the other hand, the rest of
              the text has default font settings.

              The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just
              reading.

       .TQ    The  TQ macro sets up header continuation for a .TP macro.  With
              it, you can stack  up  any  number  of  labels  (such  as  in  a
              glossary,  or  list  of  commands) before beginning the indented
              paragraph.  For an example, look just past the next paragraph.

              This macro is not defined on legacy Unix systems running classic
              troff.   To  be  certain  your  page  will  be portable to those
              systems, copy its definition from  the  an-ext.tmac  file  of  a
              groff installation.

       .LP
       .PP
       .P     These  macros  are  mutual  aliases.   Any of them causes a line
              break at the current position,  followed  by  a  vertical  space
              downwards  by  the  amount  specified by the PD macro.  The font
              size and shape are reset to the  default  value  (normally  10pt
              Roman).  Finally, the current left margin and the indentation is
              reset to the default values.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to  mark
              its  beginning.   The indentation is set to nnn if that argument
              is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted),  otherwise  it
              is  set to the previous indentation value specified with TP, IP,
              or HP (or to the default value if none of them  have  been  used
              yet).   Font  size  and  face  of  the  paragraph  (but  not the
              designator) are reset to its default values.

              To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
              without  a designator, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the second
              argument.

              For example, the following  paragraphs  were  all  set  up  with
              bullets  as the designator, using `.IP \(bu 4'.  The whole block
              has been enclosed with `.RS' and `.RE' to set  the  left  margin
              temporarily to the current indentation value.

              o   IP  is  one  of  the three macros used in the man package to
                  format lists.

              o   HP is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a  left
                  hanging indentation.

              o   TP  is  another.   This  macro  produces an unindented label
                  followed by an indented paragraph.

       .HP [nnn]
              Set  up  a  paragraph  with  hanging  left   indentation.    The
              indentation  is  set  to  nnn  if that argument is supplied (the
              default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise  it  is  set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to
              the default value if none of them have  been  used  yet).   Font
              size  and  face  are reset to its default values.  The following
              paragraph illustrates the effect  of  this  macro  with  hanging
              indentation  set  to  4 (enclosed by .RS and .RE to set the left
              margin temporarily to the current indentation):

              This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As
                  you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the
                  first are indented.

              Use of this presentation-level macro is deprecated.  While it is
              universally   portable   to   legacy  Unix  systems,  a  hanging
              indentation cannot be expressed naturally under HTML,  and  many
              HTML-based manual viewers simply interpret it as a starter for a
              normal paragraph.  Thus,  any  information  or  distinction  you
              tried to express with the indentation may be lost.

       .RS [nnn]
              This  macro  moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn
              if specified (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to
              the default value if none of them  have  been  used  yet).   The
              indentation value is then set to the default.

              Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .RE [nnn]
              This  macro  moves  the left margin back to level nnn, restoring
              the previous left margin.  If no argument is given, it moves one
              level  back.   The  first  level  (i.e.,  no call to RS yet) has
              number 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1.

       .EX
       .EE    Example/End Example.  After EX, filling is disabled and the font
              is  set  to constant-width.  This is useful for formatting code,
              command, and configuration-file examples.  The EE macro restores
              the previous font.

              These  macros  are  defined  on  many  (but not all) legacy Unix
              systems running classic troff.  To be certain your page will  be
              portable  to  those  systems,  copy  their  definitions from the
              an-ext.tmac file of a groff installation.

       To summarize,  the  following  macros  cause  a  line  break  with  the
       insertion  of  vertical  space (which amount can be changed with the PD
       macro): SH, SS, TP, TQ, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The macros RS, RE, EX,
       and EE also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS

       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .SM [text]
              Causes  the  text on the same line or the text on the next input
              line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .SB [text]
              Causes  the  text on the same line or the text on the next input
              line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .BI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and italic.  The text must be on the  same  line  as  the  macro
              call.  Thus

                     .BI this "word and" that

              would  cause  `this'  and  `that'  to appear in bold face, while
              `word and' appears in italics.

       .IB text
              Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.   The
              text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
              italic.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
              roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .BR text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman  and
              bold face.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .B [text]
              Causes  text  to  appear in bold face.  If no text is present on
              the line where the macro is called the text of  the  next  input
              line appears in bold face.

       .I [text]
              Causes  text  to appear in italic.  If no text is present on the
              line where the macro is called the text of the next  input  line
              appears in italic.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE HYPERLINKS AND EMAIL ADDRESSES

       The  following  macros  are  not defined on legacy Unix systems running
       classic troff.  To be certain your  page  will  be  portable  to  those
       systems,  copy  their  definitions from the an-ext.tmac file of a groff
       installation.

       Using these macros helps ensure  that  you  get  hyperlinks  when  your
       manual  page  is  rendered  in  a browser or other program that is Web-
       enabled.

       .UR URL
       .UE [punctuation]
              Wrap a World Wide Web hyperlink.  The argument to UR is the URL;
              thereafter,  lines  until  UE are collected and used as the link
              text.  Any argument to the UE macro is pasted to the end of  the
              text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     this is a link to
                     .UR http://\:randomsite.org/\:fubar
                     some random site
                     .UE ,
                     given as an example

              usually  displays like this: "this is a link to some random site
              <http://randomsite.org/fubar>, given as an example".

              The use of \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints  is  a  groff
              extension and can be omitted.

       .MT address
       .ME [punctuation]
              Wrap  an email address.  The argument of MT is the address; text
              following, until ME,  is  a  name  to  be  associated  with  the
              address.   Any  argument to the ME macro is pasted to the end of
              the link text.  On a device that is not a browser,

                     contact
                     .UR fred.foonly@\:fubar.net
                     Fred Foonly
                     .UE
                     for more information

              usually displays like this: "contact Fred  Foonly  <fred.foonly@
              fubar.net> for more information".

              The  use  of  \:  to  insert  hyphenless  breakpoints is a groff
              extension and can be omitted.

MACROS TO DESCRIBE COMMAND SYNOPSES

       The following macros are not defined on  legacy  Unix  systems  running
       classic  troff.   To  be  certain  your  page will be portable to those
       systems, copy their definitions from the an-ext.tmac file  of  a  groff
       installation.

       These macros are a convenience for authors.  They also assist automated
       translation tools and help browsers in recognizing command synopses and
       treating them differently from running text.

       .SY command
              Begin synopsis.  Takes a single argument, the name of a command.
              Text following, until closed  by  YS,  is  set  with  a  hanging
              indentation  with  the  width  of  command  plus  a space.  This
              produces the traditional look of a Unix command synopsis.

       .OP key value
              Describe an optional command argument.  The  arguments  of  this
              macro  are  set surrounded by option braces in the default Roman
              font; the first argument is printed with a bold face, while  the
              second argument is typeset as italic.

       .YS    This  macro  restores normal indentation at the end of a command
              synopsis.

       Here is a real example:

              .SY groff
              .OP \-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ
              .OP \-d cs
              .OP \-f fam
              .OP \-F dir
              .OP \-I dir
              .OP \-K arg
              .OP \-L arg
              .OP \-m name
              .OP \-M dir
              .OP \-n num
              .OP \-o list
              .OP \-P arg
              .OP \-r cn
              .OP \-T dev
              .OP \-w name
              .OP \-W name
              .RI [ file
              .IR .\|.\|. ]
              .YS

       produces the following output:

              groff [-abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir]
                    [-I dir] [-K arg] [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
                    [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name]
                    [file ...]

       If  necessary, you might use br requests to control line breaking.  You
       can insert  plain  text  as  well;  this  looks  like  the  traditional
       (unornamented) syntax for a required command argument or filename.

MISCELLANEOUS

       The  default  indentation  is  7.2n  in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode
       except for grohtml which ignores indentation.

       .DT    Set tabs every 0.5 inches.  Since this macro  is  always  called
              during  a  TH request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab
              positions have been changed.

              Use  of  this  presentation-level  macro  is   deprecated.    It
              translates  poorly to HTML, under which exact whitespace control
              and tabbing are not readily  available.   Thus,  information  or
              distinctions  that  you use DT to express are likely to be lost.
              If you feel tempted to use it, you should probably be  composing
              a table using tbl(@MAN1DIR@) markup instead.

       .PD [nnn]
              Adjust  the  empty space before a new paragraph or section.  The
              optional argument gives the amount of  space  (default  unit  is
              `v'); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value
              (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects the macros
              SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

              Use   of   this  presentation-level  macro  is  deprecated.   It
              translates poorly to HTML, under which exact control  of  inter-
              paragraph  spacing  is not readily available.  Thus, information
              or distinctions that you use PD to  express  are  likely  to  be
              lost.

       .AT [system [release]]
              Alter  the  footer  for  use  with AT&T man pages.  This command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .UC [version]
              Alter  the  footer  for  use  with  BSD man pages.  This command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .PT    Print  the header string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the header.

       .BT    Print the footer string.  Redefine this macro to get control  of
              the footer.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*R    The `registered' sign.

       \*(Tm  The `trademark' sign.

       \*(lq
       \*(rq  Left  and  right  quote.   This  is  equal to `\(lq' and `\(rq',
              respectively.

       \*(HF  The typeface  used  to  print  headings  and  subheadings.   The
              default is `B'.

       If  a  preprocessor  like tbl or eqn is needed, it has become common to
       make the first line of the man page look like this:

              '\" word

       Note the single space character after the double quote.  word  consists
       of  letters  for  the needed preprocessors: `e' for eqn, `r' for refer,
       and `t' for tbl.  Modern implementations of the man program  read  this
       first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

PORTABILITY AND TROFF REQUESTS

       Since  the  man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in
       principle,  supplement  the  functionality  of  the  man  macros   with
       individual  groff  requests  where necessary.  See the groff info pages
       for a complete reference of all requests.

       Note, however, that using raw troff requests is  likely  to  make  your
       page  render  poorly on the (increasingly common) class of viewers that
       render it to HTML.  Troff  requests  make  implicit  assumptions  about
       things  like  character  and  page  sizes  that  may  break  in an HTML
       environment; also, many of these viewers don't interpret the full troff
       vocabulary,  a  problem  which  can lead to portions of your text being
       silently dropped.

       For portability to modern viewers,  it  is  best  to  write  your  page
       entirely  in  the requests described on this page.  Further, it is best
       to completely avoid those we  have  described  as  `presentation-level'
       (HP, PD, and DT).

       The  macros  we  have  described  as  extensions (.EX/.EE, .SY/.OP/.YS,
       .UR/.UE, and .MT/.ME) should be used with caution, as they may not  yet
       be  built  in to some viewer that is important to your audience.  If in
       doubt, copy the implementation onto your page.

FILES

       man.tmac
       an.tmac
              These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
              Use this file in case you don't know whether the man  macros  or
              the  mdoc package should be used.  Multiple man pages (in either
              format) can be handled.

       an-old.tmac
              Most man macros are contained in this file.

       an-ext.tmac
              The extension macro definitions for .SY, .OP, .YS, .TQ, .EX/.EE,
              .UR/.UE,  and .MT/.ME are contained in this file.  It is written
              in  classic  troff,  and  released  for  free  re-use,  and  not
              copylefted;  manual  page authors concerned about portability to
              legacy Unix systems are encouraged  to  copy  these  definitions
              into their pages, and maintainers of troff or its workalikes are
              encouraged to re-use them.

       man.local
              Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

SEE ALSO

       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1), man(7), groff_mdoc(7)

AUTHORS

       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system
       by  Susan  G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>.  It was corrected and updated
       by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.  The extension macros  were  documented
       (and  partly  designed)  by  Eric S. Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>; he also
       wrote the portability advice.