Provided by: dvipsk-ja_5.98+p1.7b-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

SYNOPSIS

       dvips [ options ] file[.dvi]

DESCRIPTION

       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either
       in Emacs or with the standalone info program which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution
       as ftp.gnu.org:pub/gnu/texinfo/texinfo*.tar.gz.

       The  program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor
       such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript, normally sending the  result  directly  to
       the (laser)printer.  The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used
       may either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files,  or  a  `virtual'
       combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically invoke
       METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For more information, see  the  Texinfo  manual  dvips.texi,  which  should  be  installed
       somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.

OPTIONS

       -a     Conserve  memory  by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only
              loading those characters actually used.  Generally only useful on machines  with  a
              very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate  num  copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using
              the #numcopies option.  This can be  useful  in  conjunction  with  a  header  file
              setting \bop-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C
              option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the  PostScript  file).
              Slower  than  the  -c option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting
              the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or  for  unusual  fact-
              finding  expeditions;  it  will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG
              option.  If nonzero, prints additional information on standard error.  For  maximum
              information, you can use `-1'.  See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more details.

       -D num Set  the  resolution  in  dpi  (dots  per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of
              bitmap fonts that are loaded and  also  the  positioning  of  letters  in  resident
              PostScript  fonts.  Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both the horizontal
              and vertical resolution.  If a high resolution (something  greater  than  400  dpi,
              say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make  sure  that  each character is placed at most this many pixels from its `true'
              resolution-independent position on the page. The default value of this parameter is
              resolution  dependent.   Allowing  individual  characters  to  `drift'  from  their
              correctly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true  position  at
              the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

       -E     makes  dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This only
              works on one-page files, and it only looks at marks made by characters  and  rules,
              not  by any included graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm
              file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may  confuse  it.   In
              addition,  the  bounding  box  might  be a bit too loose if the character glyph has
              significant left or right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works  well  for
              creating  small  EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of course,
              that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does not  make  very  good  EPSF
              files, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great
              deal of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.  Read the .dvi file from standard input and write  the  PostScript
              to  standard  output.  The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.
              If you must use a pipe, write a shell script that  copies  the  pipe  output  to  a
              temporary  file  and then points dvips at this file.  This option also disables the
              automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the  automatic
              sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration
              file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last  character  of  the
              PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead
              of working through a spooler, as is common on extremely small  systems.   NOTE!  DO
              NOT USE THIS OPTION!

       -G     Causes  dvips  to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered positions.  This
              may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
              Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-'
              suppress  all  header  files  from the output.)  This header file gets added to the
              PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make each section be a separate file.   Under  certain  circumstances,  dvips  will
              split  the  document up into `sections' to be processed independently; this is most
              often done for memory reasons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section
              into  a  separate  file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the
              supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.  This  option  is  most
              often  used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length
              in pages.  For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more  than  ten  or  so
              consecutive  pages  before  running  out  of  steam;  these  options can be used to
              automatically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts.  This  is  the  default  in  the
              current  release.  Some debugging flags trace this operation.  You can also control
              partial downloading on a per-font basis, via the psfonts.map file.

       -k     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified,
              either  with  a  paper  size  special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each
              dimension.  It translates each page by a quarter inch and  draws  cross-style  crop
              marks.   It  is  mostly  useful  with  typesetters  that  can  set  the  page  size
              automatically.

       -K     This option causes comments  in  included  PostScript  graphics,  font  files,  and
              headers  to be removed.  This is sometimes necessary to get around bugs in spoolers
              or PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the  %%Page  comments,  when
              left  in,  often  cause  difficulties.   Use  of  this flag can cause some included
              graphics to fail, since the PostScript header macros from  some  software  packages
              read portions of the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.
              This option has been turned  off  by  default  because  PostScript  previewers  and
              spoolers have been getting better.

       -l num The  last  page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page
              in the document.  If the num is prefixed by  an  equals  sign,  then  it  (and  any
              argument  to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to
              compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth page of the
              document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
              Use  mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.  This
              overrides any value from configuration files.  With the default  paths,  explicitly
              specifying  the  mode also makes the program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory
              named mode.

       -M     Turns off the automatic font  generation  facility.   If  any  fonts  are  missing,
              commands to generate the fonts are appended to the file missfont.log in the current
              directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try  to
              interpret  PostScript  comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript printers.  Old
              versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

       -noomega
              This will disable the use of Omega extensions  when  interpreting  DVI  files.   By
              default,  the  additional  opcodes  129  and  134  are recognized by dvips as Omega
              extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The only  drawback
              is  that the virtual font array will (at least temporarily) require 65536 positions
              instead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements of dvips will be
              slightly  larger.  If  you find this unacceptable or encounter another problem with
              the Omega extensions, you can switch this extension  off  by  using  -noomega  (but
              please  do send a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address in the
              AUTHORS section below).

       -o name
              The output will be sent to file name If no file name is given (i.e., -o is last  on
              the  command  line),  the  default  name  is file.ps where the .dvi file was called
              file.dvi; if this option isn't given, any default  in  the  configuration  file  is
              used.   If  the  first character of the supplied output file name is an exclamation
              mark, then the remainder will be used as an argument  to  popen;  thus,  specifying
              !lpr  as  the  output  file  will  automatically queue the file for printing.  This
              option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
              turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option
              or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -O offset
              Move the origin by a certain amount.  The  offset  is  a  comma-separated  pair  of
              dimensions,  such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax used in the papersize special).
              The origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down,  one
              inch to the right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

       -p num The  first  page  printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default is the first
              page in the document.  If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it  (and  any
              argument  to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to
              compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third  page  of
              the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
              A  comma-separated  list  of  pages  and  ranges  (a-b) may be given, which will be
              interpreted as \count0 values.  Pages not specified will not be printed.   Multiple
              -pp options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one
              -pp option.

       -P printername
              Sets up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is implemented by reading  in
              config.printername  , which can then set the output pipe (as in, !lpr -Pprintername
              as well as the font paths and any other config.ps defaults for that  printer  only.
              Note  that  config.ps  is  read before config.printername In addition, another file
              called ~/.dvipsrc is  searched  for  immediately  after  config.ps;  this  file  is
              intended  for  user  defaults.  If no -P command is given, the environment variable
              PRINTER is checked.  If that variable exists,  and  a  corresponding  configuration
              file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run  in  quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report nothing but
              errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

       -R[0|1|2]
              Run securely.  -R2 disables  both  shell  command  execution  in  \special'{}  (via
              backticks  `  )  and  config  files (via the E option), and opening of any absolute
              filenames.  -R1 , the default, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute filenames.
              -R0 allows both.  The config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes
              the file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful  if
              you  are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the portability
              of the output.

       -S num Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'.  This option  is  most  commonly
              used with the -i option; see that documentation above for more information.

       -t papertype
              This  sets  the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should be defined in one of
              the configuration files, along with the appropriate code to select it.   (Currently
              known  types  include  letter,  legal,  ledger,  a4,  a3).  You can also specify -t
              landscape, which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document whose size
              is  not  letter,  you can use the -t option twice, once for the page size, and once
              for landscape.  You should not use any -t option when the DVI file already contains
              a papersize special, as is done by some LaTeX packages, notably hyperref.sty.

              The  upper  left  corner  of each page in the .dvi file is placed one inch from the
              left and one inch from the top.  Use of this option  is  highly  dependent  on  the
              configuration  file.   Note  that  executing  the  letter or a4 or other PostScript
              operators cause the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not to  print  on
              certain  printers,  so the paper size should not execute such an operator if at all
              possible.

       -T papersize
              Set the paper size to  the  given  pair  of  dimensions.   This  option  takes  its
              arguments  in the same style as -O.  It overrides any paper size special in the dvi
              file.

       -u psmapfile
              Set psmapfile to be the file  that  dvips  uses  for  looking  up  PostScript  font
              aliases.  If psmapfile begins with a + character, then the rest of the name is used
              as the name of the map file, and the map file is appended to the list of map  files
              (instead  of  replacing  the list).  In either case, if psmapfile has no extension,
              then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable a PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores  the  character
              metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap information.
              This is only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter.   It  is
              caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each
              character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of  `gsftopk'
              or  `pstopk' or some other such program(s) in order to generate the required bitmap
              fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnification specified  in
              the .dvi file.  Must be between 10 and 100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be a
              real number for increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000 times the magnification  specified  in  the
              .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass  html  hyperdvi  specials through to the output for eventual distillation into
              PDF.  This  is  not  enabled  by  default  to  avoid  including  the  header  files
              unnecessarily, and use of temporary files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes  bitmapped  fonts  to  be  compressed  before  they  are downloaded, thereby
              reducing the size  of  the  PostScript  font-downloading  information.   Especially
              useful  at  high  resolutions  or  when  very large fonts are used.  Will slow down
              printing somewhat, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

SEE ALSO

       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi, http://tug.org/dvips.

ENVIRONMENT

       Dvipsk uses the same environment variables and algorithms for finding font  files  as  TeX
       and  its  friends  do.   See  the  documentation  for  the  Kpathsea  library for details.
       (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

NOTES

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

AUTHOR

       Tomas Rokicki <rokicki@cs.stanford.edu>; extended to virtual fonts  by  Don  Knuth.   Path
       searching and configuration modifications by Karl Berry.

                                          1 January 2010                                 DVIPS(1)