Provided by: dpkg-dev_1.16.1.2ubuntu7_all bug


       dpkg-source - Debian source package (.dsc) manipulation tool


       dpkg-source [option...] command


       dpkg-source packs and unpacks Debian source archives.

       None  of  these  commands  allow multiple options to be combined into one, and they do not
       allow the value for an option to be specified in a separate argument.


       -x filename.dsc [output-directory]
              Extract a source package. One non-option argument must be supplied, the name of the
              Debian  source  control file (.dsc).  An optional second non-option argument may be
              supplied to specify the directory to extract the source package to, this  must  not
              exist.  If no output directory is specified, the source package is extracted into a
              directory named source-version under the current working directory.

              dpkg-source will read the names of the other file(s) making up the  source  package
              from the control file; they are assumed to be in the same directory as the .dsc.

              The  files  in the extracted package will have their permissions and ownerships set
              to those which would have been expected if the files  and  directories  had  simply
              been  created  - directories and executable files will be 0777 and plain files will
              be 0666, both modified by the extractors' umask; if the parent directory is  setgid
              then  the extracted directories will be too, and all the files and directories will
              inherit its group ownership.

              If the source package uses a non-standard format (currently this means all  formats
              except  "1.0"),  its  name  will  be  stored  in  debian/source/format  so that the
              following builds of the source package use the same format by default.

       -b directory [format-specific-parameters]
              Build a source package. The first non-option argument is taken as the name  of  the
              directory  containing  the debianized source tree (i.e. with a debian sub-directory
              and maybe changes to the original files).  Depending on the source  package  format
              used to build the package, additional parameters might be accepted.

              dpkg-source  will  build  the  source  package  with the first format found in this
              ordered list: the format indicated with  the  --format  command  line  option,  the
              format   indicated  in  debian/source/format,  "1.0".  The  fallback  to  "1.0"  is
              deprecated and will be removed at some point  in  the  future,  you  should  always
              document  the  desired  source  format  in debian/source/format. See section SOURCE
              PACKAGE FORMATS for an extensive description of the various source package formats.

       --print-format directory
              Print the source format  that  would  be  used  to  build  the  source  package  if
              dpkg-source  -b  directory  was  called  (in  the same conditions and with the same

       --before-build directory
              Run the corresponding hook of the source package format. This hook is called before
              any  build  of  the  package  (dpkg-buildpackage  calls  it  very early even before
              debian/rules clean). This command is idempotent and can be called  multiple  times.
              Not  all source formats implement something in this hook, and those that do usually
              prepare the source tree for the build for  example  by  ensuring  that  the  Debian
              patches are applied.

       --after-build directory
              Run  the corresponding hook of the source package format. This hook is called after
              any build of the  package  (dpkg-buildpackage  calls  it  last).  This  command  is
              idempotent  and  can  be  called  multiple  times. Not all source formats implement
              something  in  this  hook,  and  those  that  do  usually  use  it  to  undo   what
              --before-build has done.

       --commit [directory] ...
              Record  changes  in  the  source  tree unpacked in directory. This command can take
              supplementary parameters depending on the source format.  It  will  error  out  for
              formats where this operation doesn't mean anything.

       -h, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.


              Specifies  the  main  source  control file to read information from. The default is
              debian/control.  If given with relative pathname this is  interpreted  starting  at
              the source tree's top level directory.

              Specifies   the   change  log  file  to  read  information  from.  The  default  is
              debian/changelog.  If given with relative pathname this is interpreted starting  at
              the source tree's top level directory.

              Specifies the format of the changelog. By default the format is read from a special
              line near the bottom of the changelog  or  failing  that  defaults  to  the  debian
              standard format.

              Use  the  given format for building the source package. It does override any format
              given in debian/source/format.

              Set an output substitution variable.  See  deb-substvars(5)  for  a  discussion  of
              output substitution.

              Read  substitution variables in substvarsfile; the default is to not read any file.
              This option can be used multiple times to read substitution variables from multiple

              Override or add an output control file field.

              Remove an output control file field.

       -Zcompression, --compression=compression
              Specify  the  compression to use for created files (tarballs and diffs).  Note that
              this option will not cause existing tarballs to be recompressed,  it  only  affects
              new files. Supported values are: gzip, bzip2, lzma and xz.  gzip is the default. xz
              is only supported since dpkg-dev 1.15.5.

       -zlevel, --compression-level=level
              Compression level to use. As with -Z it only affects newly created files. Supported
              values  are: 1 to 9, best, and fast.  The default is 9 for gzip and bzip2, 6 for xz
              and lzma.

       -i[regexp], --diff-ignore[=regexp]
              You may specify a perl regular expression to match files you want filtered  out  of
              the list of files for the diff. (This list is generated by a find command.) (If the
              source package is being built as a version 3 source package using a VCS,  this  can
              be  used to ignore uncommited changes on specific files. Using -i.* will ignore all
              of them.)  -i by itself enables the option, with a default regexp that will  filter
              out  control  files  and  directories  of the most common revision control systems,
              backup and swap files and Libtool build output directories. There can only  be  one
              active regexp, of multiple -i options only the last one will take effect.

              This is very helpful in cutting out extraneous files that get included in the diff,
              e.g. if you maintain your source in a revision control system and  want  to  use  a
              checkout  to  build  a  source  package  without including the additional files and
              directories that it will  usually  contain  (e.g.  CVS/,  .cvsignore,  .svn/).  The
              default  regexp  is  already very exhaustive, but if you need to replace it, please
              note that by default it can match any part of a path, so if you want to  match  the
              begin  of a filename or only full filenames, you will need to provide the necessary
              anchors (e.g. '(^|/)', '($|/)') yourself.

              The  perl  regular  expression  specified  will  extend  the   default   value   of
              --diff-ignore  and  its  current  value  (if  set).  It  does this by concatenating
              "|regexp"  to  the  existing  value.   This  option  is  convenient   to   use   in
              debian/source/options to exclude some auto-generated files from the automatic patch

       -I[file-pattern], --tar-ignore[=file-pattern]
              If this option is specified, the pattern  will  be  passed  to  tar(1)'s  --exclude
              option  when  it is called to generate a .orig.tar or .tar file. For example, -ICVS
              will make tar skip over CVS directories when generating a .tar.gz file. The  option
              may be repeated multiple times to list multiple patterns to exclude.

              -I  by itself adds default --exclude options that will filter out control files and
              directories of the most common revision control systems, backup and swap files  and
              Libtool build output directories.

       Note:  While  they  have  similar  purposes,  -i  and  -I  have  very different syntax and
       semantics. -i can only be specified once and takes a perl  compatible  regular  expression
       which  is  matched  against the full relative path of each file. -I can specified multiple
       times and takes a filename pattern with shell wildcards.  The pattern is  applied  to  the
       full  relative  path but also to each part of the path individually. The exact semantic of
       tar's       --exclude       option       is        somewhat        complicated,        see for a full documentation.

       The  default  regexp and patterns for both options can be seen in the output of the --help


              Do not copy original tarballs near the extracted source package.

              Do not check signatures and checksums before unpacking.

              Refuse to unpack the source package if it doesn't contain an OpenPGP signature that
              can  be verified either with the user's trustedkeys.gpg keyring, one of the vendor-
              specific    keyrings,    or    one    of    the    official     Debian     keyrings
              (/usr/share/keyrings/debian-keyring.gpg                                         and


       If you don't know what source format to use, you should probably pick either "3.0 (quilt)"
       or  "3.0  (native)".  See for information on the
       deployment of those formats within Debian.

   Format: 1.0
       A source package in this format consists either of a .orig.tar.gz associated to a .diff.gz
       or a single .tar.gz (in that case the package is said to be native).


       Extracting  a  native  package  is a simple extraction of the single tarball in the target
       directory. Extracting a non-native package is done by first unpacking the .orig.tar.gz and
       then applying the patch contained in the .diff.gz file. The timestamp of all patched files
       is reset to the extraction time of the source package (this avoids timestamp skews leading
       to  problems  when  autogenerated  files  are patched). The diff can create new files (the
       whole debian directory is created that way) but can't remove files (empty  files  will  be
       left over).


       Building  a  native  package  is just creating a single tarball with the source directory.
       Building a non-native package involves extracting  the  original  tarball  in  a  separate
       ".orig"  directory and regenerating the .diff.gz by comparing the source package directory
       with the .orig directory.

       Build options (with -b):

       If a second non-option argument is supplied it should be the name of the  original  source
       directory  or  tarfile  or the empty string if the package is a Debian-specific one and so
       has no Debianisation diffs. If no second argument is supplied then dpkg-source  will  look
       for  the  original  source  tarfile  package_upstream-version.orig.tar.gz  or the original
       source directory directory.orig depending on the -sX arguments.

       -sa, -sp, -sk, -su and -sr will not overwrite existing tarfiles or directories. If this is
       desired then -sA, -sP, -sK, -sU and -sR should be used instead.

       -sk    Specifies  to expect the original source as a tarfile, by default package_upstream-
              version.orig.tar.extension.  It will leave this  original  source  in  place  as  a
              tarfile, or copy it to the current directory if it isn't already there. The tarball
              will be unpacked into directory.orig for the generation of the diff.

       -sp    Like -sk but will remove the directory again afterwards.

       -su    Specifies that the original source is expected as a directory, by default  package-
              upstream-version.orig  and  dpkg-source  will  create a new original source archive
              from it.

       -sr    Like -su but will remove that directory after it has been used.

       -ss    Specifies that the original source is available  both  as  a  directory  and  as  a
              tarfile.  dpkg-source will use the directory to create the diff, but the tarfile to
              create the .dsc.  This option must be used with care - if the directory and tarfile
              do not match a bad source archive will be generated.

       -sn    Specifies  to  not  look  for any original source, and to not generate a diff.  The
              second argument, if supplied, must be the empty string. This is  used  for  Debian-
              specific  packages  which do not have a separate upstream source and therefore have
              no debianisation diffs.

       -sa or -sA
              Specifies to look for the original source archive as a tarfile or as a directory  -
              the second argument, if any, may be either, or the empty string (this is equivalent
              to using -sn).  If a tarfile is found it will unpack it  to  create  the  diff  and
              remove  it  afterwards (this is equivalent to -sp); if a directory is found it will
              pack it to create the original source and remove it afterwards (this is  equivalent
              to  -sr);  if neither is found it will assume that the package has no debianisation
              diffs, only a straightforward source archive (this is equivalent to -sn).  If  both
              are  found  then  dpkg-source will ignore the directory, overwriting it, if -sA was
              specified (this is equivalent to -sP) or raise an error if -sa was specified.   -sA
              is the default.

              The  process  fails  if the generated diff contains changes to files outside of the
              debian sub-directory. This option is not allowed in debian/source/options  but  can
              be used in debian/source/local-options.

       Extract options (with -x):

       In all cases any existing original source tree will be removed.

       -sp    Used  when  extracting then the original source (if any) will be left as a tarfile.
              If it is not already located in  the  current  directory  or  if  an  existing  but
              different file is there it will be copied there.  (This is the default).

       -su    Unpacks the original source tree.

       -sn    Ensures  that  the  original  source is neither copied to the current directory nor
              unpacked. Any original source tree that was  in  the  current  directory  is  still

       All the -sX options are mutually exclusive. If you specify more than one only the last one
       will be used.

              Skips application of the debian diff on top of the upstream sources.

   Format: 2.0
       Also known as wig&pen. This format is not recommended for wide-spread  usage,  the  format
       "3.0  (quilt)" replaces it. Wig&pen was the first specification of a new-generation source
       package format.

       The behaviour of this format is the same as  the  "3.0  (quilt)"  format  except  that  it
       doesn't  use  an  explicit list of patches. All files in debian/patches/ matching the perl
       regular expression [\w-]+ must be valid patches: they are applied at extraction time.

       When building a new source package, any change to the upstream source is stored in a patch
       named zz_debian-diff-auto.

   Format: 3.0 (native)
       This  format is an extension of the native package format as defined in the 1.0 format. It
       supports all compression methods and will ignore by default any  VCS  specific  files  and
       directories  as well as many temporary files (see default value associated to -I option in
       the --help output).

   Format: 3.0 (quilt)
       A source package in this format contains at least an original tarball (.orig.tar.ext where
       ext  can  be  gz,  bz2,  lzma  and xz) and a debian tarball (.debian.tar.ext). It can also
       contain  additional  original  tarballs  (.orig-component.tar.ext).   component  can  only
       contain alphanumeric characters and dashes ("-").


       The  main  original  tarball is extracted first, then all additional original tarballs are
       extracted in subdirectories named after the component part of  their  filename  (any  pre-
       existing  directory  is  replaced).  The  debian tarball is extracted on top of the source
       directory after prior removal of any pre-existing debian directory. Note that  the  debian
       tarball  must  contain a debian sub-directory but it can also contain binary files outside
       of that directory (see --include-binaries option).

       All patches listed  in  debian/patches/debian.series  or  debian/patches/series  are  then
       applied.   If  the former file is used and the latter one doesn't exist (or is a symlink),
       then the latter is replaced with a symlink to the former. This is meant to simplify  usage
       of  quilt  to  manage  the  set  of  patches.  Note  however that while dpkg-source parses
       correctly series files with explicit options used for patch application  (stored  on  each
       line  after  the  patch filename and one or more spaces), it does ignore those options and
       always expect patches that can be applied with the -p1 option of patch. It will thus  emit
       a warning when it encounters such options, and the build is likely to fail.

       Similarly to quilt's default behaviour, the patches can remove files too.

       The  file  .pc/applied-patches  is  created  if  some patches have been applied during the


       All original tarballs found  in  the  current  directory  are  extracted  in  a  temporary
       directory  by  following  the same logic as for the unpack, the debian directory is copied
       over  in  the  temporary  directory,  and  all  patches   except   the   automatic   patch
       (debian-changes-version   or   debian-changes,  depending  on  --single-debian-patch)  are
       applied. The temporary directory is compared to the source  package  directory.  When  the
       diff  is non-empty, the build fails unless --single-debian-patch or --auto-commit has been
       used, in which case the diff is stored in the automatic patch.  If the automatic patch  is
       created/deleted, it's added/removed from the series file and from the quilt metadata.

       Any change on a binary file is not representable in a diff and will thus lead to a failure
       unless the maintainer deliberately decided to include that modified  binary  file  in  the
       debian tarball (by listing it in debian/source/include-binaries). The build will also fail
       if it finds binary files in the debian sub-directory unless  they  have  been  whitelisted
       through debian/source/include-binaries.

       The  updated  debian  directory and the list of modified binaries is then used to generate
       the debian tarball.

       The automatically generated diff doesn't include changes on VCS specific files as well  as
       many  temporary files (see default value associated to -i option in the --help output). In
       particular, the .pc directory used by quilt is ignored during generation of the  automatic

       Note:  dpkg-source  --before-build  (and  -b)  will  ensure that all patches listed in the
       series file are applied so that a package build always has all patches  applied.  It  does
       this  by  finding  unapplied  patches  (they  are  listed  in  the  series file but not in
       .pc/applied-patches), and if the first patch in that set can be applied without errors, it
       will apply them all. The option --no-preparation can be used to disable this behavior.

       Recording changes

       --commit [directory] [patch-name] [patch-file]
              Generates  a  patch  corresponding to the local changes that are not managed by the
              quilt patch system and integrates it in the patch system under the name patch-name.
              If  the name is missing, it will be asked interactively. If patch-file is given, it
              is used as the patch corresponding to the  local  changes  to  integrate.  This  is
              mainly  useful after a build failure that pre-generated this file. Once integrated,
              an editor is launched so that you  can  edit  the  meta-information  in  the  patch

       Build options

              Allow  dpkg-source to build the source package if the version of the quilt metadata
              is the one specified, even if dpkg-source doesn't know about it.  Effectively  this
              says  that the given version of the quilt metadata is compatible with the version 2
              that dpkg-source currently supports. The version of the quilt metadata is stored in

              Do not ignore removed files and include them in the automatically generated patch.

              Include timestamp in the automatically generated patch.

              Add   all   modified   binaries   in   the   debian   tarball.  Also  add  them  to
              debian/source/include-binaries: they will be added by default in subsequent  builds
              and this option is thus no more needed.

              Do  not  try  to  prepare  the  build tree by applying patches which are apparently

              Use debian/patches/debian-changes instead of  debian/patches/debian-changes-version
              for  the  name  of  the  automatic  patch  generated  during  build. This option is
              particularly useful when the package is maintained in a VCS and a patch  set  can't
              reliably be generated. Instead the current diff with upstream should be stored in a
              single patch. The option would be put in debian/source/local-options and  would  be
              accompanied  by  a  debian/source/local-patch-header file explaining how the Debian
              changes can be best reviewed, for example in the VCS that is used.

              Automatically create the main original tarball as empty  if  it's  missing  and  if
              there are supplementary original tarballs. This option is meant to be used when the
              source package is just a bundle of multiple upstream software and where there's  no
              "main" software.

              Unapply  the  patches in the --after-build hook. You usually don't need this option
              as dpkg-source will automatically unapply the patches if it did apply  them  during
              --before-build.  This option is only allowed in debian/source/local-options so that
              all generated source packages have the same behavior by default.

              The process fails if an automatic patch has been generated. This option can be used
              to  ensure  that all changes were properly recorded in separate quilt patches prior
              to the source package build. This option is not  allowed  in  debian/source/options
              but can be used in debian/source/local-options.

              The  process  doesn't  fail  if an automatic patch has been generated, instead it's
              immediately recorded in the quilt series.

       Extract options

              Skips extraction of the debian tarball on top of the upstream sources.

              Do not apply patches at the end of the extraction.

   Format: 3.0 (custom)
       This format is special. It doesn't represent a real source package format but can be  used
       to create source packages with arbitrary files.

       Build options

       All  non-option arguments are taken as files to integrate in the generated source package.
       They must exist and are preferably in the current directory. At least  one  file  must  be

              Required.  Defines  the real format of the generated source package.  The generated
              .dsc file will contain this value in its Format field and not "3.0 (custom)".

   Format: 3.0 (git)
       This format is experimental.

       A source package in this format consists of a single bundle of a git  repository  .git  to
       hold  the source of a package.  There may also be a .gitshallow file listing revisions for
       a shallow git clone.


       The bundle is cloned as a  git  repository  to  the  target  directory.   If  there  is  a
       gitshallow file, it is installed as `.git/shallow` inside the cloned git repository.

       Note  that  by  default  the new repository will have the same branch checked out that was
       checked out in the original source. (Typically "master", but it could  be  anything.)  Any
       other branches will be available under `remotes/origin/`.


       Before  going  any  further,  some  checks  are done to ensure that we don't have any non-
       ignored uncommitted changes.

       git-bundle(1) is used to generate a  bundle  of  the  git  repository.   By  default,  all
       branches and tags in the repository are included in the bundle.

       Build options

              Allows  specifying a git ref to include in the git bundle. Use disables the default
              behavior of including all branches and tags. May be specified multiple  times.  The
              ref  can  be  the  name of a branch or tag to include. It may also be any parameter
              that can be passed to git-rev-list(1). For example,  to  include  only  the  master
              branch,  use  --git-ref=master.  To  include  all tags and branches, except for the
              private branch, use --git-ref=--all --git-ref=^private

              Creates a shallow clone with  a  history  truncated  to  the  specified  number  of

   Format: 3.0 (bzr)
       This format is experimental. It generates a single tarball containing the bzr repository.


       The tarball is unpacked and then bzr is used to checkout the current branch.


       Before  going  any  further,  some  checks  are done to ensure that we don't have any non-
       ignored uncommitted changes.

       Then the VCS specific part  of  the  source  directory  is  copied  over  to  a  temporary
       directory.  Before  this  temporary  directory is packed in a tarball, various cleanup are
       done to save space.


   no source format specified in debian/source/format
       The file debian/source/format should always exist and indicate the desired source  format.
       For  backwards  compatibility, format "1.0" is assumed when the file doesn't exist but you
       should not rely on this: at some point in the future dpkg-source will be modified to  fail
       when that file doesn't exist.

       The rationale is that format "1.0" is no longer the recommended format, you should usually
       pick one of the newer formats ("3.0 (quilt)", "3.0 (native)") but dpkg-source will not  do
       this  automatically  for you.  If you want to continue using the old format, you should be
       explicit about it and put "1.0" in debian/source/format.

   the diff modifies the following upstream files
       When using source format "1.0" it is usually a bad idea to modify upstream files  directly
       as  the  changes  end  up hidden and mostly undocumented in the .diff.gz file. Instead you
       should store your changes as patches in the debian directory and apply them at build-time.
       To  avoid  this  complexity  you  can  also  use the format "3.0 (quilt)" that offers this

   cannot represent change to file
       Changes to upstream sources are usually stored with patch files, but not all  changes  can
       be  represented  with patches: they can only alter the content of plain text files. If you
       try replacing a file with something of a different type (for  example  replacing  a  plain
       file with a symlink or a directory), you will get this error message.

   newly created empty file file will not be represented in diff
       Empty  files  can't  be  created with patch files. Thus this change is not recorded in the
       source package and you are warned about it.

   executable mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
   special mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch files do not record permissions of files  and  thus  modified  permissions  are  not
       stored in the source package. This warning reminds you of that fact.


       This  file  contains  on  a single line the format that should be used to build the source
       package (possible formats are described above). No leading or trailing spaces are allowed.

       This file contains a list of binary files (one per line) that should be  included  in  the
       debian  tarball.  Leading  and  trailing spaces are stripped.  Lines starting with "#" are
       comments and are skipped. Empty lines are ignored.

       This file contains a list of long options that should be automatically  prepended  to  the
       set  of  command  line  options  of  a  dpkg-source -b or dpkg-source --print-format call.
       Options like --compression and --compression-level are well suited for this file.

       Each option should be put on a separate line. Empty lines and lines starting with "#"  are
       ignored.  The  leading "--" should be stripped and short options are not allowed. Optional
       spaces are allowed around the "=" symbol and optional quotes are allowed around the value.
       Here's an example of such a file:

         # let dpkg-source create a debian.tar.bz2 with maximal compression
         compression = "bzip2"
         compression-level = 9
         # use debian/patches/debian-changes as automatic patch
         # ignore changes on config.{sub,guess}
         extend-diff-ignore = "(^|/)(config.sub|config.guess)$"

       Note:  format  options  are not accepted in this file, you should use debian/source/format

       Exactly like debian/source/options except that the file is not included in  the  generated
       source  package.  It  can be useful to store a preference tied to the maintainer or to the
       VCS repository where the source package is maintained.

       Free form text that is put on top of the automatic patch generated  in  formats  "2.0"  or
       "3.0  (quilt)".  local-patch-header  is not included in the generated source package while
       patch-header is.

       This file lists all patches that have to be applied (in the given order)  on  top  of  the
       upstream source package. Leading and trailing spaces are stripped. Lines starting with "#"
       are comments and are skipped. Empty lines are ignored. Remaining lines start with a  patch
       filename  (relative  to  the debian/patches/ directory) up to the first space character or
       the end of line. Optional quilt options can follow up to the end of line or the first  "#"
       preceded by one or more spaces (which marks the start of a comment up to the end of line).


       The  point  at  which  field  overriding  occurs compared to certain standard output field
       settings is rather confused.


       dpkg-deb(1), dpkg(1), dselect(1).


       Copyright © 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
       Copyright © 2000 Wichert Akkerman
       Copyright © 2008-2011 Raphaël Hertzog

       This is free software; see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or later  for  copying
       conditions. There is NO WARRANTY.