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       etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi


       etags [-aCDGImRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--no-globals] [--include=file] [--ignore-indentation]
       [--language=language] [--members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex]
       [--ignore-case-regex=regexp] [--help] [--version] file ...

       ctags [-aCdgImRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--defines] [--forward-search] [--globals]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--output=tagfile]
       [--regex=regexp] [--ignore-case-regex=regexp] [--typedefs] [--typedefs-and-c++] [--update]
       [--no-warn] [--help] [--version] file ...


       The `etags' program is used to create  a  tag  table  file,  in  a  format  understood  by
       emacs(1);  the `ctags' program is used to create a similar table in a format understood by
       vi(1).  Both forms of the program understand the syntax of  C,  Objective  C,  C++,  Java,
       Fortran,  Ada,  Cobol,  Erlang,  LaTeX,  Emacs  Lisp/Common Lisp, makefiles, Pascal, Perl,
       Postscript, Python, Prolog, Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes.  Both forms read  the
       files  specified  on  the command line, and write a tag table (defaults: `TAGS' for etags,
       `tags' for ctags) in the current working directory.  Files specified  with  relative  file
       names  will  be  recorded in the tag table with file names relative to the directory where
       the tag table resides.  Files specified with absolute file names  will  be  recorded  with
       absolute  file  names.  The programs recognize the language used in an input file based on
       its file name and contents.  The --language switch can be used to  force  parsing  of  the
       file  names following the switch according to the given language, overriding guesses based
       on filename extensions.


       Some options make sense only for the vi style tag files produced by ctags; etags does  not
       recognize them.  The programs accept unambiguous abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
              Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also --update.)

       -B, --backward-search
              Tag  files  written  in the format expected by vi contain regular expression search
              instructions; the -B  option  writes  them  using  the  delimiter  `?',  to  search
              backwards  through  files.   The  default  is  to  use the delimiter `/', to search
              forwards through files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

              In C and derived languages, create tags for function declarations, and create  tags
              for extern variables unless --no-globals is used.

       -d, --defines
              Create tag entries for C preprocessor constant definitions and enum constants, too.
              This is the default behavior for etags.

       -D, --no-defines
              Do not create  tag  entries  for  C  preprocessor  constant  definitions  and  enum
              constants.   This  may  make  the  tags  file much smaller if many header files are
              tagged.  This is the default behavior for ctags.

       -g, --globals
              Create tag entries for global variables in C, C++, Objective  C,  Java,  and  Perl.
              This is the default behavior for etags.

       -G, --no-globals
              Do  not  tag global variables.  Typically this reduces the file size by one fourth.
              This is the default behavior for ctags.

       -i file, --include=file
              Include a note in the tag file indicating that,  when  searching  for  a  tag,  one
              should  also  consult  the  tags  file  file after checking the current file.  This
              options is only accepted by etags.

       -I, --ignore-indentation
              Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently, this means not  to
              assume that a closing brace in the first column is the final brace of a function or
              structure definition in C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
              Parse the following files according to the given  language.   More  than  one  such
              options  may  be  intermixed  with  filenames.   Use  --help  to  get a list of the
              available languages and their default filename extensions.  The `auto' language can
              be  used  to  restore  automatic detection of language based on the file name.  The
              `none' language may be used to disable language  parsing  altogether;  only  regexp
              matching is done in this case (see the --regex option).

       -m, --members
              Create  tag  entries for variables that are members of structure-like constructs in
              C++, Objective C, Java.

       -M, --no-members
              Do not tag member variables.  This is the default behavior.

              Only tag packages in Ada files.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
              Explicit name of file for tag table; overrides default  `TAGS'  or  `tags'.    (But
              ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp, --ignore-case-regex=regexp
              Make  tags  based  on  regexp  matching  for  each line of the files following this
              option, in addition to the tags made with the standard parsing based  on  language.
              When  using --regex, case is significant, while it is not with --ignore-case-regex.
              May be freely intermixed with  filenames  and  the  -R  option.   The  regexps  are
              cumulative, i.e. each option will add to the previous ones.  The regexps are of the

              where tagregexp is used to match the lines that must  be  tagged.   It  should  not
              match  useless  characters.   If the match is such that more characters than needed
              are unavoidably matched by tagregexp, it may be useful  to  add  a  nameregexp,  to
              narrow down the tag scope.  ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp.  The syntax
              of regexps is the same as in emacs, augmented with intervals of the  form  \{m,n\},
              as in ed or grep.
              Here  are  some  examples.   All  the regexps are quoted to protect them from shell

              Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
              --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"'

              Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long  line,  broken  here  for  formatting
              --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\
              CONFIGURATION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\
              \|PROCEDURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

              Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage of a tagregexp):
              --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

              A regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restriciting it to match lines of files of
              the  specified  language.   Use  etags  --help  to  obtain a list of the recognised
              languages.  This feature is particularly useful inside regex files.  A  regex  file
              contains  one regex per line.  Empty lines, and those lines beginning with space or
              tab are ignored.  Lines beginning with @ are references to regex files  whose  name
              follows  the  @  sign.   Other  lines are considered regular expressions like those
              following --regex.
              For example, the command
              etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
              reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
              Don't do any more regexp matching on the following files.  May be freely intermixed
              with filenames and the --regex option.

       -t, --typedefs
              Record  typedefs  in C code as tags.  Since this is the default behaviour of etags,
              only ctags accepts this option.

       -T, --typedefs-and-c++
              Generate tag entries for typedefs, struct, enum, and union  tags,  and  C++  member
              functions.   Since  this is the default behaviour of etags, only ctags accepts this

       -u, --update
              Update tag entries for files specified on command line,  leaving  tag  entries  for
              other  files  in  place.   Currently,  this is implemented by deleting the existing
              entries for the given files and then rewriting the new entries at the  end  of  the
              tags  file.   It  is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag file than to use
              this.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -v, --vgrind
              Instead of generating a tag file,  write  index  (in  vgrind  format)  to  standard
              output.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -w, --no-warn
              Suppress  warning  messages  about  duplicate  entries.  The etags program does not
              check for duplicate entries, so this option is not allowed with it.

       -x, --cxref
              Instead of generating a tag file, write a cross  reference  (in  cxref  format)  to
              standard output.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -h, -H, --help
              Print usage information.

       -V, --version
              Print the current version of the program (same as the version of the emacs etags is
              shipped with).


       `emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).


       Copyright (c) 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual  provided  the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is  granted  to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the
       conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the  entire  resulting  derived  work  is
       distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted  to  copy  and distribute translations of this manual into another
       language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except  that  this  permission
       notice may be included in translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of
       in the original English.