Provided by: bin86_0.16.17-3.1ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       as86 - Assembler for 8086..80386 processors

SYNOPSIS

       as86 [-0123agjuw] [-lm[list]] [-n name] [-o obj] [-b[bin]] [-s sym] [-t textseg] src

       as86_encap prog.s prog.v [prefix_] [as86_options]

DESCRIPTION

       as86  is  an  assembler  for  the  8086..80386  processors,  it's  syntax is closer to the
       intel/microsoft form rather  than  the  more  normal  generic  form  of  the  unix  system
       assembler.

       The src file can be '-' to assemble the standard input.

       This assembler can be compiled to support the 6809 cpu and may even work.

       as86_encap  is  a  shell  script to call as86 and convert the created binary into a C file
       prog.v to be included in or linked with programs like boot block installers.  The  prefix_
       argument  is  a  prefix to be added to all variables defined by the source, it defaults to
       the name of the source file. The variables defined include  prefix_start  prefix_size  and
       prefix_data  to  define  and  contain the code, plus integers containing the values of all
       exported labels.  Either or both the prog.s and prog.v arguments can be '-'  for  standard
       in/out.

OPTIONS

       -0     start with 16-bit code segment, warn for all instructions > 8086

       -1     start with 16-bit code segment, warn for all instructions > 80186

       -2     start with 16-bit code segment, warn for all instructions > 80286

       -3     start  with  32-bit code segment, don't warn for any instructions. (not even 486 or
              586)

       -a     enable partial compatibility with Minix asld.  This  swaps  the  interpretation  of
              round  brackets  and  square  brackets  as  well  as making alterations to the code
              generation and syntax for 16bit jumps and calls.  ("jmp  @(bx)"  is  then  a  valid
              instruction)

       -g     only put global symbols in object or symbol file

       -j     replace  all  short  jumps  with similar 16 or 32 bit jumps, the 16 bit conditional
              branches are encoded as a short conditional and a long unconditional branch.

       -O     this causes the assembler to add extra passes to try to use forward  references  to
              reduce the bytes needed for some instructions.  If the labels move on the last pass
              the assembler will keep adding passes until the labels all stabilise (to a  maximum
              of 30 passes) It's probably not a good idea to use this with hand written assembler
              use the explicit br bmi bcc style opcodes for 8086 code or the jmp near  style  for
              conditional  i386  instructions and make sure all variables are defined before they
              are used.

       -l     produce list file, filename may follow

       -m     print macro expansions in listing

       -n     name of module follows (goes in object instead of source name)

       -o     produce object file, filename follows

       -b     produce a raw binary file, filename may follow.  This is a 'raw' binary  file  with
              no header, if there's no -s option the file starts at location 0.

       -s     produce  an  ASCII  symbol  file,  filename  follows.   The format of this table is
              designed to be easy to parse for encapsulation and related activities  in  relation
              to  binary  files  created  with  the -b option.  If a binary file doesn't start at
              location zero the first two items in the table are the start and end  addresses  of
              the binary file.

       -u     assume undefined symbols are imported-with-unspecified segment.

       -w-    allow the assembler to print warning messages.

       -t n   move all text segment data in segment n+3.

AS86 SOURCE

       Special characters

       *      Address of the start of the current line.

       ; !    Either  of  these  marks  the  start  of  a  comment.  In addition any 'unexpected'
              character at the start of a line  is  assumed  to  be  a  comment  (but  it's  also
              displayed to the terminal).

       $      Prefix for hexadecimal numbers, the 'C' syntax, eg 0x1234, is also accepted.

       %      Prefix for binary numbers.

       #      Prefix for immediate operands.

       [ ]    Specifies an indirect operand.
              Unlike  MASM  the  assembler  has  no type information on labels just a segment and
              offset. This means that the way this operator and the  immediate  prefix  work  are
              like traditional assemblers.

              Examples:
                   mov     ax,bx
                   jmp     bx
              Direct register addressing, the jump copies BX into PC.

                   mov ax,[bx]
                   jmp [bx]
              Simple  indirect  register  addressing, the jump moves the contents of the location
              specified by BX into the PC.

                   mov ax,#1234
              Immediate value, ax becomes 1234.

                   mov ax,1234
                   mov ax,_hello
                   mov ax,[_hello]
              Absolute addressing, ax is set to contents of location 1234. Note the third  option
              is not strictly consistant but is in place mainly for asld compatibility.

                   mov ax,_table[bx]
                   mov ax,_table[bx+si]
                   mov eax,_table[ebx*4]

                   mov ax,[bx+_table]
                   mov ax,[bx+si+_table]
                   mov eax,[ebx*4+_table]
              Indexed  addressing,  both  formats are ok, I think the first is more correct but I
              tend to used the second. :-)

       Conditionals

       IF, ELSE, ELSEIF, ENDIF
              Numeric condition

       IFC, ELSEIFC
              String compare (str1,str2)

       FAIL .FAIL
              Generate user error.

       Segment related

       .TEXT .ROM .DATA .BSS
              Set current segment. These can be preceded by the keyword .SECT

       LOC    Set numeric segment 0=TEXT, 3=DATA,ROM,BSS, 14=MAX.  The segment order set  by  the
              linker  is  now  0,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,1,2,3.  Segment 0 and all segments above 3
              are assumed to be text segment.  Note the 64k size restrictions are not imposed for
              segments 3-14.

       Label type definition

       EXPORT PUBLIC .DEFINE
              Export label defined in this object

       ENTRY  Force linker to include the specified label in a.out

       .GLOBL .GLOBAL
              Define label as external and force import even if it isn't used.

       EXTRN EXTERN IMPORT .EXTERN
              Import list of externally defined labels
              NB: It doesn't make sense to use imports for raw binary files.

       .ENTER Mark entry for old binary file (obs)

       Data definition

       DB .DATA1 .BYTE FCB
              List of 1 byte objects.

       DW .DATA2 .SHORT FDB .WORD
              List of 2 byte objects.

       DD .DATA4 .LONG
              List of 4 byte objects.

       .ASCII FCC
              Ascii string copied to output.

       .ASCIZ Ascii string copied to output with trailing nul byte.

       Space definition

       .BLKB RMB .SPACE
              Space is counted in bytes.

       .BLKW .ZEROW
              Space is counted in words. (2 bytes each)

       COMM .COMM LCOMM .LCOMM
              Common area data definition

       Other useful pseudo operations.

       .ALIGN .EVEN
              Alignment

       EQU    Define label

       SET    Define re-definable label

       ORG .ORG
              Set assemble location

       BLOCK  Set assemble location and stack old one

       ENDB   Return to stacked assemble location

       GET INCLUDE
              Insert new file (no quotes on name)

       USE16 [cpu]
              Define default operand size as 16 bit, argument is cpu type the code is expected to
              run on (86, 186, 286, 386, 486, 586) instructions for  cpus  later  than  specified
              give a warning.

       USE32 [cpu]
              Define default operand size as 32 bit, argument is cpu type the code is expected to
              run on (86, 186, 286, 386, 486, 586) instructions for  cpus  later  than  specified
              give a warning. If the cpu is not mentioned the assembler ensures it is >= 80386.

       END    End of compilation for this file.

       .WARN  Switch warnings

       .LIST  Listings on/off (1,-1)

       .MACLIST
              Macro listings on/off (1,-1)

       Macros, now working, the general form is like this.

           MACRO sax
              mov ax,#?1
           MEND
           sax(1)

       Unimplemented/unused.

       IDENT  Define object identity string.

       SETDP  Set DP value on 6809

       MAP    Set binary symbol table map number.

       Registers
              BP BX DI SI
              EAX EBP EBX ECX EDI EDX ESI ESP
              AX CX DX SP
              AH AL BH BL CH CL DH DL
              CS DS ES FS GS SS
              CR0 CR2 CR3 DR0 DR1 DR2 DR3 DR6 DR7
              TR3 TR4 TR5 TR6 TR7 ST

       Operand type specifiers
              BYTE DWORD FWORD FAR PTR PWORD QWORD TBYTE WORD NEAR

              The  'near  and  'far' do not allow multi-segment programming, all 'far' operations
              are specified explicitly through the use of the instructions:  jmpi,  jmpf,  callf,
              retf,  etc.  The  'Near'  operator  can  be  used  to  force the use of 80386 16bit
              conditional branches. The 'Dword' and 'word' operators  can  control  the  size  of
              operands on far jumps and calls.

       General instructions.
              These  are in general the same as the instructions found in any 8086 assembler, the
              main exceptions being a few 'Bcc' (BCC,  BNE,  BGE,  etc)  instructions  which  are
              shorthands  for  a  short  branch  plus  a  long jump and 'BR' which is the longest
              unconditional jump (16 or 32 bit).

       Long branches
              BCC BCS BEQ BGE BGT BHI BHIS BLE BLO BLOS BLT BMI BNE BPC BPL BPS BVC BVS BR

       Intersegment
              CALLI CALLF JMPI JMPF

       Segment modifier instructions
              ESEG FSEG GSEG SSEG

       Byte operation instructions
              ADCB ADDB ANDB CMPB DECB DIVB IDIVB IMULB INB INCB MOVB MULB  NEGB  NOTB  ORB  OUTB
              RCLB RCRB ROLB RORB SALB SARB SHLB SHRB SBBB SUBB TESTB XCHGB XORB

       Standard instructions
              AAA  AAD  AAM  AAS ADC ADD AND ARPL BOUND BSF BSR BSWAP BT BTC BTR BTS CALL CBW CDQ
              CLC CLD CLI CLTS CMC CMP CMPS CMPSB CMPSD CMPSW CMPW CMPXCHG CSEG CWD CWDE DAA  DAS
              DEC DIV DSEG ENTER HLT IDIV IMUL IN INC INS INSB INSD INSW INT INTO INVD INVLPG INW
              IRET IRETD J JA JAE JB JBE JC JCXE JCXZ JE JECXE JECXZ JG JGE JL JLE JMP  JNA  JNAE
              JNB JNBE JNC JNE JNG JNGE JNL JNLE JNO JNP JNS JNZ JO JP JPE JPO JS JZ LAHF LAR LDS
              LEA LEAVE LES LFS LGDT LGS LIDT LLDT LMSW LOCK LODB LODS  LODSB  LODSD  LODSW  LODW
              LOOP  LOOPE  LOOPNE  LOOPNZ LOOPZ LSL LSS LTR MOV MOVS MOVSB MOVSD MOVSW MOVSX MOVW
              MOVZX MUL NEG NOP NOT OR OUT OUTS OUTSB OUTSD OUTSW OUTW POP POPA POPAD POPF  POPFD
              PUSH  PUSHA  PUSHAD  PUSHF  PUSHFD RCL RCR RDMSR REP REPE REPNE REPNZ REPZ RET RETF
              RETI ROL ROR SAHF SAL SAR SBB SCAB SCAS SCASB SCASD SCASW SCAW SEG SETA SETAE  SETB
              SETBE  SETC  SETE SETG SETGE SETL SETLE SETNA SETNAE SETNB SETNBE SETNC SETNE SETNG
              SETNGE SETNL SETNLE SETNO SETNP SETNS SETNZ SETO SETP SETPE SETPO  SETS  SETZ  SGDT
              SHL  SHLD  SHR SHRD SIDT SLDT SMSW STC STD STI STOB STOS STOSB STOSD STOSW STOW STR
              SUB TEST VERR VERW WAIT WBINVD WRMSR XADD XCHG XLAT XLATB XOR

       Floating point
              F2XM1 FABS FADD FADDP FBLD FBSTP FCHS FCLEX FCOM FCOMP FCOMPP  FCOS  FDECSTP  FDISI
              FDIV  FDIVP  FDIVR  FDIVRP  FENI  FFREE  FIADD FICOM FICOMP FIDIV FIDIVR FILD FIMUL
              FINCSTP FINIT FIST FISTP FISUB FISUBR FLD FLD1 FLDL2E FLDL2T  FLDCW  FLDENV  FLDLG2
              FLDLN2  FLDPI FLDZ FMUL FMULP FNCLEX FNDISI FNENI FNINIT FNOP FNSAVE FNSTCW FNSTENV
              FNSTSW FPATAN FPREM FPREM1 FPTAN FRNDINT FRSTOR FSAVE FSCALE  FSETPM  FSIN  FSINCOS
              FSQRT FST FSTCW FSTENV FSTP FSTSW FSUB FSUBP FSUBR FSUBRP FTST FUCOM FUCOMP FUCOMPP
              FWAIT FXAM FXCH FXTRACT FYL2X FYL2XP1

Using GASP

       The Gnu assembler preprocessor provides some reasonable  implementations  of  user  biased
       pseudo opcodes.

       It can be invoked in a form similar to:

       gasp   [-a...]  file.s [file2.s] |
              as86 [...]  - [-o obj] [-b bin]

       Be  aware  though  that  Gasp  generates  an  error for .org commands, if you're not using
       alternate syntax you can use org instead, otherwise use block  and  endb.   The  directive
       export  is translated into .global, which forces an import, if you are making a file using
       -b use public or .define instead.

       The GASP list options have no support in as86.

SEE ALSO

       as(1), ld86(1), bcc(1)

BUGS

       The 6809 version does not support -0, -3, -a or -j.

       If this assembler is compiled with BCC this is classed as a 'small' compiler, so there  is
       a  maximum  input line length of 256 characters and the instruction to cpu checking is not
       included.

       The checking for instructions that work on specific cpus is  probably  not  complete,  the
       distinction between 80186 and 80286 is especially problematic.

       The .text and .data pseudo operators are not useful for raw binary files.

       When  using  the  org  directive  the  assembler  can generate object files that may break
       ld86(1).

                                            Mar, 1999                                     as86(1)