Provided by: abcm2ps_5.9.25-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       abcm2ps — translate ABC music notation to PostScript

SYNOPSIS

       abcm2ps [options]  [abc-file [file-options]]  [...]

       abcm2ps [-h]

DESCRIPTION

       abcm2ps translates tunes written in the ABC music notation format to customary sheet music
       scores in PostScript. It is based on abc2ps  1.2.5  and  was  developed  mainly  to  print
       Baroque  organ  scores  that  have  independent  voices played on multiple keyboards and a
       pedal-board. The program has  since  been  extended  to  support  various  other  notation
       conventions in use for sheet music.

       Options  given  immediately  after  the  command name apply to the run as a whole; options
       given after an ABC file name apply to that file.

       Formatting parameters can also be set in `format files' and in the ABC files themselves.

OPTIONS

       -0        Split tunes across page breaks if necessary.

       +0        Start a new page if a tune doesn't fit on the current one (default).

       -1        Output one tune per page.

       +1        Output multiple tunes per page (default).

       -a a      Maximal horizontal compression when staff breaks are chosen automatically.  Must
                 be between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65)

       -B b      Try to typeset b bars on each staff line.

       +B        Don't try to typeset a fixed number of bars on each staff line (default).

       -b b      Start measure numbering at b.

       -C        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -c        The  continuation symbol is implicitly appended to each music line. This amounts
                 to automatic line breaking.

       +c        Automatic line breaking is turned off (default).

       -D directory
                 Search format files in directory.

       -d length Set the vertical interstaff space to length (default: 46pt)

       -E        Output is generated in EPS format, one file per page.

       +E        Output is generated in multipage PS format (default).

       -e list   Select which tunes from an ABC file to print.  list is a comma-separated list of
                 tune  numbers  (as  per  the `X:' header). The -e option must occur after an ABC
                 file name and applies to that file. Ranges of tune numbers may be specified like
                 t1-t2;  t2  may  be  omitted  which  means `all remaining tunes until the end of
                 file'. Note that filtering may cause  problems,  e.g.,  with  global  (non-tune)
                 definitions in the ABC file.

       -F file   Read the format file file.fmt.

       +F        Do not read the default format file.

       -f        Enable flat beams in bagpipe tunes.

       -G        Omit slurs on grace notes.

       +G        Draw slurs on grace notes (default).

       -g        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -H        Display the current values of the formatting parameters.

       -h        Display program usage hints and quit.

       -I length Indent the first line of the tune by length (default: 0).

       -jb[b]    Output  a measure number every b measures. If b is 0, the measure number appears
                 at the left of each staff. The trailing b causes a box to be drawn  around  each
                 measure number (default: no measure numbering).

       +j        Don't output measure numbers.

       -k        Equivalent to -j.

       +k        Equivalent to +j.

       -Lenc     Set  the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can take on values from 0
                 to 6. The value 0 is equivalent to 1 but no PostScript encoding table is  output
                 (default: 0).

       -l        Generate landscape output.

       +l        Generate portrait output (default).

       -M        Suppress lyrics.

       +M        Include lyrics (default).

       -m length Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm)

       -N[mode]  Number pages according to the mode:

                 0         no page numbers

                 1         page numbers at top left of page

                 2         page numbers at top right of page

                 3         page  numbers  at  top  left of even-numbered pages, top right of odd-
                           numbered pages

                 4         page numbers at top right of even-numbered pages,  top  left  of  odd-
                           numbered pages

                 For compatibility, -N is equivalent to -N2 (default: -N0).

       +N        Equivalent to -N0 (no page numbering).

       -n        Include notes and history from ABC tune `N:' fields.

       +n        Omit notes and history from ABC tune `N:' fields (default).

       -O name   Define  the  output  file name. By default, the output file name is `Out.ps' for
                 PostScript output and `Outnnn.eps' for EPS output (see -E). If  this  option  is
                 given,  the  output  name  will be name or namennn.eps, respectively. If name is
                 `=', the output file name will be the name of  the  ABC  source  file  with  the
                 extension `.ps' or `.eps'. If name is `-', the output is written to stdout.

       +O        Revert to the default output file name (`Out.ps' or `Outnnn.eps')

       -o        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -P        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -p        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -Q        Print tempo (metronome) indications (default).

       +Q        Omit tempo (metronome) indications.

       -R        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -S        Secure  mode;  disables  file  inclusion  via %%format and %%EPS             and
                 disallows direct PostScript injection via %%beginps and %%postscript.

       -s scale  Set the page scale factor to scale. Note that the  header  and  footer  are  not
                 scaled (default: 0.75).

       -Tn[voice], +Tn[voice]
                 Activate  (or  deactivate)  tabulature  drawing.  n  is the tabulature number as
                 defined in %%tabulature           (up to a maximum of 8 tabulatures), and  voice
                 is the voice name, full name or subname as found in V:. When this is absent, the
                 option applies to all voices. Up to 4  such  options  may  be  given.  See  also
                 format.txt.

       -u        Use implicit decorations as in abc2ps (default: off)

       -V        Output version number and quit.

       -v        Obsolete option; ignored.

       -w length Adjust the right margin such that the staff width is length (default: none)

       -x        Include the `X:' tune number in the title.

       +x        Do not include the `X:' tune number in the title (default).

FORMATTING PARAMETERS

       The  following  formatting  parameters can be used in format files. They can also occur in
       ABC files when they are preceded by %%, or as I: headers (even in the middle  of  a  music
       line).

       Abcm2ps distinguishes between "global" and "local" parameter settings. Global settings can
       be established through the use of format files, or  by  specifying  formatting  parameters
       outside  of  tunes,  i.e., at the beginning of a file before the first tune's `X:' or `T:'
       line, or after the blank line at the end of a tune before the next  tune's  `X:'  or  `T:'
       line. Local settings can be specified inside a tune, and will revert to the current global
       setting at the end of the tune. Do also note that the result of  setting  some  parameters
       depends  on  where  they  occur  in the source file, i.e., setting topmargin within a tune
       applies only to the second and subsequent pages of that tune, not the  first  page,  since
       when the local topmargin setting is seen, output of the tune has already started.

       abc2pscompat boolean
                 If  true,  set  M  as  the +tenuto+ decoration and do a pitch translation if the
                 notes are too high for a bass clef. Also, an octave translation  is  applied  to
                 bass and alto parts.

       alignbars int
                 Align  the  bars  of the next int lines of music. This works only when the music
                 contains only one voice (no V: or %%staves) (default: 0).

       aligncomposer int
                 Define where to display the composer field. A negative value displays it  flush-
                 left, a value of zero centered, and a positive value flush-right (default: 1).

       annotationfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the annotation font to font with size size (default: Helvetica 12)

       autoclef boolean
                 Adjust the clefs when they are not defined in `K:' or `V:' lines (default: 1).

       barnumbers int
                 Synonym for measurenb.

       barsperstaff int
                 Try to typeset with int bars per line (default: 0; command line: -b, +b)

       beginps   Start  a  sequence of PostScript code lines extending until the next endps line.
                 This parameter may only occur within ABC and format files, not  on  the  command
                 line.

       botmargin length
                 Set the bottom margin to length (default: 1cm)

       breakoneoln boolean
                 If this is set, on finding an end-of-line (eoln), pretend that there was a space
                 before the next note or rest. This prevents a beam to be continued  between  two
                 input lines (default: 1).

       bstemdown boolean
                 If  this  is  set,  the  stem  of  the  note  on the middle of the staff extends
                 downwards. Otherwise it extends up or  down  depending  on  the  preceding  note
                 (default: 0).

       comball boolean
                 If this is set together with combinevoices, voice combination takes place in all
                 cases. Otherwise, notes which are too close together in pitch are not combined.

       combinevoices boolean
                 If this is set, simultaneous notes of the same duration belonging to  voices  on
                 the same staff are combined into chords (default: 0).

       composerfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the `composer' font to font with size size (default: Times-Italic 14)

       composerspace length
                 Set the vertical space before the composer name to length (Default: 0.2cm)

       contbarnb boolean
                 If  this  is  not set, the bar numbers of second repeats are set to those of the
                 corresponding first repeats. If this is set, all bars are numbered  sequentially
                 (default: 0).

       continueall boolean
                 If  this  is  set to true, ignore the line breaks in a tune (default: 0; command
                 line: -c, +c)

       dateformat format
                 Format for date and time output. The admissible values  of  this  parameter  are
                 described in the documentation for the strftime(3) C library function. Note that
                 percent signs need to be escaped (default: "b e, Y H:M")

       deco name c_func ps_func h wl wr [str]
                 Define a decoration. This is an experimental feature which is subject to  change
                 in  future releases and requires good knowledge of the internals of abcm2ps. See
                 the files format.txt and deco.abc for details.

       dynalign boolean
                 When set, horizontally align dynamic marks (default: 1)

       encoding enc
                 Set the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can take values from 0  to
                 6. The value 0 is the same as 1, but no PostScript encoding table is output.

                 Alternatively,  enc  may take one of the predefined values us-ascii, iso-8859-1,
                 iso-8859-2, iso-8859-3, iso-8859-4, iso-8859-9, iso-8859-10, or native  (meaning
                 encoding  vectors  will  not  be changed). If enc is anything else, it must be a
                 string which is taken to be PostScript commands that set up a suitable  encoding
                 vector.

       exprabove boolean
                 Draw  expression decorations above the staff. If neither exprabove nor exprbelow
                 are `true', expression decorations are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics
                 on  the  staff,  and  below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over exprbelow
                 (default: 0).

       exprbelow boolean
                 Draw expression decorations below the staff. If neither exprabove nor  exprbelow
                 are `true', expression decorations are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics
                 on the staff, and below otherwise. exprabove  takes  precedence  over  exprbelow
                 (default: 0).

       flatbeams boolean
                 Draw flat beams in bagpipe tunes (default: 0; command line: -f)

       font font [encoding]
                 Define  a  font  and  its encoding. Use this parameter when you want to refer to
                 specific fonts in ABC files/tunes. It must occur before any PostScript output is
                 written, generally in a format file. encoding defaults to the encoding set up by
                 the encoding parameter.

       footer text
                 Define the text printed at the bottom of every page. There may  be  one  or  two
                 lines.  When there are two lines, these must be separated by the characters `\n'
                 (not a real newline). Each of the lines consists of three  areas,  left,  center
                 and  right, which are separated by tabs (real tabs, not '\t') and may be empty -
                 if the left area is empty, the text must be quoted.

                 If the footer begins with `-', it will not be printed on the first page  of  the
                 document.

                 The `$' character introduces variable expansion:

                 $d        The date and time of last modification of the ABC file

                 $D        The current date and time

                 $F        The current input file name

                 $Ix       The value of header x of the tune

                 $P        The current page number

                 $P0       The current pagenumber (when even)

                 $P1       The current pagenumber (when odd)

                 $T        The current tune title

                 $V        `abcm2ps-' followed by the program's version number

                 For  example,  the  command  line  option  -N3  is  equivalent to `%%header "$P0
                 $P1"' (note the two tabs). (Default: none)

       footerfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the footer font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 12)

       format filename
                 Read the format file filename (default: none).

       freegchord boolean
                 Prevent the characters `#', `b' and `=' to be displayed as the sharp  sign,  the
                 flat  sign, and the natural sign, respectively, in guitar chords. When this flag
                 is set, the display of the accidentals may be forced by escaping the  characters
                 (`\#', `\b' and `\=') (default: 0)

       gchordbox boolean
                 Draw  a  box  around  guitar  chords.  Can be set to `true' using `%%gchordfont'
                 below. (Default: 0)

       gchordfont font [encoding] size [box]
                 Set the guitar chord font to  font  with  size  size.  If  box                is
                 specified, draw a box around guitar chords (default: Helvetica 12, no box)

       graceslurs boolean
                 Draw slurs on grace notes if true (default: 1; command line: -G, +G)

       gracespace float float float
                 Define  the  space  before, between, and after the grace notes (default: 6.5 8.0
                 12.0)

       header text
                 Define the text printed at the top of every page. See the footer parameter above
                 for the syntax (default: none)

       headerfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the header font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 12)

       historyfont font [encoding] size
                 Set  the  font  for history entries to font with size size (default: Times-Roman
                 16)

       hyphencont boolean
                 If an under-staff lyrics line ends with a hyphen,  put  another  hyphen  at  the
                 beginning of the next line (default:0)

       indent length
                 Indent the first line of a tune by length (default:0; command line: -I)

       infofont font [encoding] size
                 Set the information line font to font with size size (default: Times-Italic 14)

       infoline boolean
                 Display the rhythm (`R:'), the origin (`O:'), and the area (`A:') of the tune on
                 a single `information line' (default: 0)

       infoname letter tag
                 Define the headers to be printed after a tune when writehistory is set. The  tag
                 is printed before the actual header value. By default, this outputs the R, B, S,
                 D, N, Z, and H headers, with tags `Rhythm:', `Book:', `Source:', `Discography:',
                 `Notes:', `Transcription:', and `History:', respectively.

       infospace length
                 Set the vertical space before the information line to length (default: 0).

       landscape boolean
                 Set page orientation to landscape if true (default: 0; command line: -l, +l).

       leftmargin length
                 Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm; command line: -m)

       lineskipfac float
                 Set  the  factor  for spacing between lines of text to float times the font size
                 (default: 1.1)

       maxshrink float
                 Set how much the output may be compressed horizontally  when  staff  breaks  are
                 chosen  automatically.  float  must  be  between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65; command
                 line: -a)

       maxstaffsep length
                 Set the maximum vertical inter-staff space to length (default: 800pt)

       maxsysstaffsep length
                 Set the maximum vertical system inter-staff space to length (default: 800pt)

       measurebox boolean
                 Draw a box around the measure numbers if true (default: 0; command line:  -j  or
                 -k).

       measurefirst int
                 Start  measure  numbering  of  the  tune at int.  This parameter is obsolete and
                 should be replaced with %%setbarnb (outside the tune body)

       measurefont font [encoding] size [box]
                 Set the font for measure numbers to font at size size. If  [box]  is  specified,
                 draw a box around the measure number (default: Times-Italic 14, no box).

       measurenb int
                 Draw a measure number every int bars. If int is 0, the measure number appears at
                 the left end of each staff. If int is -1, no measure numbers  are  displayed  at
                 all (default: -1; command line: -j or -k).

       musiconly boolean
                 If true, no lyrics are output (default: 0; command line: -M, +M)

       musicspace length
                 Set  the  vertical  space  before  the first staff of a tune to length (default:
                 0.2cm)

       notespacingfactor float
                 Set the note spacing factor to float. This value is used to compute the  natural
                 space  notes  take  up.  The base space of the crotchet (quarter note) is always
                 40pt. When the duration of a note type is twice that of another note  type,  the
                 space  it takes up is multiplied by this factor. The default value increases the
                 note space by a factor of 2 when the corresponding note's value increases  by  a
                 factor  of 4. That is, the space of a semibreve is 80pt and that of a semiquaver
                 is 20pt. Setting this value to 1 sets all note spaces to 40pt (default: 1.414).

       oneperpage boolean
                 If true, output one tune per page; if false, multiple tunes are output per  page
                 if there is sufficient room (default: 0; command line: -1, +1).

       pageheight length
                 Set the page height to length        (default: hardcoded)

       pagewidth length
                 Set the page width to length (default: hardcoded)

       parskipfac float
                 Set the factor for spacing between text paragraphs to float (default: 0.4)

       partsbox boolean
                 Draw a box around the part names if true (default: 0)

       partsfont font [encoding] size [box]
                 Set  the  font for part names to font with size size. If box       is specified,
                 draw a box around the part names.  (default: Times-Roman 15)

       partsspace length
                 Set the vertical space before a new part to length (default: 0.3cm).

       postscript text
                 Define a postscript sequence to be included in the header of  the  output  file.
                 This  formatting parameter may be used to override any postscript function or to
                 define new functions for use in deco. It should be processed before  any  output
                 occurs, that is, in a format file or at the beginning of the first ABC file.

       printparts boolean
                 Print the part indications (`P:' header) (default: 1).

       printtempo boolean
                 Print  tempo  (metronome) indications (`Q:' header) if true (default: 1; command
                 line: -Q, +Q).

       repeatfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the font for repeat bracket numbers/texts to font at size size.

       rightmargin length
                 Set the right margin to length (default: 1.8cm)

       scale float
                 Set the global page scale factor to float. This does not apply  to  headers  and
                 footers (default: 0.75; command line: -s).

       setdefl boolean
                 When  true,  output some indications about the note/chord and/or decorations for
                 purposes of customisation.  These  indications  are  stored  in  the  PostScript
                 variable  defl.  Note:  This is a potential compatibility problem. The parameter
                 was introduced in version 4.9.4.  (default: 0)

       setfont-1 font [encoding] size

       setfont-2 font [encoding] size

       setfont-3 font [encoding] size

       setfont-4 font [encoding] size
                 Set up alternate fonts for strings. In most strings, you can switch  to  one  of
                 the  alternate fonts using $1..$4; $0         switches back to the default value
                 for that string.  (default: Times-Roman 0)

       shiftunisson boolean
                 Usually in multi-voice tunes, when two voices are in unison there is often  only
                 one  note head. If this flag is set, two note heades are output (one is shifted)
                 if one is a minim (half note)  and  the  other  a  crotchet  (quarter  note)  or
                 shorter,  i.e.,  a  "black" note, or if one note is dotted and the other is not.
                 The parameter is really spelled "shiftunisson" (default: 0).

       slurheight float
                 Set the slur height factor to float (default: 1.0).

       splittune boolean
                 If false, a tune is output on a new page if it doesn't fit on the one  currently
                 being  output.  If  true,  a  tune  may be split across page breaks (default: 0;
                 command line: -0, +0).

       squarebreve boolean
                 If true, display breve notes in a square shape (default: 0)

       staffnonote boolean
                 If false, staves not containing notes are suppressed. This includes staves  that
                 only contain visible rests (default: 1)

       staffsep length
                 Set the vertical inter-staff space to length (default: 46pt; command line: -d)

       staffwidth length
                 Set  the  right  margin such that the staff width is length (default: none - but
                 see paperwidth and rightmargin).

       stemheight float
                 Set the stem height to float (default: 20.0)

       straightflags boolean
                 If true, use straight flags on stems (mostly useful for bagpipe tunes  (default:
                 0)

       stretchlast boolean
                 If  true, stretch the last staff of a tune to fill the whole line even though it
                 may be underfull (default: 0)

       stretchstaff boolean
                 If true, stretch all underfull staves to fill the whole line (default: 1)

       subtitlefont font [encoding] size
                 Set the font for subtitles (second and subsequent `T:' headers  in  a  tune)  to
                 font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)

       subtitlespace length
                 Set the vertical space before subtitles (second and subsequent `T:' headers in a
                 tune) to length (default: 0.1cm).

       sysstaffsep length
                 Set the vertical system interstaff space to length (default: 36pt).

       tablature arguments
                 Define a tablature for the current voice. See format.txt for the details.

       tempofont font [encoding] size
                 Set the font for tempo (metronome) indications to font with size size  (default:
                 Times-Bold 15)

       textfont font [encoding] size
                 Set the text font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 16)

       textoption int
                 Set  the  default  text  option  to  int.   This option is used for text between
                 %%begintext and %%endtext.  int may be a keyword; see begintext for values.

       textspace length
                 Set the vertical space before text blocks to length (default: 0.5cm).

       timewarn boolean
                 If true, a cautionary time signature is added to the end of the line before if a
                 time signature change occurs at the beginning of a line of music (default: 0).

       titlecaps boolean
                 If true, output the tune title in uppercase letters (default: 0)

       titlefont font [encoding] size
                 Set the title font to font with size size (default: Times-Roman 20)

       titleformat text
                 Defines the format of the tune title. This format overrides the standard way the
                 tune title is displayed. text is a sequence of letters, numbers, and  commas.  A
                 letter  stands for an ABC header (reasonable values include A, B, C, D, H, N, O,
                 P, R, S, T, X, and Z, but any letter may occur) and can optionally  be  followed
                 by  a  number.  This  number  may  be 0 (to center the header), 1 (to display it
                 flush-right), or -1 (to display it  flush-left);  if  no  number  is  given  the
                 default  is 0. A comma causes the next field(s) to be displayed farther down the
                 page. Unrecognized characters will be ignored. As an example, "%%titleformat T-1
                 T1  T1, R0 C1 A1" will display the first title header flush-left, the second and
                 third titles (if any) flush-right, then the rhythm centered  and  a  little  bit
                 lower, and the composer and area on the right.

       titleleft boolean
                 If true, output the tune title flush left (instead of centered) (default: 0)

       titlespace length
                 Set the vertical space before the tune title to length (default: 0.2cm).

       titletrim boolean
                 If  true,  if  the  last  word  of  a  title starts with a capital letter and is
                 preceded by a comma and a space, this word is moved  to  the  beginning  of  the
                 title.  For  example, T:College Hornpipe, The is printed as The College Hornpipe
                        (default: 1).

       topmargin length
                 Set the top margin to length (default: 1cm)

       topspace length
                 Set the vertical space at the top of a tune to length (default: 0.8cm)

       tuplets when what value
                 Define  how  to  draw  tuplets.   The  when  parameter  can  be  0  (to   decide
                 automatically  whether  to  draw a slur or bracket over the tuplet), 1 (to never
                 draw one) or 2 (to always draw one). The what parameter defines what to draw:  0
                 means  a  bracket,  1  a slur; 2 extends beams across rests (does not work yet).
                 The value parameter defines how to annotate the  tuplet:  0  means  to  write  a
                 simple number (p), 1 writes nothing, and 2 writes a ratio (p:q).

       vocalabove boolean
                 If true, output lyrics above the staff (instead of below it) (default: 0)

       vocalfont font [encoding] size
                 Set  the  font  for lyrics inside a tune to font with size size (default: Times-
                 Bold 13)

       vocalspace length
                 Set the vertical space between a staff and its lyrics to length (default: 23pt)

       voicefont font [encoding] size
                 Set the font for voice names (default: Times-Bold 13).

       withxrefs boolean
                 If true, print the number from the `X:' header in the tune  title  (default:  0;
                 command line: -x, +x)

       wordsfont font [encoding] size
                 Set  the  font  for lyrics at the end of a tune to font with size size (default:
                 Times-Roman 16)

       wordsspace length
                 Set the vertical space before the end-of-tune lyrics to length (default: 0.5cm)

       writehistory boolean
                 If true, output notes and history (`N:' and `H:' headers) (default:  0;  command
                 line: -n, +n)

       The following formatting parameters can only occur inside tunes and not in a format file:

       %%begintext [mode]
                 Start  printing  a  free-form  text.  The  text  to  be  printed  appears on the
                 subsequent lines of the the input file up to a line containing  %%endtext.   The
                 text lines may start with %%.

                 The parameter may be:

                 obeylines Line breaks in the input file are kept (default)

                 align or justify
                           Lines are justified

                 ragged or fill
                           Line breaks are ignored but output is left-justified

                 center    Lines are centered

                 skip      The text lines are not printed at all

       %%center text
                 Print one line of centered text

       %%EPS filename
                 Include filename as an EPS file

       %%endtext Finish a block of free text started by %%begintext

       %%multicol command
                 Define multicolumn printing. command may be:

                 start     Save  the  current vertical position and left and right margins. These
                           margins may then be changed to print music or text.

                 new       Reset the vertical position to the place of  the  previous  start  and
                           restore the left and right margins. These can then be changed again to
                           display another column.

                 end       Restore the left and right margins and skip down the page to  a  `safe
                           place'.

       %%newpage [int]
                 Start a new page, restarting page numbering from int if applicable.

       %%repbra int
                 Repetition  brackets  are  normally  displayed as written in a voice. %%repbra 0
                 suppresses them for the current voice.

       %%repeat [n [k]]
                 Replace a sequence of notes by one or many repeat marks. When placed after a bar
                 line,  n indicates the number of measures to be repeated, either 1 or 2. If n is
                 1, k gives the number of repetitions of the preceding measure. If n is 2,  k  is
                 not  used.  When  placed  after  a note or rest, n gives the number of notes and
                 rests to be repeated, and k gives the number of repeats. When omitted,  n
                 and k default to 1.

       %%score definition
                 See below.

       %%sep [h1 h2 length]
                 Print  a  separator  (line) of length length with vertical space h1 above and h2
                 below (defaults: h1 and h2: 0.5cm; length: 3cm)

       %%setbarnb int
                 Set the measure number to int.  When not inside a tune body, this is  equivalent
                 to %%measurefirst.

       %%staff num
                 Put  the following material on staff num. This will lead, e.g., to beams between
                 notes in  different  staves.  Useful  for  keyboard  music;  see,  for  example,
                 sample4.abc.

       %%staffbreak length [f]
                 Leave  a  space of length in the current staff. If length is greater than 0.5cm,
                 the left side of the staff (system) is redrawn. In a multi-voice tune,  a  staff
                 break must be specified in each voice.

                 If  the  f is not given, the staff break is removed if it occurs at the start or
                 the end of a line.

       %%staves definition
                 See below.

       %%text text
                 Output a single line of text.

       %%vskip length
                 Leave vertical space of height length.  length may be negative,  in  which  case
                 the following material is moved closer to that above.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES

   Clefs
       Clefs can be given in K: and V: headers. The full syntax is

       [clef=]type[line][+8|-8] [middle=pitch]

       The `clef=' can be omitted when the type is a clef name.

       type denotes the clef type. It may be:

       A note pitch (G, C, or F)
                 The  pitch  indicates which clef is meant: G is the treble clef, C the alto clef
                 and F the bass clef. It also gives the name of the  note  that  appears  on  the
                 clef's line.

       A clef name
                 The  available clef names are treble (clef gives the pitch for G), alto or tenor
                 (C), and bass (F)

       perc or P In percussion mode, accidentals change  the  glyphs  used  for  note  heads.  By
                 default, sharp notes are drawn as `x' and flat notes as circled `x'. This may be
                 changed by redefining the PostScript functions pshhd and pflhd.

       none      No clef will be displayed.

       The line gives the number of the line within the staff that the base clef will be  written
       on. The default values are 2 for the treble clef, 3 for the alto clef, and 4 for the tenor
       and bass clefs.

       The +8 and -8 options draw an 8 above or below the  staff,  respectively.   `middle=pitch'
       (or  `m=pitch',  for short) is an alternative way of defining the line number of the clef:
       The pitch indicates what note will be displayed on the middle line of the staff.

       When no clef is  specified,  clef  changes  between  bass  and  treble  will  be  inserted
       automatically.

   Multi-voice typesetting
       Multiple voices may be defined within the header or the tune using

       V:name definition ...

       where  name  is  a  word consisting of letters and digits only (like violin1). In the tune
       body, the following notes  refer  to  this  voice  until  another  V:  is  encountered.  A
       definition can be one of:

       clef=...  See above

       name=name or nm=name
                 The  name  will be displayed at the beginning of the first staff. It can contain
                 \n sequences which will force line breaks. If it contains whitespace it must  be
                 double-quoted.

       subname=name or snm=name
                 The  name will be displayed at the beginning of all staves except for the first.
                 It can contain \n sequences  which  will  force  line  breaks.  If  it  contains
                 whitespace it must be double-quoted.

       merge     The voice goes on the same staff as the previous voice.

       up or down
                 Forces the direction of the stems for the voice.

       dyn=up or dyn=down or dyn=auto
                 Forces  positioning  of  dynamic  marks (above or below the staff) or reverts to
                 automatic positioning (the default)

       gstem=up or gstem=down or gstem=auto
                 Forces the direction of the stems of grace notes (always up or always  down)  or
                 reverts to automatic positioning (the default)

       stem=auto Reverts to automatic positioning of note stems (up or down) (the default)

       lyrics=up or lyrics=down or lyrics=auto
                 Places  lyrics above or below the staff or reverts to automatic positioning (the
                 default)

       gchord=up            or gchord=down
                 Places guitar chords above (the default) or below the staff.

       stafflines=value
                 Sets the number of lines on the staff in question.  (default: 5)

       staffscale=value
                 Sets the scale of the associated staff  up  to  3.   (default:  1)    All  other
                 definitions are ignored.

       By default, each voice goes on its own staff. The `%%staves definition' pseudo-comment can
       be used to control staff assignment. The definition consists of voice names (from V:)  and
       pairs of parentheses, braces or brackets.

          ·  When  a voice name is not within a pair of special characters, it goes on a separate
             staff.

          ·  For voice names enclosed in brackets, a bracket is displayed  at  the  beginning  of
             each line that joins the staves of the voices in question.

          ·  For  voice  names  enclosed  in  braces,  all  the voices go on two staves (keyboard
             score). There can be at most four voices between a single pair of braces.

          ·  For voice names enclosed in parentheses, all the voices appear on a single staff.

       The `|' character prevents measure bars from being drawn between two staves.

       If `%%staves' occurs in a tune, all the voices not mentioned will not be output at all.

   The %%score directive
       The %%score directive occurs in the ABC draft 2.0 standard and is similar to the  %%staves
            specification described earlier. The rules are:

          ·  Voice  names  within  parentheses  form  a "voice group" and go on a single staff. A
             voice name that is not within parentheses forms its own voice group and  goes  on  a
             staff by itself.

          ·  Voice  groups  within braces form a "voice block" and are preceded by a big brace in
             the output. This is especially useful for keyboard music.

          ·  Voice groups or voice blocks within brackets  form  a  "voice  block"  and  will  be
             preceded by a big bracket in the output.

          ·  If a `|' character occurs between two voice groups or voice blocks, the bar lines in
             all of the associated staves will be continuous.

          ·  A single voice surrounded by two voice groups can be preceded by an asterisk to make
             it  into a `floating' voice. This means that, for each note of the voice, a separate
             decision is made whether it is printed on  the  preceding  or  the  following  voice
             group's staff.

          ·  Voices  that  appear  in  the tune body but not in the %%score directive will not be
             output at all. If there is no %%score           directive, each voice will be output
             on its own staff.

          ·  A  %%score  directive inside a tune resets the mechanism so voices can be removed or
             added.

   Voice overlay
       You can add notes to a staff without introducing a  complete  extra  voice  by  using  the
       ampersand (&).  A single measure can be split into two voices like

       |F2A2Bc&F2c2bc|

       The (&...&...&) construction allows splitting multiple measures:

       |!f!(&GG<G|GG F=E| E2  E(_D/E)|_D D  C      D |C4- |C
            &DC<C|CC_D C|=B,2_B,B,   |_A,A,(G,/A,/)B,|F,4-|F,)zzD=E|

       A  double  ampersand  (&&)  will  allow  overlaying  more than two lines of music but this
       feature has not yet been implemented.

   Lyrics
       Aligned lyrics under a staff are written as a w: line directly below the staff  line.  For
       example:

       edc2 edc2|
       w:Three blind mice, three blind mice

       Each  word  in the w: line (delimited by blanks) is associated with one note, in sequence.
       The following special symbols modify this behaviour:

       *         Skips one note.

       -         Splits a word into two syllables which are associated with two adjacent notes. A
                 `-' is drawn between them.

       |         Advances to the next bar line

       ~         Is output as a space, but unites two words so they appear under a single note.

       _         Draws a thin underscore from the previous note to the next.

       To include more than one line of lyrics, use multiple w: lines. To include hyphens without
       splitting a word over multiple notes, use -.

       If a word starts with a digit, this is interpreted as a stanza number and outdented a  bit
       to the left.

   Slurs and ties
       The  direction  of  slurs  and  ties may be controlled using the (, and (', and -, and -',
       constructions.

   Microtone pitches
       Microtone pitches are indicated by a fraction  after  an  accidental,  as  in  3/4c.  When
       omitted,  the  numerator  defaultes  to  1  and the denominator to 2 (so /c is the same as
       1/2c). The numerator and denominator values may not exceed 256. There is built-in  support
       for  quarter-tone  accidentals (1/2 and 3/2 sharps and flats); for other values, rendering
       functions must be defined using %%postscript (see features.txt).

   EPS inclusion
       EPS files may be included inside tunes using the pseudo-comment `%%EPS file'.

SEE ALSO

       The  original  documentation  can  be  found  in  files  features.txt,   format.txt,   and
       options.txt, which on a Debian system are in /usr/share/doc/abcm2ps.

AUTHOR

       This  manual page was written by Anselm Lingnau <lingnau@debian.org> for the Debian system
       (but may be used by others).  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
       document as long as its origin is not misrepresented.

                                                                                       ABCM2PS(1)