Provided by: libjpeg-turbo-progs_1.1.90+svn733-0ubuntu4_i386 bug


       cjpeg - compress an image file to a JPEG file


       cjpeg [ options ] [ filename ]


       cjpeg compresses the named image file, or the standard input if no file
       is named, and produces a JPEG/JFIF file on the  standard  output.   The
       currently supported input file formats are: PPM (PBMPLUS color format),
       PGM (PBMPLUS gray-scale format),  BMP,  Targa,  and  RLE  (Utah  Raster
       Toolkit  format).   (RLE  is  supported  only  if  the  URT  library is


       All switch names may be abbreviated; for  example,  -grayscale  may  be
       written  -gray or -gr.  Most of the "basic" switches can be abbreviated
       to as little as one letter.  Upper and lower case are equivalent  (thus
       -BMP  is the same as -bmp).  British spellings are also accepted (e.g.,
       -greyscale), though for brevity these are not mentioned below.

       The basic switches are:

       -quality N[,...]
              Scale quantization tables to adjust image quality.  Quality is 0
              (worst)  to  100  (best);  default  is  75.  (See below for more

              Create monochrome JPEG file from color input.  Be  sure  to  use
              this switch when compressing a grayscale BMP file, because cjpeg
              isn't bright enough to notice  whether  a  BMP  file  uses  only
              shades of gray.  By saying -grayscale, you'll get a smaller JPEG
              file that takes less time to process.

              Perform optimization of entropy  encoding  parameters.   Without
              this,  default  encoding parameters are used.  -optimize usually
              makes the JPEG file a little smaller, but  cjpeg  runs  somewhat
              slower  and  needs much more memory.  Image quality and speed of
              decompression are unaffected by -optimize.

              Create progressive JPEG file (see below).

       -targa Input file  is  Targa  format.   Targa  files  that  contain  an
              "identification"  field  will not be automatically recognized by
              cjpeg; for such files you must  specify  -targa  to  make  cjpeg
              treat  the  input  as  Targa  format.  For most Targa files, you
              won't need this switch.

       The -quality switch lets you trade off  compressed  file  size  against
       quality of the reconstructed image: the higher the quality setting, the
       larger the JPEG file, and the closer the output image will  be  to  the
       original  input.   Normally  you want to use the lowest quality setting
       (smallest   file)   that   decompresses   into    something    visually
       indistinguishable  from  the  original  image.   For  this  purpose the
       quality setting should be between 50 and 95; the default of 75 is often
       about  right.   If  you  see defects at -quality 75, then go up 5 or 10
       counts at a time until you are  happy  with  the  output  image.   (The
       optimal setting will vary from one image to another.)

       -quality  100 will generate a quantization table of all 1's, minimizing
       loss in the quantization step (but there is still information  loss  in
       subsampling,  as  well  as  roundoff error).  This setting is mainly of
       interest for experimental purposes.  Quality values above about 95  are
       not  recommended  for  normal  use;  the  compressed  file size goes up
       dramatically for hardly any gain in output image quality.

       In the other direction, quality values below 50 will produce very small
       files of low image quality.  Settings around 5 to 10 might be useful in
       preparing an index of a large image library, for example.  Try -quality
       2 (or so) for some amusing Cubist effects.  (Note: quality values below
       about 25 generate 2-byte  quantization  tables,  which  are  considered
       optional  in the JPEG standard.  cjpeg emits a warning message when you
       give such a quality value, because some  other  JPEG  programs  may  be
       unable  to  decode  the  resulting  file.  Use -baseline if you need to
       ensure compatibility at low quality values.)

       The -quality option has been extended  in  this  version  of  cjpeg  to
       support separate quality settings for luminance and chrominance (or, in
       general, separate settings for every  quantization  table  slot.)   The
       principle  is the same as chrominance subsampling:  since the human eye
       is more sensitive to spatial changes in brightness than spatial changes
       in  color,  the  chrominance  components can be quantized more than the
       luminance components without incurring any visible image quality  loss.
       However, unlike subsampling, this feature reduces data in the frequency
       domain instead of the spatial  domain,  which  allows  for  more  fine-
       grained   control.    This   option   is  useful  in  quality-sensitive
       applications, for which the artifacts generated by subsampling  may  be

       The -quality option accepts a comma-separated list of parameters, which
       respectively refer to the quality levels which should  be  assigned  to
       the  quantization  table  slots.   If there are more q-table slots than
       parameters, then the last parameter is replicated.  Thus, if  only  one
       quality  parameter  is  given,  this  is  used  for  both luminance and
       chrominance (slots  0  and  1,  respectively),  preserving  the  legacy
       behavior  of  cjpeg  v6b  and prior.  More (or customized) quantization
       tables can be set with the -qtables option and assigned  to  components
       with the -qslots option (see the "wizard" switches below.)

       JPEG  files  generated  with separate luminance and chrominance quality
       are fully compliant with standard JPEG decoders.

       CAUTION: For this setting to be useful, be sure to pass an argument  of
       -sample  1x1  to  cjpeg to disable chrominance subsampling.  Otherwise,
       the default subsampling level (2x2, AKA "4:2:0") will be used.

       The -progressive switch creates a "progressive  JPEG"  file.   In  this
       type  of  JPEG file, the data is stored in multiple scans of increasing
       quality.  If the file is being transmitted over a  slow  communications
       link, the decoder can use the first scan to display a low-quality image
       very quickly, and can then improve the  display  with  each  subsequent
       scan.  The final image is exactly equivalent to a standard JPEG file of
       the same quality setting, and the total file size is about the same ---
       often a little smaller.

       Switches for advanced users:

       -dct int
              Use integer DCT method (default).

       -dct fast
              Use fast integer DCT (less accurate).

       -dct float
              Use  floating-point  DCT  method.   The  float  method  is  very
              slightly more accurate than the int method, but is  much  slower
              unless your machine has very fast floating-point hardware.  Also
              note that results of the floating-point method may vary slightly
              across  machines, while the integer methods should give the same
              results everywhere.   The  fast  integer  method  is  much  less
              accurate than the other two.

       -restart N
              Emit  a  JPEG  restart  marker  every N MCU rows, or every N MCU
              blocks if "B" is  attached  to  the  number.   -restart  0  (the
              default) means no restart markers.

       -smooth N
              Smooth the input image to eliminate dithering noise.  N, ranging
              from 1 to 100, indicates the  strength  of  smoothing.   0  (the
              default) means no smoothing.

       -maxmemory N
              Set  limit  for  amount  of  memory  to  use in processing large
              images.  Value is in thousands of bytes, or millions of bytes if
              "M"  is  attached  to  the number.  For example, -max 4m selects
              4000000 bytes.  If more space is needed, temporary files will be

       -outfile name
              Send output image to the named file, not to standard output.

              Enable  debug  printout.   More  -v's  give  more output.  Also,
              version information is printed at startup.

       -debug Same as -verbose.

       The -restart option inserts extra markers that allow a JPEG decoder  to
       resynchronize after a transmission error.  Without restart markers, any
       damage to a compressed file will usually ruin the image from the  point
       of  the error to the end of the image; with restart markers, the damage
       is usually confined to the portion of the image up to the next  restart
       marker.   Of  course,  the  restart  markers  occupy  extra  space.  We
       recommend -restart  1  for  images  that  will  be  transmitted  across
       unreliable networks such as Usenet.

       The  -smooth  option  filters  the input to eliminate fine-scale noise.
       This is often  useful  when  converting  dithered  images  to  JPEG:  a
       moderate smoothing factor of 10 to 50 gets rid of dithering patterns in
       the input file, resulting in a smaller JPEG file and  a  better-looking
       image.   Too  large  a  smoothing  factor  will visibly blur the image,

       Switches for wizards:

              Use arithmetic coding.  Caution: arithmetic coded  JPEG  is  not
              yet  widely implemented, so many decoders will be unable to view
              an arithmetic coded JPEG file at all.

              Force baseline-compatible quantization tables to  be  generated.
              This  clamps  quantization  values to 8 bits even at low quality
              settings.  (This switch is  poorly  named,  since  it  does  not
              ensure  that the output is actually baseline JPEG.  For example,
              you can use -baseline and -progressive together.)

       -qtables file
              Use the quantization tables given in the specified text file.

       -qslots N[,...]
              Select which quantization table to use for each color component.

       -sample HxV[,...]
              Set JPEG sampling factors for each color component.

       -scans file
              Use the scan script given in the specified text file.

       The "wizard" switches are intended for experimentation with  JPEG.   If
       you  don't know what you are doing, don't use them.  These switches are
       documented further in the file wizard.txt.


       This example compresses the PPM file foo.ppm with a quality  factor  of
       60 and saves the output as foo.jpg:

              cjpeg -quality 60 foo.ppm > foo.jpg


       Color  GIF  files  are  not  the  ideal  input for JPEG; JPEG is really
       intended for compressing full-color (24-bit)  images.   In  particular,
       don't  try  to  convert  cartoons, line drawings, and other images that
       have only a few distinct colors.  GIF works great on these,  JPEG  does
       not.   If you want to convert a GIF to JPEG, you should experiment with
       cjpeg's -quality and -smooth options to get a satisfactory  conversion.
       -smooth 10 or so is often helpful.

       Avoid    running    an    image    through    a    series    of    JPEG
       compression/decompression cycles.  Image quality loss will  accumulate;
       after  ten  or  so cycles the image may be noticeably worse than it was
       after one cycle.  It's best to use a lossless format while manipulating
       an  image,  then  convert to JPEG format when you are ready to file the
       image away.

       The -optimize option to cjpeg is worth using  when  you  are  making  a
       "final" version for posting or archiving.  It's also a win when you are
       using  low  quality  settings  to  make  very  small  JPEG  files;  the
       percentage  improvement is often a lot more than it is on larger files.
       (At  present,  -optimize  mode  is  always  selected  when   generating
       progressive JPEG files.)


              If  this  environment  variable is set, its value is the default
              memory limit.  The value  is  specified  as  described  for  the
              -maxmemory   switch.    JPEGMEM   overrides  the  default  value
              specified  when  the  program  was  compiled,  and   itself   is
              overridden by an explicit -maxmemory.


       djpeg(1), jpegtran(1), rdjpgcom(1), wrjpgcom(1)
       ppm(5), pgm(5)
       Wallace,  Gregory  K.   "The  JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard",
       Communications of the ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34, no. 4), pp. 30-44.


       Independent JPEG Group


       Support for GIF input files was removed in cjpeg v6b  due  to  concerns
       over  the  Unisys  LZW  patent.   Although this patent expired in 2006,
       cjpeg  still  lacks  GIF  support,  for   these   historical   reasons.
       (Conversion of GIF files to JPEG is usually a bad idea anyway.)

       Not all variants of BMP and Targa file formats are supported.

       The  -targa switch is not a bug, it's a feature.  (It would be a bug if
       the Targa format designers had not been clueless.)

                                11 October 2010                       CJPEG(1)