Provided by: abcde_2.4.2-1ubuntu1_all bug


       abcde  -  Grab  an  entire  CD  and compress it to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex and/or
       MPP/MP+(Musepack) format.


       abcde [options] [tracks]


       Ordinarily, the process of grabbing the data off a CD and encoding  it,  then  tagging  or
       commenting  it,  is  very  involved.   abcde is designed to automate this. It will take an
       entire CD and convert it into a compressed audio format -  Ogg/Vorbis,  MPEG  Audio  Layer
       III,  Free  Lossless  Audio  Codec  (FLAC),  Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) and/or M4A (AAC)
       format(s).  With one command, it will:

       *      Do a CDDB query over the Internet to look up your CD or use a locally  stored  CDDB

       *      Grab an audio track (or all the audio CD tracks) from your CD

       *      Normalize the volume of the individual file (or the album as a single unit)

       *      Compress   to  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC,  Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+(Musepack)  and/or  M4A
              format(s), all in one CD read

       *      Comment or ID3/ID3v2 tag

       *      Give an intelligible filename

       *      Calculate replaygain values for the individual file (or the album as a single unit)

       *      Delete the intermediate WAV file (or save it for later use)

       *      Repeat until finished

       Alternatively, abcde can also grab a CD and turn it  into  a  single  FLAC  file  with  an
       embedded  cuesheet  which  can be user later on as a source for other formats, and will be
       treated as if it was the original CD. In a way, abcde can take a compressed backup of your
       CD collection.


       -1     Encode  the  whole  CD  in  a single file. The resulting file uses the CD title for
              tagging. If the resulting format is a flac file with an embedded cuesheet, the file
              can be used as a source for creating other formats. Use "-1 -o flac -a default,cue"
              for obtaining such a file.

       -a [actions]
              Comma-delimited list of actions to perform. Can be one or more of: cddb, cue, read,
              normalize,  encode,  tag,  move,  replaygain, playlist, clean. Normalize and encode
              imply read. Tag implies cddb, read, encode. Move implies cddb, read,  encode,  tag.
              Replaygain  implies  cddb,  read, encode, tag and move.  Playlist implies cddb. The
              default is to do all actions except cue, normalize, replaygain and playlist.

       -b     Enable batch mode normalization. See the BATCHNORM configuration variable.

       -B     Disable batch mode replaygain. It processes file by  file  to  add  the  replaygain
              information. See the NOBATCHREPLAYGAIN configuration variable.

       -c [filename]
              Specifies  an additional configuration file to parse. Configuration options in this
              file override those in /etc/abcde.conf or $HOME/.abcde.conf.

       -C [discid]
              Allows you to resume a session for discid when you no longer have the CD  available
              (abcde  will  automatically resume if you still have the CD in the drive). You must
              have already finished at least the "read" action during the previous session.

       -d [devicename | filename]
              CD-ROM block device that contains audio tracks to be read. Alternatively, a single-
              track flac file with embedded cuesheet.

       -D     Capture  debugging  information  (you'll  want  to  redirect  this  - try 'abcde -D

       -e     Erase information about encoded tracks from the internal  status  file,  to  enable
              other encodings if the wav files have been kept.

       -f     Force  the  removal  of the temporary ABCDETEMPDIR directory, even when we have not
              finished. For example, one can read and encode several formats,  including  ´.ogg´,
              and  later  on  execute  a  ´move´  action with only one of the given formats. On a
              normal situation it would erase the rest of those encoded formats.  In  this  case,
              abcde will refuse to execute such command, except if -f is used.

       -g     Enable  lame's  --nogap  option.   See  the NOGAP variable. WARNING: lame's --nogap
              disables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is  required  for  mp3  players  to  correctly
              display track lengths when playing variable-bit-rate mp3 files.

       -h     Get help information.

       -j [number]
              Start  [number]  encoder  processes  at once. Useful for SMP systems. Overrides the
              MAXPROCS configuration variable. Set it to "0" when using distmp3  to  avoid  local
              encoding processes.

       -k     Keep the wav files after encoding.

       -l     Use the low-diskspace algorithm. See the LOWDISK configuration variable.

       -L     Use a local CDDB repository. See CDDBLOCALDIR variable.

       -n     Do not query CDDB database. Create and use a template. Edit the template to provide
              song names, artist(s), ...

       -N     Non interactive mode. Do not ask anything from the user. Just go ahead.

       -m     Create DOS-style playlists,  modifying  the  resulting  one  by  adding  CRLF  line
              endings. Some hardware players insist on having those to work.

       -o [filetype][:filetypeoptions]
              Select  output type. Can be "vorbis" (or "ogg"), "mp3", "flac", "spx", "mpc", "m4a"
              or "wav".  Specify a comma-delimited list of output types to obtain  all  specified
              types.   See  the  OUTPUTTYPE  configuration  variable. One can pass options to the
              encoder for a specific filetype on the command line separating them with  a  colon.
              The options must be escaped with double-quotes.

       -p     Pads track numbers with 0´s.

       -P     Use  Unix  PIPES  to  read  and encode in one step. It disables multiple encodings,
              since the WAV audio file is never stored in the disc.

       -q [quality]
              Use a pre-defined quality level for the encoding process. Defined as low, medium or
              high.  The  "medium" value is used to reset the default values if other are used in
              the config file(s).

       -r [hosts...]
              Remote encode on this comma-delimited list  of  machines  using  distmp3.  See  the
              REMOTEHOSTS configuration variable.

       -R     When  CDDBLOCALDIR  and  CDDBUSELOCAL  are  defined,  search  recursively under the
              defined directory for matches of the CDDB entry.

       -s [fields...]
              List, separated by commas, the fields to be  shown  in  the  CDDB  parsed  entries.
              Right now it only uses "year" and "genre".

       -S [speed]
              Set  the speed of the CD drive. Needs CDSPEED and CDSPEEDOPTS set properly and both
              the program and device must support the capability.

       -t [number]
              Start the numbering of the tracks at a given number. It only affects the  filenames
              and the playlist. Internal (tag) numbering remains the same.

       -T [number]
              Same  as  -t  but  changes also the internal (tag) numbering. Keep in mind that the
              default TRACK tag for MP3 is $T/$TRACKS so it is changed to simply $T.

       -U     Set  CDDBPROTO  to  version  5,  so  that  we  retrieve  ISO-8859-15  encoded  CDDB
              information, and we tag and add comments with Latin1 encoding.

       -v     Show the version and exit

       -V     Be  a bit more verbose. On slow networks the CDDB requests might give the sensation
              nothing is happening.

       -x     Eject the CD when  all  tracks  have  been  read.  See  the  EJECTCD  configuration

       -X [cue2discid]
              Use  an  alternative  "cue2discid"  implementation.  The name of the binary must be
              exactly that. abcde comes with an  implementation  in  python  under  the  examples
              directory. The special keyword "builtin" forces the usage of the internal (default)
              implementation in shell script.

       -w [comment]
              Add a comment to the tracks ripped from the CD.

       -W [number]
              Concatenate CD´s. It uses the number provided to define a comment  "CD  #"  and  to
              modify  the  numbering  of the tracks, starting with "#01". For Ogg/Vorbis and FLAC
              files, it also defines a DISCNUMBER tag.

       -z     DEBUG mode: it will rip, using cdparanoia, the very first second of each track  and
              proceed  with  the  actions  requested  very  quickly, also providing some "hidden"
              information about what happens on  the  background.  CAUTION:  IT  WILL  ERASE  ANY

              A  list  of  tracks  you want abcde to process. If this isn't specified, abcde will
              process the entire CD. Accepts ranges of track numbers  -  "abcde  1-5  7  9"  will
              process tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9.


       Each  track  is,  by  default,  placed  in  a  separate  file  named  after the track in a
       subdirectory named after the artist under the current directory.   This  can  be  modified
       using the OUTPUTFORMAT and VAOUTPUTFORMAT variables in your abcde.conf. Each file is given
       an extension identifying its compression format, 'vorbis'  for  '.ogg',  '.mp3',  '.flac',
       '.spx', '.mpc', '.aac' or '.wav'.


       abcde  sources two configuration files on startup - /etc/abcde.conf and $HOME/.abcde.conf,
       in that order.

       The configuration options stated on those files can be overridden by providing
              the appropriate flags at runtime.

       The configuration variables have to be set as follows:

              Except when "value" needs to be quoted or otherwise interpreted. If other variables
              within  "value" are to be expanded upon reading the configuration file, then double
              quotes should be used. If they are only supposed  to  be  expanded  upon  use  (for
              example OUTPUTFORMAT) then single quotes must be used.

       All sh escaping/quoting rules apply.

       Here is a list of options abcde recognizes:

              Specifies  the  method we want to use to retrieve the track information. Two values
              are recognized: "cddb" and "musicbrainz". The "cddb" value needs  the  CDDBURL  and
              HELLOINFO  variables  described  below.  The  "musicbrainz"  value  uses  Python to
              establish a conversation with the server for information retrieval.

              Specifies a server to use for CDDB lookups.

              Specifies the protocol version used for the CDDB retrieval of  results.  Version  6
              retrieves CDDB entries in UTF-8 format.

              Specifies  the  Hello  information  to  send  to the CDDB server. The CDDB protocol
              requires you to send a valid username and  hostname  each  time  you  connect.  The
              format of this is username@hostname.

              Specifies  a  directory where we store a local CDDB repository. The entries must be
              standard CDDB entries, with the filename being the DISCID value. Other  CD  playing
              and  ripping  programs  (like Grip) store the entries under ~/.cddb and we can make
              use of those entries.

              Specifies if the CDDBLOCALDIR has to be searched recursively trying to find a match
              for  the  CDDB  entry.  If  a  match  is  found  and selected, and CDDBCOPYLOCAL is
              selected, it will be copied to the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR if  CDDBLOCALPOLICY  is
              "modified" or "new".

              Defines  when  a  CDDB  entry  should  be  stored  in the defined CDDBLOCALDIR. The
              possible policies are: "net" for a CDDB entry which has been received from the  net
              (overwriting  any  possible  local  CDDB  entry);  "new" for a CDDB entry which was
              received from the net, but will request confirmation  to  overwrite  a  local  CDDB
              entry  found in the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR directory; "modified" for a CDDB entry
              found in the local repository but which has been modified by the user; and "always"
              which  forces  the  CDDB entry to be stored back in the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR no
              matter where it was found, and no matter it was not edited.  This last option  will
              always  overwrite the one found in the root of the local repository (if any). STILL
              NOT WORKING!!

              Store local copies of the CDDB entries under the $CDDBLOCALDIR directory.

              Actually use the stored copies of the CDDB entries. Can  be  overridden  using  the
              "-L"  flag  (if  is  CDDBUSELOCAL in "n"). If an entry is found, we always give the
              choice of retrieving a CDDB entry from the internet.

              Coma-separated list of fields we want to parse during the CDDB  parsing.   Defaults
              to "year,genre".

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for the Ogg/Vorbis encoder. Valid options are
              ´oggenc´ (default for Ogg/Vorbis) and ´vorbize´.  This affects the default location
              of  the  binary,  the variable to pick encoder command-line options from, and where
              the options are given.

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for the MP3 encoder. Valid options are ´lame´
              (default  for MP3), ´gogo´, ´bladeenc´, ´l3enc´ and ´mp3enc´.  Affects the same way
              as explained above for Ogg/Vorbis.

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for the FLAC  encoder.  At  this  point  only
              ´flac´ is available for FLAC encoding.

              Specifies  the  style  of  encoder  to  use  for  Speex encoder. At this point only
              ´speexenc´ is available for Ogg/Speex encoding.

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for MPP/MP+ (Musepack) encoder. At this point
              we only have ´mppenc´ available, from

              Specifies  the style of encoder to use for M4A (AAC) encoder. At this point we only
              support ´faac´, so ´default´ points to it.

              Specifies the style  of  normalizer  to  use.   Valid  options  are  ´default´  and
              ´normalize' (and both run ´normalize-audio´), since we only support it, ATM.

              Specifies the style of cdrom reader to use. Valid options are ´cdparanoia´, ´debug´
              and ´flac´. It is used for querying the CDROM and obtain a list of valid tracks and
              DATA tracks. The special ´flac´ case is used to "rip" CD tracks from a single-track
              flac file.

              Specifies the syntax of the program we use to read the CD CUE sheet. Right  now  we
              only support ´mkcue´, but in the future other readers might be used.

              It defaults to no, so if you want to keep those wavs ripped from your CD, set it to
              "y". You can use the "-k" switch in the command line. The  default  behaviour  with
              KEEPWAVS  set  is  to  keep the temporary directory and the wav files even you have
              requested the "clean" action.

              If set to "y", it adds 0's to the file numbers to  complete  a  two-number  holder.
              Useful when encoding tracks 1-9.

              Set to "n" if you want to perform automatic rips, without user intervention.

              Define  the  values  for  priorities  (nice  values)  for  the different CPU-hungry
              processes: encoding (ENCNICE), CDROM read (READNICE) and distributed  encoder  with
              distmp3 (DISTMP3NICE).

              The  following configuration file options specify the pathnames of their respective
              utilities: LAME, TOOLAME,  GOGO,  BLADEENC,  L3ENC,  XINGMP3ENC,  MP3ENC,  VORBIZE,
              option "-X"), DIFF and HTTPGET.

              If you wish to specify command-line options to any of the programs abcde uses,  set
              the   following   configuration  file  options:  LAMEOPTS,  TOOLAMEOPTS,  GOGOOPTS,

              Set the value of the CDROM speed. The default is to read the disc as  fast  as  the
              reading program and the system permits. The steps are defined as 150kB/s (1x).

              The default actions to be performed when reading a disc.

       CDROM  If  set,  it points to the CD-Rom device which has to be used for audio extraction.
              Abcde tries to guess the right device, but it may fail. The special  ´flac´  option
              is defined to extract tracks from a single-track flac file.

              Defined  as  "d"  when  using  cdparanoia  with  an  IDE  bus and as "g" when using
              cdparanoia with the ide-scsi emulation layer.

              Specifies the directory to place completed tracks/playlists in.

              Specifies the temporary directory to store .wav files in. Abcde may use up to 700MB
              of  temporary  space  for each session (although it is rare to use over 100MB for a
              machine that can encode music as fast as it can read it).

              Specifies the encoding format to output, as  well  as  the  default  extension  and
              encoder. Defaults to "vorbis". Valid settings are "vorbis" (or "ogg") (Ogg/Vorbis),
              "mp3"  (MPEG-1  Audio  Layer  III),  "flac"  (Free  Lossless  Audio  Codec),  "spx"
              (Ogg/Speex),  "mpc" (MPP/MP+ (Musepack)), "m4a" (for M4A (AAC)) or "wav" (Microsoft
              Waveform). Values like "vorbis,mp3" encode the tracks in both  Ogg/Vorbis  and  MP3
              formats. For example
              For  each  value  in  OUTPUTTYPE,  abcde  expands a different process for encoding,
              tagging and moving, so you can  use  the  format  placeholder,  OUTPUT,  to  create
              different  subdirectories  to hold the different types. The variable OUTPUT will be
              'vorbis', 'mp3', 'flac',  'spx',  'mpc',  'm4a'  and/or  'wav',  depending  on  the
              OUTPUTTYPE you define. For example

              Specifies  the  format  for  completed  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC, Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+
              (Musepack) or M4A filenames. Variables are included using  standard  shell  syntax.
              Allowed  variables are GENRE, ALBUMFILE, ARTISTFILE, TRACKFILE, TRACKNUM, and YEAR.
              Default is ´${ARTISTFILE}-${ALBUMFILE}/${TRACKNUM}-${TRACKFILE}´.  Make sure to use
              single quotes around this variable. TRACKNUM is automatically zero-padded, when the
              number of encoded tracks is higher than 9. When lower, you can force with  '-p'  in
              the command line.

              Just   like   OUTPUTFORMAT   but   for   Various  Artists  discs.  The  default  is

              Just like OUTPUTFORMAT but for single-track rips (see option "-1"). The default  is

              Just  like  ONETRACKOUTPUTFORMAT  but  for  Various  Artists  discs. The default is

              Defines how many encoders to run at once. This  makes  for  huge  speedups  on  SMP
              systems.  You  should  run  one  encoder  per  CPU  at once for maximum efficiency,
              although more doesn't hurt very much. Set  it  "0"  when  using  mp3dist  to  avoid
              getting encoding processes in the local host.

              If  set  to  y,  conserves  disk space by encoding tracks immediately after reading
              them. This is substantially slower  than  normal  operation  but  requires  several
              hundred  MB  less  space to complete the encoding of an entire CD. Use only if your
              system is low on space and cannot encode as quickly as it can read.

              Note that this option may also help when reading a CD with errors. This is  because
              on  a  scratchy  disk reading is quite timing sensitive and this option reduces the
              background load on the  system  which  allows  the  ripping  program  more  precise

              If  set  to  y,  enables  batch mode normalization, which preserves relative volume
              differences between tracks of an album. Also enables nogap encoding when using  the
              ´lame´ encoder.

       NOGAP  Activate  the lame's --nogap option, that allows files found in CDs with no silence
              between songs (such as live  concerts)  to  be  encoded  without  noticeable  gaps.
              WARNING:  lame's  --nogap  disables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is required for mp3
              players to correctly display  track  lengths  when  playing  variable-bit-rate  mp3

              Specifies  the format for completed playlist filenames. Works like the OUTPUTFORMAT
              configuration variable. Default is ´${ARTISTFILE}_-_${ALBUMFILE}.m3u´.   Make  sure
              to use single quotes around this variable.

              Specifies a prefix for filenames within a playlist. Useful for http playlists, etc.

              If  set,  the  resulting  playlist  will  have  CR-LF  line endings, needed by some
              hardware-based players.

              Specifies a comment to embed in the ID3 or  Ogg  comment  field  of  each  finished
              track.  Can  be up to 28 characters long. Supports the same syntax as OUTPUTFORMAT.
              Does not currently support ID3v2.

              Specifies a comma-delimited list of  systems  to  use  for  remote  encoding  using
              distmp3. Equivalent to -r.

              mungefilename()  is  an abcde shell function that can be overridden via abcde.conf.
              It takes CDDB data as $1 and outputs the resulting filename on stdout. It  defaults
              to  eating  control  characters, apostrophes and question marks, translating spaces
              and forward slashes to underscores, and translating colons to an underscore  and  a
              If  you  modify this function, it is probably a good idea to keep the forward slash
              munging (UNIX cannot store a file with a '/' char in it) as  well  as  the  control
              character  munging  (NULs  can't  be in a filename either, and newlines and such in
              filenames are typically not desirable).

              mungegenre () is a shell function used to modify the $GENRE variable. As a  default
              action,  it takes $GENRE as $1 and outputs the resulting value to stdout converting
              all UPPERCASE characters to lowercase.

              pre_read () is a shell function which is executed before the CDROM is read for  the
              first  time, during abcde execution. It can be used to close the CDROM tray, to set
              its speed (via "setcd" or via "eject", if available) and other preparation actions.
              The default function is empty.

              post_read () is a shell function which is executed after the CDROM is read (and, if
              applies, before the CDROM is ejected). It can be used to read a TOC from the CDROM,
              or  to try to read the DATA areas from the CD (if any exist).  The default function
              is empty.

              If set to "y", abcde will call eject(1) to eject the cdrom from the drive after all
              tracks have been read. It has no effect when CDROM is set to a flac file.

              If  set  to  "y",  some  operations which are usually now shown to the end user are
              visible, such as CDDB queries. Useful for initial debug and  if  your  network/CDDB
              server is slow.


       Possible ways one can call abcde

       abcde  Will work in most systems

       abcde -d /dev/cdrom2
              If  the  CDROM  you  are  reading from is not the standard /dev/cdrom (in GNU/Linux

       abcde -o vorbis,flac
              Will create both Ogg/Vorbis and Ogg/FLAC files.

       abcde -o vorbis:"-b 192"
              Will pass "-b 192" to the Ogg/Vorbis encoder, without having to modify  the  config

       abcde -W 1
              For double+ CD settings: will create the 1st CD starting with the track number 101,
              and will add a comment "CD 1" to the tracks, the second starting with  201  and  so

       abcde -d singletrack.flac
              Will extract the files contained in singletrack using the embedded cuesheet.


       abcde requires the following backend tools to work:

       *      An  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC,  Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+(Musepack) or M4A encoder (oggenc,
              vorbize, lame, gogo, bladeenc, l3enc, mp3enc, flac, speexenc, mppenc, faac)

       *      An audio CD reading utility (cdparanoia, icedax, cdda2wav, dagrab)

       *      cd-discid, a CDDB DiscID reading program.

       *      An HTTP retrieval program: wget, fetch (FreeBSD) or curl (Mac OS X, among  others).
              Alternatively,  musicbrainz-get-tracks  (which  depends  on  Python) can be used to
              retrieve CDDB information about the CD.

       *      (for MP3s) id3 or id3v2, id3 v1 and v2 tagging programs.

       *      (optional) distmp3, a client/server for distributed mp3 encoding.

       *      (optional) normalize-audio, a WAV file volume normalizer.

       *      (optional) a  replaygain  file  volume  modifier  (vorbisgain,  metaflac,  mp3gain,

       *      (optional) mkcue, a CD cuesheet extractor.


       cdparanoia(1),   icedax(1),   cdda2wav(1),   dagrab(1),   normalize-audio(1),   oggenc(1),
       vorbize(1),  flac(1),  toolame(1),  speexenc(1),  mppenc(1),  faac(1),  id3(1),  id3v2(1),
       wget(1),   fetch(1),   cd-discid(1),   distmp3(1),   distmp3host(1),   curl(1),  mkcue(1),
       vorbisgain(1), mp3gain(1)


       Robert  Woodcock  <>,  Jesus   Climent   <>   and
       contributions from many others.