Provided by: aptitude_0.6.6-1ubuntu1_i386 bug

NOM

       aptitude - interface evoluee pour le gestionnaire de paquets

SYNOPSIS

       aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all |
                update}

       aptitude [<options>...] {full-upgrade | safe-upgrade} [<packages>...]

       aptitude [<options>...] {build-dep | build-depends | changelog |
                download | forbid-version | hold | install | markauto | purge
                | reinstall | remove | show | unhold | unmarkauto | versions}
                <packages>...

       aptitude extract-cache-subset <output-directory> <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] search <motifs>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {add-user-tag | remove-user-tag} <tag>
                <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {why | why-not} [<patterns>...] <package>

       aptitude [-S <fname>] [--autoclean-on-startup | --clean-on-startup | -i
                | -u]

       aptitude help

DESCRIPTION

       aptitude est une interface en mode texte pour le gestionnaire de
       paquets de Debian GNU/Linux.

       Elle permet a l'utilisateur de connaitre la liste des paquets et de
       realiser des taches d'administration comme l'installation, la mise a
       jour ou l'effacement de paquets. Ces taches peuvent etre realisees en
       mode << interactif >> ou a partir de la << ligne de commande >>.

COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS

       Le premier argument qui ne commence pas par un tiret (<< - >>) sera
       considere comme etant la commande que le programme doit realiser. Si
       aucune commande n'est donnee, aptitude demarrera en mode interactif.

       Commandes disponibles :

       install
           Install one or more packages. The packages should be listed after
           the << install >> command; if a package name contains a tilde
           character (<< ~ >>) or a question mark (<< ? >>), it will be
           treated as a search pattern and every package matching the pattern
           will be installed (see the section << Search Patterns >> in the
           aptitude reference manual).

           To select a particular version of the package, append
           << =<version> >> to the package name: for instance, << aptitude
           install apt=0.3.1 >>. Similarly, to select a package from a
           particular archive, append << /<archive> >> to the package name:
           for instance, << aptitude install apt/experimental >>. You cannot
           specify both an archive and a version for a package.

           Tous les paquets listes sur la ligne de commande ne doivent pas
           necessairement etre installe. Vous pouvez dire a aptitude d'agir
           differemment avec un paquet en suffixant un << attribut de
           surcharge >> au nom du paquet. Par exemple, aptitude remove
           wesnoth+ installera wesnoth au lieu de le supprimer. Les attributs
           de surcharge suivants sont disponibles :

           <paquet>+
               Installe <paquet>.

           <paquet>+M
               Installe <paquet> et le marque comme installe automatiquement
               (notez que si aucun autre paquet ne depend de <paquet>, cela
               entrainera sa suppression immediate).

           <paquet>-
               Supprime <paquet>.

           <paquet>_
               Purge <paquet> : supprime le paquet ainsi que tous ses fichiers
               de configuration.

           <paquet>=
               Marque <paquet> comme etant a conserver : annule toute action
               d'installation, de mise a jour ou de suppression, et empeche ce
               paquet d'etre mis a jour automatiquement dans le futur.

           <paquet>:
               Garde <paquet> a sa version actuelle : annule toute action
               d'installation, de mise a jour ou de suppression. Contrairement
               a << hold >> (voir ci-dessus), cela n'empeche pas ce paquet
               d'etre mis a jour automatiquement dans le futur.

           <paquet>&M
               Marque <paquet> comme ayant ete installe automatiquement.

           <paquet>&m
               Marque <paquet> comme ayant ete installe manuellement.

           Cas particulier, << install >> sans autre argument resoudra les
           commandes en suspens ou differees.

               Note
               Une fois que vous avez appuye sur Y a l'invite de confirmation
               finale, la commande << install >> modifie les informations
               enregistrees sur les actions qu'aptitude doit realiser. De ce
               fait, si vous lancez la commande << aptitude install toto
               titi >> puis que vous arretiez l'installation alors qu'aptitude
               a deja commence a telecharger et installer des paquets, vous
               devrez lancer << aptitude remove toto titi >> pour l'annuler.

       remove, purge, hold, unhold, keep, reinstall
           These commands are the same as << install >>, but apply the named
           action to all packages given on the command line for which it is
           not overridden. The difference between hold and keep is that hold
           will cause a package to be ignored by future safe-upgrade or
           full-upgrade commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled
           actions on the package.  unhold will allow a package to be upgraded
           by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade commands, without otherwise
           altering its state.

           Par exemple, << aptitude remove '~ndeity' >> supprimera tous les
           paquets dont le nom contient << deity >>).

       markauto, unmarkauto
           Indique que les paquets ont ete respectivement installes
           automatiquement, ou a la main. Vous pouvez choisir les paquets
           grace a la syntaxe vue plus haut, et meme indiquer les commandes a
           realiser. Par exemple, << aptitude markauto '~slibs' >> marquera
           tous les paquets de la section << libs >> comme ayant ete installes
           automatiquement.

           Pour plus d'informations sur les paquets installes automatiquement,
           consultez la section << Gerer les paquets automatiquement
           installes >> dans le manuel de reference d'aptitude.

       build-depends, build-dep
           Satisfy the build-dependencies of a package. Each package name may
           be a source package, in which case the build dependencies of that
           source package are installed; otherwise, binary packages are found
           in the same way as for the << install >> command, and the
           build-dependencies of the source packages that build those binary
           packages are satisfied.

           If the command-line parameter --arch-only is present, only
           architecture-dependent build dependencies (i.e., not
           Build-Depends-Indep or Build-Conflicts-Indep) will be obeyed.

       forbid-version
           Forbid a package from being upgraded to a particular version. This
           will prevent aptitude from automatically upgrading to this version,
           but will allow automatic upgrades to future versions. By default,
           aptitude will select the version to which the package would
           normally be upgraded; you may override this selection by appending
           << =<version> >> to the package name: for instance, << aptitude
           forbid-version vim=1.2.3.broken-4 >>.

           This command is useful for avoiding broken versions of packages
           without having to set and clear manual holds. If you decide you
           really want the forbidden version after all, << aptitude install
           <package> >> will remove the ban.

       update
           Met a jour la liste des paquets disponibles sur les serveurs
           maitres. (C'est l'equivalent de << apt-get update >>).

       safe-upgrade
           Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version. Installed
           packages will not be removed unless they are unused (see the
           section << Managing Automatically Installed Packages >> in the
           aptitude reference manual). Packages which are not currently
           installed may be installed to resolve dependencies unless the
           --no-new-installs command-line option is supplied.

           If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will
           attempt to upgrade every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise,
           aptitude will attempt to upgrade only the packages which it is
           instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with suffixes
           in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can
           also give additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance,
           aptitude safe-upgrade bash dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash
           package and remove the dash package.

           It is sometimes necessary to remove one package in order to upgrade
           another; this command is not able to upgrade packages in such
           situations. Use the full-upgrade command to upgrade as many
           packages as possible.

       full-upgrade
           Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version, removing
           or installing packages as necessary. This command is less
           conservative than safe-upgrade and thus more likely to perform
           unwanted actions. However, it is capable of upgrading packages that
           safe-upgrade cannot upgrade.

           If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will
           attempt to upgrade every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise,
           aptitude will attempt to upgrade only the packages which it is
           instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with suffixes
           in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can
           also give additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance,
           aptitude full-upgrade bash dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash
           package and remove the dash package.

               Note
               Cette commande s'appellait dist-upgrade pour des raisons
               historiques, aptitude la reconnait toujours.  dist-upgrade est
               un synonyme de full-upgrade.

       keep-all
           Annule toutes les actions prevues sur des paquets. Tout paquet dont
           l'etat indique une action prevue d'installation, de suppression ou
           de mise a jour verra son etat remis a zero.

       forget-new
           Ignore les << nouveaux >> paquets (equivaut a presser << f >> en
           mode interactif).

       search
           Recherche les paquets qui correspondent a un ou plusieurs motifs
           donnes sur la ligne de commande. Tous les paquets correspondant aux
           expressions demandees seront affiches. Par exemple, << aptitude
           search '~N' edit >> affichera tous les << nouveaux >> paquets et
           ceux dont le nom contient << edit >>. Les expressions de recherche
           sont expliquees en detail dans << Motifs de recherche >> dans le
           manuel de reference d'aptitude.

               Note
               In the example above, << aptitude search '~N' edit >> has two
               arguments after search and thus is searching for two patterns:
               << ~N >> and << edit >>. As described in the search pattern
               reference, a single pattern composed of two sub-patterns
               separated by a space (such as << ~N edit >>) matches only if
               both patterns match. Thus, the command << aptitude search '~N
               edit' >> will only show << new >> packages whose name contains
               << edit >>.
           A moins d'avoir invoque l'option -F, la sortie de la commande
           aptitude search ressemblera a quelque chose comme ceci :

               i   apt                             - Advanced front-end for dpkg
               pi  apt-build                       - frontend to apt to build, optimize and in
               cp  apt-file                        - APT package searching utility -- command-
               ihA raptor-utils                    - Raptor RDF Parser utilities

           Les resultats sont presentes ligne par ligne. Le premier caractere
           de chaque ligne indique l'etat courant du paquet : les etats les
           plus courants sont p qui signifie qu'aucune trace du paquet n'est
           presente sur le systeme, c qui signifie que le paquet a ete
           supprime mais que ses fichiers de configuration sont toujours
           present sur le systeme, i qui signifie que le paquet est installe
           et v qui signifie que le paquet est virtuel. Le second caractere
           indique l'action prevue (s'il y en a une, un espace sinon) sur le
           paquet. Les actions les plus courantes sont : i pour les paquets
           sur le point a installer, d pour ceux a supprimer et p pour ceux a
           purger (c-a-d, a supprimer ainsi que ses fichiers de
           configuration). Si le dernier caractere est un A, le paquet a ete
           installe automatiquement.

           For a complete list of the possible state and action flags, see the
           section << Accessing Package Information >> in the aptitude
           reference guide. To customize the output of search, see the
           command-line options -F and --sort.

       show
           Displays detailed information about one or more packages, listed
           following the search command. If a package name contains a tilde
           character (<< ~ >>) or a question mark (<< ? >>), it will be
           treated as a search pattern and all matching packages will be
           displayed (see the section << Search Patterns >> in the aptitude
           reference manual).

           Si le niveau de verbosite est au moins 1 (c'est-a-dire que l'option
           -v est presente sur la ligne de commande), les informations sur
           toutes les versions du paquets sont affichees. Sinon, seules les
           informations sur la << version installable >> sont affichees (la
           version qui serait telechargee par << aptitude install >>).

           You can display information about a different version of the
           package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can
           display the version from a particular archive or release by
           appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name: for
           instance, /unstable or /sid. If either of these is present, then
           only the version you request will be displayed, regardless of the
           verbosity level.

           Si le niveau de verbosite est au moins 1, les champs architecture,
           taille compressee, nom de fichier et somme md5 du paquet sont
           affiches. Si le niveau de verbosite est au moins 2, la ou les
           versions selectionnees seront affichees une fois pour chacune des
           archives dans lesquelles elles sont trouvees.

       versions
           Displays the versions of the packages listed on the command-line.

               $ aptitude versions wesnoth
               p   1:1.4.5-1                                                             100
               p   1:1.6.5-1                                    unstable                 500
               p   1:1.7.14-1                                   experimental             1

           Each version is listed on a separate line. The leftmost three
           characters indicate the current state, planned state (if any), and
           whether the package was automatically installed; for more
           information on their meanings, see the documentation of aptitude
           search. To the right of the version number you can find the
           releases from which the version is available, and the pin priority
           of the version.

           If a package name contains a tilde character (<< ~ >>) or a
           question mark (<< ? >>), it will be treated as a search pattern and
           all matching versions will be displayed (see the section << Search
           Patterns >> in the aptitude reference manual). This means that, for
           instance, aptitude versions '~i' will display all the versions that
           are currently installed on the system and nothing else, not even
           other versions of the same packages.

               $ aptitude versions '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               Package exim4-daemon-light:
               i   4.71-3                                                                100
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

               Package exim4-daemon-light-dbg:
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

           If the input is a search pattern, or if more than one package's
           versions are to be displayed, aptitude will automatically group the
           output by package, as shown above. You can disable this via
           --group-by=none, in which case aptitude will display a single list
           of all the versions that were found and automatically include the
           package name in each output line:

               $ aptitude versions --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               i   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-3                                             100
               p   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-4                    unstable                 500
               p   exim4-daemon-light-dbg 4.71-4                unstable                 500

           To disable the package name, pass --show-package-names=never:

               $ aptitude versions --show-package-names=never --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
               i   4.71-3                                                                100
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500
               p   4.71-4                                       unstable                 500

           In addition to the above options, the information printed for each
           version can be controlled by the command-line option -F. The order
           in which versions are displayed can be controlled by the
           command-line option --sort. To prevent aptitude from formatting the
           output into columns, use --disable-columns.

       add-user-tag, remove-user-tag
           Adds a user tag to or removes a user tag from the selected group of
           packages. If a package name contains a tilde (<< ~ >>) or question
           mark (<< ? >>), it is treated as a search pattern and the tag is
           added to or removed from all the packages that match the pattern
           (see the section << Search Patterns >> in the aptitude reference
           manual).

           User tags are arbitrary strings associated with a package. They can
           be used with the ?user-tag(<tag>) search term, which will select
           all the packages that have a user tag matching <tag>.

       why, why-not
           Explains the reason that a particular package should or cannot be
           installed on the system.

           Cette commande cherche les paquets qui dependent ou sont en conflit
           avec ce paquet. Il affiche la suite de dependances qui s'enchainent
           jusqu'au paquet vise, et une note indique l'etat de chacun des
           paquets de la suite de dependances.

               $ aptitude why kdepim
               i   nautilus-data Recommends nautilus
               i A nautilus      Recommends desktop-base (>= 0.2)
               i A desktop-base  Suggests   gnome | kde | xfce4 | wmaker
               p   kde           Depends    kdepim (>= 4:3.4.3)

           The command why finds a dependency chain that installs the package
           named on the command line, as above. Note that the dependency that
           aptitude produced in this case is only a suggestion. This is
           because no package currently installed on this computer depends on
           or recommends the kdepim package; if a stronger dependency were
           available, aptitude would have displayed it.

           A contrario, why-not cherche la chaine de dependances qui conduit
           au conflit avec le paquet cible.

               $ aptitude why-not textopo
               i   ocaml-core          Depends   ocamlweb
               i A ocamlweb            Depends   tetex-extra | texlive-latex-extra
               i A texlive-latex-extra Conflicts textopo

           If one or more <pattern>s are present, then aptitude will begin its
           search at these patterns; that is, the first package in the chain
           it prints will be a package matching the pattern in question. The
           patterns are considered to be package names unless they contain a
           tilde character (<< ~ >>) or a question mark (<< ? >>), in which
           case they are treated as search patterns (see the section << Search
           Patterns >> in the aptitude reference manual).

           If no patterns are present, then aptitude will search for
           dependency chains beginning at manually installed packages. This
           effectively shows the packages that have caused or would cause a
           given package to be installed.

               Note
               aptitude why ne realise par une recherche complete de
               dependances. Il n'affiche que les relations directes entre
               paquet. Par exemple, si A a besoin de B, que C a besoin de D,
               et que B et C sont en conflit, << aptitude why-not D >> ne
               trouvera pas la reponse << A depend de BB, B est en conflit
               avec C, et D depend de C >>.
           By default aptitude outputs only the << most installed, strongest,
           tightest, shortest >> dependency chain. That is, it looks for a
           chain that only contains packages which are installed or will be
           installed; it looks for the strongest possible dependencies under
           that restriction; it looks for chains that avoid ORed dependencies
           and Provides; and it looks for the shortest dependency chain
           meeting those criteria. These rules are progressively weakened
           until a match is found.

           If the verbosity level is 1 or more, then all the explanations
           aptitude can find will be displayed, in inverse order of relevance.
           If the verbosity level is 2 or more, a truly excessive amount of
           debugging information will be printed to standard output.

           This command returns 0 if successful, 1 if no explanation could be
           constructed, and -1 if an error occurred.

       clean
           Supprime tous les paquets .deb telecharges et enregistres dans le
           repertoire cache (normalement /var/cache/apt/archives).

       autoclean
           Supprime tout paquet enregistre dans le cache et qui n'est plus
           propose au telechargement. Cela vous permet d'empecher que le cache
           ne grossisse demesurement avec le temps, sans avoir a le vider
           completement.

       changelog
           Telecharge et affiche le journal des modifications pour chaque
           paquet source ou binaires.

           By default, the changelog for the version which would be installed
           with << aptitude install >> is downloaded. You can select a
           particular version of a package by appending =<version> to the
           package name; you can select the version from a particular archive
           or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package
           name (for instance, /unstable or /sid).

       download
           Downloads the .deb file for the given package to the current
           directory. If a package name contains a tilde character (<< ~ >>)
           or a question mark (<< ? >>), it will be treated as a search
           pattern and all the matching packages will be downloaded (see the
           section << Search Patterns >> in the aptitude reference manual).

           By default, the version which would be installed with << aptitude
           install >> is downloaded. You can select a particular version of a
           package by appending =<version> to the package name; you can select
           the version from a particular archive or release by appending
           /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance:
           /unstable or /sid).

       extract-cache-subset
           Copy the apt configuration directory (/etc/apt) and a subset of the
           package database to the specified directory. If no packages are
           listed, the entire package database is copied; otherwise only the
           entries corresponding to the named packages are copied. Each
           package name may be a search pattern, and all the packages matching
           that pattern will be selected (see the section << Search
           Patterns >> in the aptitude reference manual). Any existing package
           database files in the output directory will be overwritten.

           Dependencies in binary package stanzas will be rewritten to remove
           references to packages not in the selected set.

       help
           Affiche un bref resume des commandes et options disponibles.

OPTIONS

       Les options qui suivent peuvent etre utilisees afin de modifier le
       comportement des commandes ci-dessus. Remarquez que les commandes ne
       vont pas toutes reagir a chaque option (en effet, certaines options
       n'ont aucun sens pour certaines commandes).

       --add-user-tag <tag>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install,
           keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
           and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag> to all packages that are
           installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the
           add-user-tag command.

       --add-user-tag-to <tag>,<pattern>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
           keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
           and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag> to all packages that match
           <pattern> as if with the add-user-tag command. The pattern is a
           search pattern as described in the section << Search Patterns >> in
           the aptitude reference manual.

           For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --add-user-tag-to
           "new-installs,?action(install)" will add the tag new-installs to
           all the packages installed by the safe-upgrade command.

       --allow-new-upgrades
           When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was
           passed, the action is safe-upgrade, or
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the
           dependency resolver to install upgrades for packages regardless of
           the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.

       --allow-new-installs
           Allow the safe-upgrade command to install new packages; when the
           safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed, the
           action is safe-upgrade, or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is
           set to true), allow the dependency resolver to install new
           packages. This option takes effect regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

       --allow-untrusted
           Install packages from untrusted sources without prompting. You
           should only use this if you know what you are doing, as it could
           easily compromise your system's security.

       --disable-columns
           This option causes aptitude search and aptitude version to output
           their results without any special formatting. In particular:
           normally aptitude will add whitespace or truncate search results in
           an attempt to fit its results into vertical << columns >>. With
           this flag, each line will be formed by replacing any format escapes
           in the format string with the corresponding text; column widths
           will be ignored.

           For instance, the first few lines of output from << aptitude search
           -F '%p %V' --disable-columns libedataserver >> might be:

               disksearch 1.2.1-3
               hp-search-mac 0.1.3
               libbsearch-ruby 1.5-5
               libbsearch-ruby1.8 1.5-5
               libclass-dbi-abstractsearch-perl 0.07-2
               libdbix-fulltextsearch-perl 0.73-10

           As in the above example, --disable-columns is often useful in
           combination with a custom display format set using the command-line
           option -F.

           This corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Disable-Columns.

       -D, --show-deps
           For commands that will install or remove packages (install,
           full-upgrade, etc), show brief explanations of automatic
           installations and removals.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps.

       -d, --download-only
           N'installe ni ne supprime aucun paquet. Telecharge simplement les
           paquets necessaires dans le cache.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only.

       -F <format>, --display-format <format>
           Specify the format which should be used to display output from the
           search and version commands. For instance, passing << %p %V %v >>
           for <format> will display a package's name, followed by its
           currently installed version and its available version (see the
           section << Customizing how packages are displayed >> in the
           aptitude reference manual for more information).

           The command-line option --disable-columns is often useful in
           combination with -F.

           For search, this corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format; for versions, this
           corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Version-Display-Format.

       -f
           Essaye temerairement de resoudre les dependances des paquets
           casses, meme si cela implique d'ignorer des actions demandees sur
           la ligne de commande.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken.

       --full-resolver
           When package dependency problems are encountered, use the default
           << full >> resolver to solve them. Unlike the << safe >> resolver
           activated by --safe-resolver, the full resolver will happily remove
           packages to fulfill dependencies. It can resolve more situations
           than the safe algorithm, but its solutions are more likely to be
           undesirable.

           This option can be used to force the use of the full resolver even
           when Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is true. The safe-upgrade
           command never uses the full resolver and does not accept the
           --full-resolver option.

       --group-by <grouping-mode>
           Control how the versions command groups its output. The following
           values are recognized:

           o    archive to group packages by the archive they occur in
               (<< stable >>, << unstable >>, etc). If a package occurs in
               several archives, it will be displayed in each of them.

           o    auto to group versions by their package unless there is
               exactly one argument and it is not a search pattern.

           o    none to display all the versions in a single list without any
               grouping.

           o    package to group versions by their package.

           o    source-package to group versions by their source package.

           o    source-version to group versions by their source package and
               source version.

           This corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Group-By.

       -h, --help
           Affiche un court message d'aide. Identique a l'action help.

       --log-file=<file>
           If <file> is a nonempty string, log messages will be written to it,
           except that if <file> is << - >>, the messages will be written to
           standard output instead. If this option appears multiple times, the
           last occurrence is the one that will take effect.

           This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has
           performed (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this
           configuration include internal program events, errors, and
           debugging messages. See the command-line option --log-level to get
           more control over what gets logged.

           This corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::Logging::File.

       --log-level=<level>, --log-level=<category>:<level>

           --log-level=<level> causes aptitude to only log messages whose
           level is <level> or higher. For instance, setting the log level to
           error will cause only messages at the log levels error and fatal to
           be displayed; all others will be hidden. Valid log levels (in
           descending order) are off, fatal, error, warn, info, debug, and
           trace. The default log level is warn.

           --log-level=<category>:<level> causes messages in <category> to
           only be logged if their level is <level> or higher.

           --log-level may appear multiple times on the command line; the most
           specific setting is the one that takes effect, so if you pass
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver:fatal and
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver.hints.match:trace, then messages in
           aptitude.resolver.hints.parse will only be printed if their level
           is fatal, but all messages in aptitude.resolver.hints.match will be
           printed. If you set the level of the same category two or more
           times, the last setting is the one that will take effect.

           This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has
           performed (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this
           configuration include internal program events, errors, and
           debugging messages. See the command-line option --log-file to
           change where log messages go.

           This corresponds to the configuration group
           Aptitude::Logging::Levels.

       --log-resolver
           Set some standard log levels related to the resolver, to produce
           logging output suitable for processing with automated tools. This
           is equivalent to the command-line options
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search:trace
           --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search.tiers:info.

       --no-new-installs
           Prevent safe-upgrade from installing any new packages; when the
           safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), forbid the
           dependency resolver from installing new packages. This option takes
           effect regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

           This mimics the historical behavior of apt-get upgrade.

       --no-new-upgrades
           When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was
           passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true),
           forbid the dependency resolver from installing upgrades for
           packages regardless of the value of
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.

       --no-show-resolver-actions
           Do not display the actions performed by the << safe >> resolver,
           overriding any configuration option or earlier
           --show-resolver-actions.

       -O <ordre>, --sort <ordre>
           Specify the order in which output from the search and versions
           commands should be displayed. For instance, passing
           << installsize >> for <order> will list packages in order according
           to their size when installed (see the section << Customizing how
           packages are sorted >> in the aptitude reference manual for more
           information).

           The default sort order is name,version.

       -o <clef>=<valeur>
           Definit une option du fichier de configuration a la volee. Utilisez
           par exemple -o Aptitude::Log=/tmp/mes-logs afin de consigner (logs)
           les evenements d'aptitude dans le fichier /tmp/mes-logs. Pour plus
           d'informations sur les options du fichier de configuration,
           consultez le chapitre << Reference du fichier de configuration >>
           dans le manuel de reference d'aptitude.

       -P, --prompt
           Always display a prompt before downloading, installing or removing
           packages, even when no actions other than those explicitly
           requested will be performed.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Always-Prompt.

       --purge-unused
           If Aptitude::Delete-Unused is set to << true >> (its default), then
           in addition to removing each package that is no longer required by
           any installed package, aptitude will also purge them, removing
           their configuration files and perhaps other important data. For
           more information about which packages are considered to be
           << unused >>, see the section << Managing Automatically Installed
           Packages >> in the aptitude reference manual.  THIS OPTION CAN
           CAUSE DATA LOSS! DO NOT USE IT UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING!

           This corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::Purge-Unused.

       -q[=<n>], --quiet[=<n>]
           Enleve tous les indicateurs d'avancement et rend ainsi la sortie
           journalisable. Cette option peut etre passee plusieurs fois pour
           rendre le programme de plus en plus silencieux, mais contrairement
           a apt-get, aptitude n'ajoute pas implicitement -y quand -q est
           passee plus d'une fois.

           Le parametre optionnel =<n> peut etre utilise pour configurer
           directement le taux de silence (par exemple, pour surcharger un
           parametrage dans /etc/apt/apt.conf) ; le programme agit alors comme
           si -q lui avait ete passee exactement <n> fois.

       -R, --without-recommends
           Ne gere pas les recommandations de dependances lors de
           l'installation de nouveaux paquets (prioritaire sur les reglages de
           /etc/apt/apt.conf and ~/.aptitude/config). Les paquets installes
           precedemment pour ces meme raisons de recommandation ne seront pas
           supprimes.

           This corresponds to the pair of configuration options
           Apt::Install-Recommends and Apt::AutoRemove::InstallRecommends.

       -r, --with-recommends
           Traite les suggestions ou les recommandations en tant que
           dependances lors de l'installation des nouveaux paquets.
           (Prioritaire sur les reglages de /etc/apt.conf et
           ~/.aptitude/config).

           This corresponds to the configuration option
           Apt::Install-Recommends

       --remove-user-tag <tag>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
           keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
           and unmarkauto: remove the user tag <tag> from all packages that
           are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with the
           add-user-tag command.

       --remove-user-tag-from <tag>,<pattern>
           For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install,
           keep-all, markauto, unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold,
           and unmarkauto: remove the user tag <tag> from all packages that
           match <pattern> as if with the remove-user-tag command. The pattern
           is a search pattern as described in the section << Search
           Patterns >> in the aptitude reference manual.

           For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --remove-user-tag-from
           "not-upgraded,?action(upgrade)" will remove the not-upgraded tag
           from all packages that the safe-upgrade command is able to upgrade.

       -s, --simulate
           En mode ligne de commande, affiche la liste des actions qui
           seraient realisees, mais ne les lance pas reellement. Il n'est pas
           necessaire d'avoir les privileges d'administration. Dans
           l'interface visuelle, ouvre toujours le cache en mode lecture seule
           que vous soyez administrateur ou non.

           Directive du fichier de configuration : Aptitude::Simulate.

       --safe-resolver
           When package dependency problems are encountered, use a << safe >>
           algorithm to solve them. This resolver attempts to preserve as many
           of your choices as possible; it will never remove a package or
           install a version of a package other than the package's default
           candidate version. It is the same algorithm used in safe-upgrade;
           indeed, aptitude --safe-resolver full-upgrade is equivalent to
           aptitude safe-upgrade. Because safe-upgrade always uses the safe
           resolver, it does not accept the --safe-resolver flag.

           This option is equivalent to setting the configuration variable
           Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver to true.

       --schedule-only
           Pour les commandes qui modifient l'etat des paquets, programme les
           actions a faire pour plus tard, mais ne les fait pas. Vous pouvez
           executer les actions programmees en lancant aptitude install sans
           parametre. Cela revient a faire la selection correspondante en mode
           visuel, puis a quitter aptitude normalement.

           Par exemple, aptitude --schedule-only install evolution va
           programmer l'installation future du paquet evolution.

       --show-package-names <when>
           Controls when the versions command shows package names. The
           following settings are allowed:

           o    always: display package names every time that aptitude
               versions runs.

           o    auto: display package names when aptitude versions runs if the
               output is not grouped by package, and either there is a
               pattern-matching argument or there is more than one argument.

           o    never: never display package names in the output of aptitude
               versions.

           This option corresponds to the configuration item
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Show-Package-Names.

       --show-resolver-actions
           Display the actions performed by the << safe >> resolver and by
           safe-upgrade.

           When executing the command safe-upgrade or when the option
           --safe-resolver is present, aptitude will display a summary of the
           actions performed by the resolver before printing the installation
           preview. This is equivalent to the configuration option
           Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::Show-Resolver-Actions.

       --show-summary[=<MODE>]
           Changes the behavior of << aptitude why >> to summarize each
           dependency chain that it outputs, rather than displaying it in long
           form. If this option is present and <MODE> is not << no-summary >>,
           chains that contain Suggests dependencies will not be displayed:
           combine --show-summary with -v to see a summary of all the reasons
           for the target package to be installed.

           <MODE> can be any one of the following:

            1.  no-summary: don't show a summary (the default behavior if
               --show-summary is not present).

            2.  first-package: display the first package in each chain. This
               is the default value of <MODE> if it is not present.

            3.  first-package-and-type: display the first package in each
               chain, along with the strength of the weakest dependency in the
               chain.

            4.  all-packages: briefly display each chain of dependencies
               leading to the target package.

            5.  all-packages-with-dep-versions: briefly display each chain of
               dependencies leading to the target package, including the
               target version of each dependency.

           This option corresponds to the configuration item
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary; if --show-summary is present on
           the command-line, it will override Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary.

           Exemple 10. Usage of --show-summary

           --show-summary used with -v to display all the reasons a package is
           installed:

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                 foomatic-db-engine
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint
                 foomatic-db-hpijs
                 foomatic-filters-ppds
                 foomatic-gui
                 kde
                 printconf
                 wine

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=first-package-and-type why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 [Depends] cupsys-driver-gutenprint
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-engine
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-gutenprint
                 [Depends] foomatic-db-hpijs
                 [Depends] foomatic-filters-ppds
                 [Depends] foomatic-gui
                 [Depends] kde
                 [Depends] printconf
                 [Depends] wine

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 kde D: kdeadmin R: system-config-printer-kde D: system-config-printer R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 wine D: libwine-print D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 printconf D: foomatic-db

               $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages-with-dep-versions why foomatic-db
               Packages requiring foomatic-db:
                 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint (>= 5.0.2-4) D: cups (>= 1.3.0) R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 kde D: kdeadmin (>= 4:3.5.5) R: system-config-printer-kde (>= 4:4.2.2-1) D: system-config-printer (>= 1.0.0) R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 wine D: libwine-print (= 1.1.15-1) D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
                 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic (>= 0.7.9.2) D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
                 printconf D: foomatic-db

           --show-summary used to list a chain on one line:

               $ aptitude --show-summary=all-packages why aptitude-gtk libglib2.0-data
               Packages requiring libglib2.0-data:
                 aptitude-gtk D: libglib2.0-0 R: libglib2.0-data

       -t <version>, --target-release <version>
           Definit la version a partir de laquelle les paquets devront etre
           installes. Par exemple, << aptitude -t exp'erimental ... >>
           installera les paquets de la distribution experimentale, si rien
           d'autre n'est precise. Pour les actions de la ligne de commandes
           << changelog >>, << download >> et << show >>, cela revient a
           suffixer /<version> au nom de chaque paquet cite sur la ligne de
           commandes. Pour les autres commandes, cela modifiera la version
           installee par defaut selon les regles decrites dans
           apt_preferences(5).

           Directive du fichier de configuration : APT::Default-Release.

       -V, --show-versions
           Indique quelle version du paquet sera installee.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions.

       -v, --verbose
           Force quelques commandes (show par exemple) a afficher des
           informations supplementaires. Peut etre invoque plusieurs fois afin
           d'obtenir des informations de plus en plus completes.

           Directive du fichier de configuration : Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose.

       --version
           Affiche la version et quelques informations sur l'environnement de
           compilation d'aptitude.

       --visual-preview
           Lance l'interface visuelle et affiche l'ecran d'accueil, plutot que
           d'afficher l'habituelle invite de commande en ligne.

       -W, --show-why
           In the preview displayed before packages are installed or removed,
           show which manually installed package requires each automatically
           installed package. For instance:

               $ aptitude --show-why install mediawiki
               ...
               The following NEW packages will be installed:
                 libapache2-mod-php5{a} (for mediawiki)  mediawiki  php5{a} (for mediawiki)
                 php5-cli{a} (for mediawiki)  php5-common{a} (for mediawiki)
                 php5-mysql{a} (for mediawiki)

           When combined with -v or a non-zero value for
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose, this displays the entire chain of
           dependencies that lead each package to be installed. For instance:

               $ aptitude -v --show-why install libdb4.2-dev
               The following NEW packages will be installed:
                 libdb4.2{a} (libdb4.2-dev D: libdb4.2)  libdb4.2-dev
               The following packages will be REMOVED:
                 libdb4.4-dev{a} (libdb4.2-dev C: libdb-dev P<- libdb-dev)

           This option will also describe why packages are being removed, as
           shown above. In this example, libdb4.2-dev conflicts with
           libdb-dev, which is provided by libdb-dev.

           This argument corresponds to the configuration option
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Why and displays the same information that
           is computed by aptitude why and aptitude why-not.

       -w <largeur>, --width <largeur>
           Definit la largeur utilisee pour l'affichage du resultat de la
           commande search. (Par defaut, c'est la largeur du terminal).

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width

       -y, --assume-yes
           Repond << oui >> a toute question de type oui/non. En fait, cette
           option supprime l'invite (le prompt) qui apparait quand on
           installe, met a jour ou supprime des paquets. N'affecte pas les
           reponses aux questions particulierement dangereuses, telles que la
           suppression des paquets essentiels. A priorite sur -P.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes.

       -Z
           Affiche l'espace disque qui sera utilise ou libere par chacun des
           paquets a installer, mettre a jour ou supprimer.

           Directive du fichier de configuration :
           Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes.

       Les options suivantes s'appliquent au mode visuel du programme.
       Toutefois, elles ne sont utilisees qu'en interne. Normalement, vous
       n'en aurez pas besoin.

       --autoclean-on-startup
           Deletes old downloaded files when the program starts (equivalent to
           starting the program and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean
           obsolete files). You cannot use this option and
           << --autoclean-on-startup >>, << -i >>, or << -u >> at the same
           time.

       --clean-on-startup
           Cleans the package cache when the program starts (equivalent to
           starting the program and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean
           package cache). You cannot use this option and
           << --autoclean-on-startup >>, << -i >>, or << -u >> at the same
           time.

       -i
           Displays a download preview when the program starts (equivalent to
           starting the program and immediately pressing << g >>). You cannot
           use this option and << --autoclean-on-startup >>,
           << --clean-on-startup >>, or << -u >> at the same time.

       -S <nom-fichier>
           Charge les informations supplementaires a partir de <nom-fichier>
           plutot qu'a partir du fichier standard.

       -u
           Begins updating the package lists as soon as the program starts.
           You cannot use this option and << --autoclean-on-startup >>,
           << --clean-on-startup >>, or << -i >> at the same time.

VARIABLES D'ENVIRONNEMENT

       HOME
           If $HOME/.aptitude exists, aptitude will store its configuration
           file in $HOME/.aptitude/config. Otherwise, it will look up the
           current user's home directory using getpwuid(2) and place its
           configuration file there.

       PAGER
           Quand cette variable d'environnement est parametree, aptitude
           l'utilisera pour afficher les journaux de modification a
           l'invocation de << aptitude changelog >>. La valeur par defaut est
           more.

       TMP
           Quand TMPDIR n'est pas parametree, aptitude stockera ses fichiers
           temporaires dans TMP si cette derniere variable est parametree.
           Sinon, il les stockera dans /tmp.

       TMPDIR

           aptitude stockera ses fichiers temporaires dans le repertoire
           specifie par cette variable d'environnement. Si TMPDIR n'est pas
           parametree, alors TMP est utilisee. Si cette derniere ne l'est pas
           non plus, alors aptitude utilise /tmp.

FILES

       /var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates
           The file in which stored package states and some package flags are
           stored.

       /etc/apt/apt.conf, /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*, ~/.aptitude/config
           The configuration files for aptitude.  ~/.aptitude/config overrides
           /etc/apt/apt.conf. See apt.conf(5) for documentation of the format
           and contents of these files.

SEE ALSO

       apt-get(8), apt(8), /usr/share/doc/aptitude/html/<lang>/index.html du
       paquet aptitude-doc-<lang>

AUTEUR

       Daniel Burrows <dburrows@debian.org>
           Auteur.

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 2004-2011 Daniel Burrows.

       This manual page is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
       License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This manual page is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

AUTEUR

       Daniel Burrows.

TRADUCTEURS

       Cette page de man a ete originellement traduite par Martin Quinson
       <martin.quison@ens-lyon.fr>. Les mises a jour sont de Sylvain Cherrier
       <sylvain.cherrier@free.fr> jusqu'en 2004. Cette page est depuis
       maintenue par Olivier Trichet <nive@freesurf.fr>.