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NAME

       Xserver - X Window System display server

SYNOPSIS

       X [option ...]

DESCRIPTION

       X  is the generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is frequently a link or
       a copy of the appropriate server binary for driving the most frequently used server  on  a
       given machine.

STARTING THE SERVER

       The  X  server  is  usually started from the X Display Manager program xdm(1) or a similar
       display manager program.  This utility is run from the system boot files and takes care of
       keeping  the  server  running,  prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up the
       user sessions.

       Installations that run more than one window system may need to use  the  xinit(1)  utility
       instead  of  a  display  manager.   However, xinit is to be considered a tool for building
       startup scripts and is not intended  for  use  by  end  users.   Site  administrators  are
       strongly urged to use a display manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be  started directly by the user, though this method is usually
       reserved for testing and is not recommended for normal operation.  On some platforms,  the
       user  must  have special permission to start the X server, often because access to certain
       devices (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When the X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If you are running on a
       workstation  whose  console  is  the  display, you may not be able to log into the console
       while the server is running.

OPTIONS

       Many X servers have device-specific command line options.  See the manual  pages  for  the
       individual servers for more details; a list of server-specific manual pages is provided in
       the SEE ALSO section below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options described below.  Some X servers  may
       have  alternative ways of providing the parameters described here, but the values provided
       via the command line options should override values specified via other mechanisms.

       :displaynumber
               The X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default is 0.  If  multiple
               X  servers  are  to  run simultaneously on a host, each must have a unique display
               number.  See the DISPLAY NAMES section of the X(7) manual page  to  learn  how  to
               specify which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
               sets  pointer acceleration (i.e. the ratio of how much is reported to how much the
               user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables access by  any  host,  and
               permits  any  host  to  modify the access control list.  Use with extreme caution.
               This option exists primarily for running test suites remotely.

       -audit level
               sets the audit trail level.  The default  level  is  1,  meaning  only  connection
               rejections  are reported.  Level 2 additionally reports all successful connections
               and disconnects.  Level  4  enables  messages  from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if
               present,  including  generation and revocation of authorizations and violations of
               the security policy.  Level 0 turns off the audit trail.  Audit lines are sent  as
               standard error output.

       -auth authorization-file
               specifies  a  file  which  contains  a collection of authorization records used to
               authenticate access.  See also the xdm(1) and Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -br     sets the default root window to solid black instead of  the  standard  root  weave
               pattern.   This is the default unless -retro or -wr is specified.

       -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
               sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -cc class
               sets the visual class for the root window of color screens.  The class numbers are
               as specified in the X protocol.  Not obeyed by all servers.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
               specifies the types of fonts for which the server should attempt to  use  deferred
               glyph  loading.  whichfonts can be all (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit
               fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
               sets the resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be used when the server
               cannot determine the screen size(s) from the hardware.

       dpms    enables  DPMS  (display  power management services), where supported.  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

       -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default state is  platform
               and configuration specific.

       -extensionextensionName
               disables  named  extension.   If an unknown extension name is specified, a list of
               accepted extension names is printed.

       +extensionextensionName
               enables named extension.   If an unknown extension name is specified,  a  list  of
               accepted extension names is printed.

       -f volume
               sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
               sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
               sets the default font.

       -fp fontPath
               sets  the  search  path  for  fonts.   This  path  is  a  comma  separated list of
               directories which the X server searches for font databases.  See the FONTS section
               of this manual page for more information and the default list.

       -help   prints a usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
               sets the maximum big request to size MB.

       -nocursor
               disable the display of the pointer cursor.

       -nolisten trans-type
               disables  a  transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can be disabled with
               -nolisten tcp.  This option may be issued multiple times to disable  listening  to
               different transport types.

       -noreset
               prevents a server reset when the last client connection is closed.  This overrides
               a previous -terminate command line option.

       -p minutes
               sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish all of  its  well-
               known sockets (connection points for clients), but establishes at least one.  This
               option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all of its  well-known  sockets
               (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on auto-repeat.

       -retro  starts the stipple with the classic stipple and cursor visible.  The default is to
               start with a black root window, and to suppress display of the  cursor  until  the
               first  time  an application calls XDefineCursor().  For the Xorg server, this also
               sets the default for the DontZap  option  to  FALSE.   For  kdrive  servers,  this
               implies -zap.

       -s minutes
               sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables save under support on all screens.

       -t number
               sets  pointer acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e. after how many pixels pointer
               acceleration should take effect).

       -terminate
               causes the server to terminate at server reset,  instead  of  continuing  to  run.
               This overrides a previous -noreset command line option.

       -to seconds
               sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST, XTrap, XTestExtension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces  the  default  backing-store  of  all  windows to be WhenMapped.  This is a
               backdoor way of getting backing-store to  apply  to  all  windows.   Although  all
               mapped windows will have backing store, the backing store attribute value reported
               by the server for a window will be the last value established by a client.  If  it
               has  never  been  set  by  a  client,  the  server  will report the default value,
               NotUseful.  This behavior is required by the X protocol, which allows  the  server
               to  exceed  the  client's backing store expectations but does not provide a way to
               tell the client that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets the default root window to solid white instead of  the  standard  root  weave
               pattern.

       -x extension
               loads the specified extension at init.  This is a no-op for most implementations.

       [+-]xinerama
               enables(+)  or  disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The default state is platform
               and configuration specific.

SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS

       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
               sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number of  kilobytes.   A
               value  of  zero makes the data size as large as possible.  The default value of -1
               leaves the data space limit unchanged.

       -lf files
               sets the number-of-open-files limit of the server  to  the  specified  number.   A
               value  of  zero  makes  the  limit  as large as possible.  The default value of -1
               leaves the limit unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
               sets the stack space limit of the server to the specified number of kilobytes.   A
               value  of zero makes the stack size as large as possible.  The default value of -1
               leaves the stack space limit unchanged.

       -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation policy that will be used by  the
               render extension.

               default selects the default policy defined for the display depth of the X server.

               mono    don't use any color cell.

               gray    use a gray map of 13 color cells for the X render extension.

               color   use a color cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64 color cells).

       -dumbSched
               disables smart scheduling on platforms that support the smart scheduler.

       -schedInterval interval
               sets the smart scheduler's scheduling interval to interval milliseconds.

XDMCP OPTIONS

       X  servers  that  support  XDMCP  have  the  following options.  See the X Display Manager
       Control Protocol specification for more information.

       -query hostname
               enables XDMCP and sends Query packets to the specified hostname.

       -broadcast
               enable XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets  to  the  network.   The  first
               responding display manager will be chosen for the session.

       -multicast [address [hop count]]
               Enable  XDMCP  and  multicast  BroadcastQuery  packets to the  network.  The first
               responding display manager is chosen for the session.  If an address is specified,
               the  multicast is sent to that address.  If no address is specified, the multicast
               is sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count  is  specified,
               it  is  used  as  the  maximum  hop  count  for the multicast.  If no hop count is
               specified, the multicast is set to a maximum of 1 hop, to  prevent  the  multicast
               from being routed beyond the local network.

       -indirect hostname
               enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to the specified hostname.

       -port port-number
               uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of the default.  This
               option must be specified before any -query, -broadcast, -multicast,  or  -indirect
               options.

       -from local-address
               specifies  the  local  address  to connect from (useful if the connecting host has
               multiple network interfaces).  The local-address may  be  expressed  in  any  form
               acceptable to the host platform's gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes the server to terminate (rather than reset) when the XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
               XDMCP  has  an  additional  display qualifier used in resource lookup for display-
               specific options.  This option sets that value, by default it is "MIT-Unspecified"
               (not a very useful value).

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
               When  testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1, a private key is shared between the server and
               the manager.  This option sets the value of that private data (not that it is very
               private, being on the command line!).

       -displayID display-id
               Yet  another XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display manager to identify
               each display so that it can locate the shared key.

XKEYBOARD OPTIONS

       X servers that support  the  XKEYBOARD  (a.k.a.  "XKB")  extension  accept  the  following
       options.   All  layout files specified on the command line must be located in the XKB base
       directory or a subdirectory, and  specified  as  the  relative  path  from  the  XKB  base
       directory.  The default XKB base directory is /usr/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ] ] ] ]
               enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
               base directory for keyboard layout files.  This option is not available for setuid
               X servers (i.e., when the X server's real and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay milliseconds
               sets the autorepeat delay (length of time in  milliseconds  that  a  key  must  be
               depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
               sets  the  autorepeat  interval (length of time in milliseconds that should elapse
               between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
               loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS

       The X server supports client connections via a platform-dependent subset of the  following
       transport  types:  TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets, DECnet, and several varieties of SVR4 local
       connections.  See the DISPLAY NAMES section of the  X(7)  manual  page  to  learn  how  to
       specify which transport type clients should try to use.

GRANTING ACCESS

       The  X  server  implements  a  platform-dependent  subset  of  the following authorization
       protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1,  XDM-AUTHORIZATION-2,  SUN-DES-1,  and
       MIT-KERBEROS-5.   See  the  Xsecurity(7)  manual  page for information on the operation of
       these protocols.

       Authorization data required by the above protocols is passed to the server  in  a  private
       file  named  with  the -auth command line option.  Each time the server is about to accept
       the first connection after a reset (or when the server is starting), it reads  this  file.
       If  this  file  contains  any  authorization  records, the local host is not automatically
       allowed access to the server, and only clients which send one of the authorization records
       contained in the file in the connection setup information will be allowed access.  See the
       Xau manual page for a description of the binary format of this  file.   See  xauth(1)  for
       maintenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.

       The  X  server  also  uses a host-based access control list for deciding whether or not to
       accept connections from clients on  a  particular  machine.   If  no  other  authorization
       mechanism  is  being used, this list initially consists of the host on which the server is
       running as well as any machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is  the  display
       number  of  the  server.  Each line of the file should contain either an Internet hostname
       (e.g. expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a DECnet hostname in double colon format (e.g.  hydra::)  or  a
       complete  name  in the format family:name as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There
       should be no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:

               joesworkstation
               corporate.company.com
               star::
               inet:bigcpu
               local:

       Users can add or remove hosts from this list and enable or disable  access  control  using
       the xhost command from the same machine as the server.

       If   the  X  FireWall  Proxy  (xfwp)  is  being  used  without  a  sitepolicy,  host-based
       authorization must be turned on for clients to be able to connect to the X server via  the
       xfwp.   If  xfwp is run without a configuration file and thus no sitepolicy is defined, if
       xfwp is using an X server where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based  authorization
       checks,  when  a client tries to connect to this X server via xfwp, the X server will deny
       the connection.  See xfwp(1) for more information about this proxy.

       The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of window operation  permissions  or
       place  any restrictions on what a client can do; if a program can connect to a display, it
       has full run of the screen.  X servers that support the  SECURITY  extension  fare  better
       because clients can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to connect; see
       the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions are imposed on untrusted clients  that
       curtail the mischief they can do.  See the SECURITY extension specification for a complete
       list of these restrictions.

       Sites that have better authentication and authorization systems might wish to make use  of
       the hooks in the libraries and the server to provide additional security models.

SIGNALS

       The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This  signal  causes  the  server  to  close  all  existing  connections, free all
               resources, and restore all defaults.  It is sent by the display  manager  whenever
               the  main  user's  main  application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to
               force the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.  When  the  server
               starts,  it  checks  to  see if it has inherited SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the
               usual SIG_DFL.  In this case, the server sends a SIGUSR1  to  its  parent  process
               after  it  has  set  up  the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses this feature to
               recognize when connecting to the server is possible.

FONTS

       The X server can obtain fonts from directories and/or from  font  servers.   The  list  of
       directories and font servers the X server uses when trying to open a font is controlled by
       the font path.

       The                 default                 font                  path                  is
       /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc,/usr/share/fonts/X11/cyrillic,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi/:unscaled,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi/:unscaled,/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi,/var/lib/defoma/x-
       ttcidfont-conf.d/dirs/TrueType,built-ins .

       A special kind of directory can be specified  using  the  catalogue:  prefix.  Directories
       specified  this  way  can  contain symlinks pointing to the real font directories. See the
       FONTPATH.D section for details.

       The font path can be set with the -fp option or by xset(1) after the server has started.

FONTPATH.D

       You can specify a special kind of font path in the form  catalogue:<dir>.   The  directory
       specified  after  the  catalogue:  prefix  will  be  scanned for symlinks and each symlink
       destination will be added as a local fontfile FPE.

       The symlink can be suffixed by attributes such as 'unscaled', which will be passed through
       to  the  underlying  fontfile  FPE.  The  only  exception  is  the  newly introduced 'pri'
       attribute, which will be used for ordering the font paths specified by the symlinks.

       An example configuration:

           75dpi:unscaled:pri=20 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi
           ghostscript:pri=60 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
           misc:unscaled:pri=10 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
           type1:pri=40 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
           type1:pri=50 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1

       This will add /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc as the first FPE with the attribute the  attribute
       unscaled etc. This is functionally equivalent to setting the following font path:

           /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled,
           /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,
           /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1,
           /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1,
           /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript

FILES

       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial access control list for display number n

       /usr/share/fonts/X11/misc,/usr/share/fonts/X11/75dpi,/usr/share/fonts/X11/100dpi
                                     Bitmap font directories

       /usr/share/fonts/X11/TTF,/usr/share/fonts/X11/Type1
                                     Outline font directories

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn             Unix domain socket for display number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs               Error log file for display number n if run from init(8)

       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-errors   Default error log file if the server is run from xdm(1)

SEE ALSO

       General information: X(7)

       Protocols:  X  Window  System  Protocol,  The  X  Font Service Protocol, X Display Manager
       Control Protocol

       Fonts:  bdftopcf(1),  mkfontdir(1),  mkfontscale(1),  xfs(1),  xlsfonts(1),   xfontsel(1),
       xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Keyboards: xkeyboard-config(7)

       Security:  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),  Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1), xfwp(1), Security Extension
       Specification

       Starting the server: startx(1), xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1), xinput(1), xrandr(1)

       Server-specific man pages: Xorg(1), Xdmx(1),  Xephyr(1),  Xnest(1),  Xvfb(1),  Xquartz(1),
       XWin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the Porting Layer for the X v11 Sample Server

AUTHORS

       The  sample  server  was  originally  written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond Drewry, Philip
       Karlton, and Todd Newman, from Digital Equipment Corporation, with support  from  a  large
       cast.   It  has  since been extensively rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from
       MIT.  Dave Wiggins took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.