Provided by: rcs_5.7-25_amd64 bug


       ci - check in RCS revisions


       ci [options] file ...


       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS suffix is taken to
       be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be working files containing new revisions.   ci
       deposits  the  contents  of  each working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a
       working file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS  subdirectory
       and then in the working file's directory.  For more details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci  to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the access list
       is empty or the caller is the superuser or the  owner  of  the  file.   To  append  a  new
       revision  to  an  existing  branch,  the tip revision on that branch must be locked by the
       caller.  Otherwise, only a new branch can be created.  This restriction  is  not  enforced
       for  the  owner  of  the  file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).  A lock held by
       someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be deposited differs from
       the preceding one.  If not, instead of creating a new revision ci reverts to the preceding
       one.  To revert, ordinary ci removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and  ci -u
       removes any lock, and then they both generate a new working file much as if co -l or co -u
       had been applied to the preceding revision.  When reverting, any -n and -s  options  apply
       to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,  ci  prompts  for  a  log message.  The log message should
       summarize the change and must be terminated by end-of-file or by a  line  containing  . by
       itself.   If  several  files  are  checked  in  ci  asks whether to reuse the previous log
       message.  If the standard input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and  uses  the
       same log message for all files.  See also -m.

       If  the  RCS  file  does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents of the working
       file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The access  list  is  initialized  to
       empty.  Instead of the log message, ci requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -f, -i, -I,
       -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.  rev can be symbolic, numeric, or mixed.  Symbolic names in
       rev must already be defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during checkin.
       If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended  to
       it.   If  rev  is  a  branch number followed by a period, then the latest revision on that
       branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on the branch to  which
       rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev  is  a  branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is appended to that
       branch.  The level number is obtained by incrementing the  tip  revision  number  of  that
       branch.   If  rev indicates a non-existing branch, that branch is created with the initial
       revision numbered rev.1.

       If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the caller's last lock.
       If  the  caller  has  locked the tip revision of a branch, the new revision is appended to
       that branch.  The new revision number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.
       If  the  caller  locked  a  non-tip  revision, a new branch is started at that revision by
       incrementing the highest branch number at that revision.  The default initial  branch  and
       level numbers are 1.

       If  rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and locking is not set to
       strict, then the revision is appended to the default branch (normally the trunk;  see  the
       -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not inserted.


       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning in ci.  With other
              RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the most recent revision  on  the  default
              branch,  but  with  ci,  a  bare  -r  option  reestablishes the default behavior of
              releasing a lock and removing the working file, and is used to override any default
              -l or -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

              works  like  -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the deposited revision.
              Thus, the deposited revision is immediately checked out again and locked.  This  is
              useful  for  saving  a revision although one wants to continue editing it after the

              works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not  locked.   This  lets  one
              read the working file immediately after checkin.

              The  -l,  bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and silently override each
              other.  For example, ci -u -r is equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

              forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not different  from  the
              preceding one.

              searches  the  working  file  for  keyword values to determine its revision number,
              creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),  and  assigns  these  values  to  the
              deposited  revision,  rather  than  computing  them  locally.   It also generates a
              default login message noting the login of the caller and the actual  checkin  date.
              This  option  is  useful  for  software  distribution.   A revision that is sent to
              several sites should be checked in with the -k option at these  sites  to  preserve
              the original number, date, author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the
              default log message can be overridden with the options -d,  -m,  -s,  -w,  and  any
              option that carries a revision number.

              quiet  mode;  diagnostic  output  is not printed.  A revision that is not different
              from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f is given.

              initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.  This avoids  race
              conditions in certain applications.

              just  checkin  and  do  not  initialize;  report  an error if the RCS file does not
              already exist.

              interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the standard input is
              not a terminal.

              uses  date  for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified in free format as
              explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying about the checkin date, and for -k if
              no  date  is  available.   If  date  is  empty,  the  working  file's  time of last
              modification is used.

              Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date of  the  retrieved
              revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does not alter f's modification time, even if
              f's contents change due to keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can
              confuse make(1).

       -mmsg  uses  the  string  msg  as  the  log  message  for  all  revisions  checked in.  By
              convention, log messages that start with # are comments and are ignored by programs
              like  GNU  Emacs's  vc  package.   Also,  log  messages that start with {clumpname}
              (followed by white space) are meant to be clumped together  if  possible,  even  if
              they  are  associated  with different files; the {clumpname} label is used only for
              clumping, and is not considered to be part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in revision.  ci prints
              an error message if name is already assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of name.

              sets  the  state  of  the checked-in revision to the identifier state.  The default
              state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named  file  into  the  RCS  file,
              deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin with -.

              Write  descriptive  text  from  the string into the RCS file, deleting the existing

              The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an initial checkin; it  is
              silently ignored otherwise.

              During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the text from standard
              input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  The user  is
              prompted for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

              For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t option is ignored.

       -T     Set  the  RCS  file's  modification  time  to the new revision's time if the former
              precedes the  latter  and  there  is  a  new  revision;  preserve  the  RCS  file's
              modification time otherwise.  If you have locked a revision, ci usually updates the
              RCS file's modification time to the current time, because the lock is stored in the
              RCS  file and removing the lock requires changing the RCS file.  This can create an
              RCS file newer than the working file in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create  a
              working  file  with  a  date before the current time; second, when reverting to the
              previous revision the RCS file can change while the working file remains unchanged.
              These two cases can cause excessive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency of
              the working file on the RCS file.  The -T option  inhibits  this  recompilation  by
              lying  about  the  RCS  file's  date.   Use  this option with care; it can suppress
              recompilation even when a checkin of one working file should affect another working
              file  associated  with the same RCS file.  For example, suppose the RCS file's time
              is 01:00, the (changed) working file's time  is  02:00,  some  other  copy  of  the
              working  file  has  a  time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.  Then ci -d -T
              sets the RCS file's time to 02:00 instead of the usual 04:00; this  causes  make(1)
              to think (incorrectly) that the other copy is newer than the RCS file.

              uses  login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Useful for lying about
              the author, and for -k if no author is available.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              specifies the suffixes for RCS files.   A  nonempty  suffix  matches  any  pathname
              ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any pathname of the form RCS/path or
              path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For
              example,  -x,v/  specifies  two  suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.  If two or more
              suffixes are specified, they are tried in order when looking for an RCS  file;  the
              first  one  that  works  is used for that file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS
              file can be created, the suffixes are tried in  order  to  determine  the  new  RCS
              file's  name.   The  default for suffixes is installation-dependent; normally it is
              ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit commas in filenames, and is  empty  (i.e.  just
              the empty suffix) for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default
              time zone for date in the -ddate option.  The zone should be empty, a  numeric  UTC
              offset,  or  the  special  string LT for local time.  The default is an empty zone,
              which uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone  indication  and
              with  slashes  separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output in ISO
              8601 format with time zone indication.  For example, if local time is  January  11,
              1990,  8pm  Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is output
              as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

              The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which are always UTC.


       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways (see also the  example

       1)  Both  the  RCS  file  and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname is of the form
       path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the form path2/workfile  where  path1/  and
       path2/  are  (possibly  different or empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS
       suffix.  If X is empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the current  directory
       and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3)  Only  the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X in turn, looking
       for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if the former is not found  and  X  is
       nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If  the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for the RCS file first
       in the directory ./RCS and then in the current directory.

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an unusual reason, even if
       the  RCS  file's  pathname is just one of several possibilities.  For example, to suppress
       use of RCS commands in a directory d, create a regular file named  d/RCS  so  that  casual
       attempts to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.


       Suppose  ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdirectory RCS with an
       RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the following  commands  check  in  a  copy  of  io.c  into
       RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision, removing io.c.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
              ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose  instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains
       a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each of the following commands checks in  a
       new revision.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
              ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;


       An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions from the working file.
       If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves its read and execute permissions.  ci  always
       turns off all write permissions of RCS files.


       Temporary  files are created in the directory containing the working file, and also in the
       temporary directory (see TMPDIR under ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created
       in  the  directory  containing  the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names
       begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify  an  suffix  whose
       first  character could be that of a working filename.  With an empty suffix, the semaphore
       names end with _ so working filenames should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file and creates a  new
       one;  but  instead  of  breaking  a chain of one or more symbolic links to an RCS file, it
       unlinks the destination file instead.  Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links  to
       any  working  file  it  changes; and hard links to RCS files are ineffective, but symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory containing the RCS file.
       Normally,  the  real user must be able to read the RCS and working files and to search and
       write the directory containing the working file; however, some older hosts  cannot  easily
       switch  between real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user is used for
       all accesses.  The effective user is the same as the real user unless your  copies  of  ci
       and  co  have setuid privileges.  As described in the next section, these privileges yield
       extra security if the effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if  only  the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users  can  control  access  to  RCS  files  by  setting  the permissions of the directory
       containing the files; only users with write access to the directory can use  RCS  commands
       to  change  its  RCS  files.  For example, in hosts that allow a user to belong to several
       groups, one can make a group's RCS directories writable to that group only.  This approach
       suffices  for informal projects, but it means that any group member can arbitrarily change
       the group's RCS files, and can even remove them  entirely.   Hence  more  formal  projects
       sometimes  distinguish between an RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files at will,
       and other project members, who can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise change  the
       RCS files.


       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions, a set of users can
       employ setuid privileges as follows.

       · Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult a trustworthy expert if there  are
         any  doubts.   It is best if the seteuid system call works as described in Posix 1003.1a
         Draft 5, because RCS can switch back and forth easily between real and effective  users,
         even  if  the  real  user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid system call
         supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails
         only  if  the  real or effective user is root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it
         quits immediately.

       · Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.  Only A  can  invoke
         the  rcs  command  on the users' RCS files.  A should not be root or any other user with
         special powers.  Mutually suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

       · Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by the users.

       · Have A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are  setuid  to  A  by  copying  the
         commands from their standard installation directory D as follows:

              mkdir  B
              cp  D/c[io]  B
              chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       · Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

              PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
              set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       · Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as follows:

              mkdir  R
              chmod  go-w  R

       · If  you want to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the users into a group G,
         and have A further protect the RCS directory as follows:

              chgrp  G  R
              chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

       · Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns them.

       · An RCS file's access list limits who can check  in  and  lock  revisions.   The  default
         access  list  is empty, which grants checkin access to anyone who can read the RCS file.
         If you want limit checkin access, have A invoke rcs -a on  the  file;  see  rcs(1).   In
         particular, rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       · Have  A  initialize  any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial checkin, adding the -a
         option if you want to limit checkin access.

       · Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them to rcs or  to  any
         other command.

       · Do  not  use  other  setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is trickier than you


              options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A  backslash  escapes
              spaces  within  an option.  The RCSINIT options are prepended to the argument lists
              of most RCS commands.  Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.  If not set, the  environment  variables  TMP  and
              TEMP  are inspected instead and the first value found is taken; if none of them are
              set, a host-dependent default is used, typically /tmp.


       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number  of  both  the
       deposited  and  the  preceding  revision.   The  exit  status  is  zero if and only if all
       operations were successful.


       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.17; Release Date: 1995/06/16.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.


       co(1),  emacs(1),  ident(1),  make(1),  rcs(1),  rcsclean(1),   rcsdiff(1),   rcsintro(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7
       (July 1985), 637-654.