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NAME

       exiftool - Read and write meta information in files

SYNOPSIS

       exiftool [OPTIONS] [-TAG...] [--TAG...] FILE...
       exiftool [OPTIONS] -TAG[+-<]=[VALUE]... FILE...
       exiftool [OPTIONS] -tagsFromFile SRCFILE [-SRCTAG[>DSTTAG]...] FILE...
       exiftool [ -ver | -list[w|f|wf|g[NUM]|d|x] ]

       For specific examples, see the EXAMPLES sections below.

DESCRIPTION

       A command-line interface to Image::ExifTool, used for reading and
       writing meta information in image, audio and video files.  FILE is one
       or more source file names, directory names, or "-" for the standard
       input.  Information is read from the source files and output in
       readable form to the console (or written to output text files with -w).

       To write, copy or delete information in each FILE, specify new tag
       values with the -TAG=[VALUE] syntax or the -tagsFromFile or -geotag
       options.  By default the original files are preserved with "_original"
       appended to their names -- be sure to verify that the new files are OK
       before erasing the originals.  Once in write mode, exiftool will ignore
       any read-specific options.

       Note:  If FILE is a directory name then only supported file types in
       the directory are processed (in write mode only writable types are
       processed).  However, files may be specified by name, or the -ext
       option may be used to force processing of files with any extension.

       Below is a list of file types and meta information formats currently
       supported by ExifTool (r = read, w = write, c = create):

         File Types
         ------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+------------
         3FR   r     | DVB   r     | M4A/V r     | PBM   r/w   | RWL   r/w
         3G2   r     | DYLIB r     | MEF   r/w   | PDF   r/w   | RWZ   r
         3GP   r     | EIP   r     | MIE   r/w/c | PEF   r/w   | RM    r
         ACR   r     | EPS   r/w   | MIFF  r     | PFA   r     | SO    r
         AFM   r     | ERF   r/w   | MKA   r     | PFB   r     | SR2   r/w
         AI    r/w   | EXE   r     | MKS   r     | PFM   r     | SRF   r
         AIFF  r     | EXIF  r/w/c | MKV   r     | PGF   r     | SRW   r/w
         APE   r     | F4A/V r     | MNG   r/w   | PGM   r/w   | SVG   r
         ARW   r/w   | FLA   r     | MOS   r/w   | PICT  r     | SWF   r
         ASF   r     | FLAC  r     | MOV   r     | PMP   r     | THM   r/w
         AVI   r     | FLV   r     | MP3   r     | PNG   r/w   | TIFF  r/w
         BMP   r     | FPX   r     | MP4   r     | PPM   r/w   | TTC   r
         BTF   r     | GIF   r/w   | MPC   r     | PPT   r     | TTF   r
         COS   r     | GZ    r     | MPG   r     | PPTX  r     | VRD   r/w/c
         CR2   r/w   | HDP   r/w   | MPO   r/w   | PS    r/w   | VSD   r
         CRW   r/w   | HTML  r     | MQV   r     | PSB   r/w   | WAV   r
         CS1   r/w   | ICC   r/w/c | MRW   r/w   | PSD   r/w   | WDP   r/w
         DCM   r     | IIQ   r/w   | MXF   r     | PSP   r     | WEBP  r
         DCP   r/w   | IND   r/w   | NEF   r/w   | QTIF  r     | WEBM  r
         DCR   r     | ITC   r     | NRW   r/w   | RA    r     | WMA   r
         DFONT r     | JNG   r/w   | NUMBERS r   | RAF   r/w   | WMV   r
         DIVX  r     | JP2   r/w   | ODP   r     | RAM   r     | X3F   r/w
         DJVU  r     | JPEG  r/w   | ODS   r     | RAR   r     | XCF   r
         DLL   r     | K25   r     | ODT   r     | RAW   r/w   | XLS   r
         DNG   r/w   | KDC   r     | OGG   r     | RIFF  r     | XLSX  r
         DOC   r     | KEY   r     | ORF   r/w   | RSRC  r     | XMP   r/w/c
         DOCX  r     | LNK   r     | OTF   r     | RTF   r     | ZIP   r
         DV    r     | M2TS  r     | PAGES r     | RW2   r/w   |

         Meta Information
         ----------------------+----------------------+---------------------
         EXIF           r/w/c  |  CIFF           r/w  |  Ricoh RMETA    r
         GPS            r/w/c  |  AFCP           r/w  |  Picture Info   r
         IPTC           r/w/c  |  Kodak Meta     r/w  |  Adobe APP14    r
         XMP            r/w/c  |  FotoStation    r/w  |  MPF            r
         MakerNotes     r/w/c  |  PhotoMechanic  r/w  |  Stim           r
         Photoshop IRB  r/w/c  |  JPEG 2000      r    |  APE            r
         ICC Profile    r/w/c  |  DICOM          r    |  Vorbis         r
         MIE            r/w/c  |  Flash          r    |  SPIFF          r
         JFIF           r/w/c  |  FlashPix       r    |  DjVu           r
         Ducky APP12    r/w/c  |  QuickTime      r    |  M2TS           r
         PDF            r/w/c  |  Matroska       r    |  PE/COFF        r
         PNG            r/w/c  |  GeoTIFF        r    |  AVCHD          r
         Canon VRD      r/w/c  |  PrintIM        r    |  ZIP            r
         Nikon Capture  r/w/c  |  ID3            r    |  (and more)

OPTIONS

       Case is not significant for any command-line option (including tag and
       group names), except for single-character options when the
       corresponding upper-case option exists.  Many single-character options
       have equivalent long-name versions (shown in brackets), and some
       options have inverses which are invoked with a leading double-dash.
       Note that multiple single-character options may NOT be combined into
       one argument because this would be interpreted as a tag name.

   Option Summary
       Tag operations

         -TAG or --TAG                    Extract or exclude specified tag
         -TAG[+-]=[VALUE]                 Write new value for tag
         -TAG[+-]<=DATFILE                Write tag value from contents of file
         -TAG[+-]<SRCTAG                  Copy tag value (see -tagsFromFile)

         -tagsFromFile SRCFILE            Copy tag values from file
         -x TAG      (-exclude)           Exclude specified tag

       Input-output text formatting

         -args       (-argFormat)         Output data as exiftool arguments
         -b          (-binary)            Output data in binary format
         -c FMT      (-coordFormat)       Set format for GPS coordinates
         -charset [[TYPE=]CHARSET]        Specify encoding for special characters
         -csv[=CSVFILE]                   Export/import tags in CSV format
         -d FMT      (-dateFormat)        Set format for date/time values
         -D          (-decimal)           Show tag ID numbers in decimal
         -E, -ex     (-escape(HTML|XML))  Escape values for HTML (-E) or XML (-ex)
         -f          (-forcePrint)        Force printing of all specified tags
         -g[NUM...]  (-groupHeadings)     Organize output by tag group
         -G[NUM...]  (-groupNames)        Print group name for each tag
         -h          (-htmlFormat)        Use HMTL formatting for output
         -H          (-hex)               Show tag ID number in hexadecimal
         -htmlDump[OFFSET]                Generate HTML-format binary dump
         -j[=JSONFILE] (-json)            Export/import tags in JSON format
         -l          (-long)              Use long 2-line output format
         -L          (-latin)             Use Windows Latin1 encoding
         -lang [LANG]                     Set current language
         -n          (--printConv)        Disable print conversion
         -p FMTFILE  (-printFormat)       Print output in specified format
         -s[NUM]     (-short)             Short output format
         -S          (-veryShort)         Very short output format
         -sep STR    (-separator)         Set separator string for list items
         -struct                          Enable output of structured information
         -t          (-tab)               Output in tab-delimited list format
         -T          (-table)             Output in tabular format
         -v[NUM]     (-verbose)           Print verbose messages
         -w[!] EXT   (-textOut)           Write output text files
         -X          (-xmlFormat)         Use RDF/XML output format

       Processing control

         -a          (-duplicates)        Allow duplicate tags to be extracted
         -e          (--composite)        Do not calculate composite tags
         -ee         (-extractEmbedded)   Extract information from embedded files
         -ext EXT    (-extension)         Process files with specified extension
         -F[OFFSET]  (-fixBase)           Fix the base for maker notes offsets
         -fast[NUM]                       Increase speed for slow devices
         -fileOrder [-]TAG                Set file processing order
         -i DIR      (-ignore)            Ignore specified directory name
         -if EXPR                         Conditionally process files
         -m          (-ignoreMinorErrors) Ignore minor errors and warnings
         -o OUTFILE  (-out)               Set output file or directory name
         -overwrite_original              Overwrite original by renaming tmp file
         -overwrite_original_in_place     Overwrite original by copying tmp file
         -P          (-preserve)          Preserve date/time of original file
         -password PASSWD                 Password for processing protected files
         -q          (-quiet)             Quiet processing
         -r          (-recurse)           Recursively process subdirectories
         -scanForXMP                      Brute force XMP scan
         -u          (-unknown)           Extract unknown tags
         -U          (-unknown2)          Extract unknown binary tags too
         -z          (-zip)               Read/write compressed information

       Special features

         -geotag TRKFILE                  Geotag images from specified GPS log
         -use MODULE                      Add features from plug-in module

       Utilities

         -delete_original[!]              Delete "_original" backups
         -restore_original                Restore from "_original" backups

       Other options

         -@ ARGFILE                       Read command-line arguments from file
         -k          (-pause)             Pause before terminating
         -list[w|f|wf|g[NUM]|d|x]         List various exiftool attributes
         -ver                             Print exiftool version number

       Advanced options

         -common_args                     Define common arguments
         -config CFGFILE                  Specify configuration file name
         -execute                         Execute multiple commands on one line
         -srcfile FMT                     Set different source file name
         -stay_open FLAG                  Keep reading -@ argfile even after EOF

   Option Details
       Tag operations

       -TAG Extract information for specified tag (ie. "-CreateDate").  A tag
            name is the handle by which a piece of information is referenced.
            See Image::ExifTool::TagNames for documentation on available tag
            names.  A tag name may include leading group names separated by
            colons (ie. "-EXIF:CreateDate", or "-Doc1:XMP:Creator"), and each
            group name may be prefixed by a digit to specify family number
            (ie.  "-1IPTC:City").  Use the -listg option to list available
            group names by family.

            A special tag name of "All" may be used to indicate all meta
            information.  This is particularly useful when a group name is
            specified to extract all information in a group (but beware that
            unless the -a option is also used, some tags in the group may be
            suppressed by same-named tags in other groups).  The wildcard
            characters "?" and "*" may be used in a tag name to match any
            single character and zero or more characters respectively.  These
            may not be used in a group name, with the exception that a group
            name of "*" (or "All") may be used to extract all instances of a
            tag (as if -a was used).  Note that arguments containing wildcards
            must be quoted on the command line of most systems to prevent
            shell globbing, and wildcards may not be used when
            writing/deleting tags.

            A "#" may be appended to the tag name to disable the print
            conversion on a per-tag basis (see the -n option).  This may also
            be used when writing or copying tags.

            If no tags are specified, all available information is extracted
            (as if "-All" had been specified).

            Note:  Descriptions, not tag names, are shown by default when
            extracting information.  Use the -s option to see the tag names
            instead.

       --TAG
            Exclude specified tag from extracted information.  Same as the -x
            option.  May also be used following a -tagsFromFile option to
            exclude tags from being copied, or to exclude groups from being
            deleted when deleting all information (ie. "-all= --exif:all"
            deletes all but EXIF information).  But note that this will not
            exclude individual tags from a group delete.  Instead, the tags
            must be recovered using the -tagsFromFile option (ie.  "-all=
            -tagsfromfile @ -artist").  Wildcards are permitted as described
            above for -TAG.

       -TAG[+-]=[VALUE]
            Write a new value for the specified tag (ie. "-comment=wow"), or
            delete the tag if no VALUE is given (ie. "-comment="). "+=" and
            "-=" are used to add or remove existing entries from a list, or to
            shift date/time values (see Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for
            details), and "-=" may be used to conditionally remove or replace
            a tag (see "WRITING EXAMPLES" for examples).

            TAG may contain a leading family 0 or 1 group name separated by a
            colon.  If no group name is specified, the tag is created in the
            preferred group, and updated in any other location where a same-
            named tag already exists.  The preferred group is the first group
            in the following list where TAG is valid: 1) EXIF, 2) IPTC, 3)
            XMP.

            The special "All" tag may be used in this syntax only if a VALUE
            is NOT given.  This causes all meta information to be deleted (or
            all information in a group if "-GROUP:All=" is used).  Note that
            not all groups are deletable.  Use the -listd option for a
            complete list of deletable groups.  Also, within an image some
            groups may be contained within others, and these groups are
            removed if the containing group is deleted:

              JPEG Image:
              - Deleting EXIF or IFD0 also deletes ExifIFD, GlobParamIFD,
                GPS, IFD1, InteropIFD, MakerNotes, PrintIM and SubIFD.
              - Deleting ExifIFD also deletes InteropIFD and MakerNotes.
              - Deleting Photoshop also deletes IPTC.

              TIFF Image:
              - Deleting EXIF only removes ExifIFD which also deletes
                InteropIFD and MakerNotes.

            Note:  MakerNotes tags may be edited, but not created or deleted
            individually. This avoids many potential problems including the
            inevitable compatibility problems with OEM software which may be
            very inflexible about the information it expects to find in the
            maker notes.

            Special feature:  Integer values may be specified in hexadecimal
            with a leading "0x", and simple rational values may be specified
            as fractions.

       -TAG<=DATFILE or -TAG<=FMT
            Set the value of a tag from the contents of file DATFILE.  The
            file name may also be given by a FMT string where %d, %f and %e
            represent the directory, file name and extension of the original
            FILE (see the -w option for more details).  Note that quotes are
            required around this argument to prevent shell redirection since
            it contains a "<" symbol.  "+<=" or "-<=" may also be used to add
            or delete specific list entries, or to shift date/time values.

       -tagsFromFile SRCFILE or FMT
            Copy tag values from SRCFILE to FILE.  Tag names on the command
            line after this option specify the tags to be copied, or excluded
            from the copy.  If no tags are specified, then all possible tags
            (see note 1 below) from the source file are copied.  More than one
            -tagsFromFile option may be used to copy tags from multiple files.

            By default, this option will commute information between same-
            named tags in different groups and write each tag to the preferred
            group.  This allows some information to be automatically
            translated when copying between images of different formats.
            However, if a group name is specified for a tag then the
            information is written to the original group (unless redirected to
            another group, see below).  This works even if "All" is used as a
            group name, so "-All:All" is used to specify that all information
            be copied to the same group in the destination file.

            SRCFILE may be the same as FILE to move information around within
            a file.  In this case, "@" may be used to represent the source
            file (ie.  "-tagsFromFile @"), permitting this feature to be used
            for batch processing multiple files (see note 4 below).  Specified
            tags are then copied from each file in turn as it is rewritten.
            For advanced batch use, the source file name may also be specified
            using a FMT string in which %d, %f and %e represent the directory,
            file name and extension of FILE.  See -w option for FMT string
            examples.

            A powerful redirection feature allows a destination tag to be
            specified for each extracted tag.  With this feature, information
            may be written to a tag with a different name or group.  This is
            done using "'-SRCTAG>DSTTAG'" or "'-DSTTAG<SRCTAG'" on the command
            line after -tagsFromFile, and causes the value of SRCTAG to be
            copied from SRCFILE and written to DSTTAG in FILE.  Note that this
            argument must be quoted to prevent shell redirection, and there is
            no "=" sign as when assigning new values. Both source and
            destination tags may be prefixed by a group name, and "All" or "*"
            may be used as a tag or group name.  If no destination group is
            specified, the information is written to the preferred group.  As
            a convenience, "-tagsFromFile @" is assumed for any redirected
            tags which are specified without a prior -tagsFromFile option.
            Copied tags may also be added or deleted from a list with
            arguments of the form "'-SRCTAG+>DSTTAG'" or "'-SRCTAG->DSTTAG'".

            An extension of the redirection feature allows strings involving
            tag names to be used on the right hand side of the "<" symbol with
            the syntax "'-DSTTAG<STR'", where tag names in STR are prefixed
            with a "$" symbol.  See the -p option for more details about this
            syntax.  Strings starting with a "=" sign must insert a single
            space after the "<" to avoid confusion with the "<=" syntax which
            would otherwise attempt to set the tag value from the contents of
            a file.  A single space at the start of the string is removed if
            it exists, but all other whitespace is preserved.

            See "COPYING EXAMPLES" for examples using -tagsFromFile.

            Notes:

            1) Some tags (generally tags which may affect the appearance of
            the image) are considered "unsafe" to write, and are only copied
            if specified explicitly.  See the tag name documentation for more
            details about "unsafe" tags.

            2) Be aware of the difference between excluding a tag from being
            copied (--TAG), and deleting a tag (-TAG=).  Excluding a tag
            prevents it from being copied to the destination image, but
            deleting will remove a pre-existing tag from the image.

            3) The maker note information is copied as a block, so it isn't
            affected like other information by subsequent tag assignments on
            the command line.  Also, since the PreviewImage referenced from
            the maker notes may be rather large, it is not copied, and must be
            transferred separately if desired.

            4) When performing complex batch processing, it is important to
            note that the order of operations is different for tags copied in
            batch mode.  In general, tags are copied from batch-mode files
            after all other command-line arguments have been applied.  For
            example, the following two commands are not equivalent:

                # (not batch mode):  Sets xmp:title to 'NEW'
                exiftool -tagsfromfile a.jpg -xmp:title -xmp:title=NEW a.jpg

                # (batch mode):  Preserves original title if it exists
                exiftool -tagsfromfile @ -xmp:title -xmp:title=NEW a.jpg

            5) The normal behaviour of copied tags differs subtly from that of
            assigned tags for List-type tags.  When copying to a list, each
            copied tag overrides any previous operations on the list.  While
            this avoids duplicate list items when copying groups of tags from
            a file containing redundant information, it also prevents values
            of different tags from being copied into the same list when this
            is the intent.  So a -addTagsFromFile option is provided which
            allows copying of multiple tags into the same list.  ie)

                exiftool -addtagsfromfile @ '-subject<make' '-subject<model' ...

            Other than this difference, the -tagsFromFile and -addTagsFromFile
            options are equivalent.

            6) The -a option (allow duplicate tags) is always in effect when
            reading tags from SRCFILE.

            7) The -struct option is in effect by default when copying tags,
            but this may be disabled with --struct on the command line.  See
            the -struct option for details.

       -x TAG (-exclude)
            Exclude the specified tag.  There may be multiple -x options.
            This has the same effect as --TAG on the command line.  May also
            be used following a -tagsFromFile option to exclude tags from
            being copied.

       Input-output text formatting

       -args (-argFormat)
            Output information in the form of exiftool arguments, suitable for
            use with the -@ option when writing.  May be combined with the -G
            option to include group names.  This feature may be used to
            effectively copy tags between images, but allows the metadata to
            be altered by editing the intermediate file ("out.args" in this
            example):

                exiftool -args -G1 --filename --directory src.jpg > out.args
                exiftool -@ out.args dst.jpg

            Note:  Be careful when copying information with this technique
            since it is easy to write tags which are normally considered
            "unsafe".  For instance, the FileName and Directory tags are
            excluded in the example above to avoid renaming and moving the
            destination file.  Also note that the second command above will
            produce warning messages for any tags which are not writable.

       -b (-binary)
            Output requested data in binary format without tag names or
            descriptions.  This option is mainly used for extracting embedded
            images or other binary data, but it may also be useful for some
            text strings since control characters (such as newlines) are not
            replaced by '.' as they are in the default output.  Also valid in
            combination with the "-X" option.

       -c FMT (-coordFormat)
            Set the print format for GPS coordinates.  FMT uses the same
            syntax as the "printf" format string.  The specifiers correspond
            to degrees, minutes and seconds in that order, but minutes and
            seconds are optional.  For example, the following table gives the
            output for the same coordinate using various formats:

                        FMT                  Output
                -------------------    ------------------
                "%d deg %d' %.2f"\"    54 deg 59' 22.80"  (default for reading)
                "%d %d %.8f"           54 59 22.80000000  (default for copying)
                "%d deg %.4f min"      54 deg 59.3800 min
                "%.6f degrees"         54.989667 degrees

            Notes:

            1) To avoid loss of precision, the default coordinate format is
            different when copying tags using the -tagsFromFile option.

            2) This print formatting may be disabled with the -n option to
            extract coordinates as signed decimal degrees.

       -charset [[TYPE=]CHARSET]
            If TYPE is "ExifTool" or not specified, this option sets the
            ExifTool character encoding for output tag values when reading and
            input values when writing.  The default ExifTool encoding is
            "UTF8".  If no CHARSET is given, a list of available character
            sets is returned.  Valid CHARSET values are:

                CHARSET     Alias(es)        Description
                ----------  ---------------  ----------------------------------
                UTF8        cp65001, UTF-8   UTF-8 characters (default)
                Latin       cp1252, Latin1   Windows Latin1 (West European)
                Latin2      cp1250           Windows Latin2 (Central European)
                Cyrillic    cp1251, Russian  Windows Cyrillic
                Greek       cp1253           Windows Greek
                Turkish     cp1254           Windows Turkish
                Hebrew      cp1255           Windows Hebrew
                Arabic      cp1256           Windows Arabic
                Baltic      cp1257           Windows Baltic
                Vietnam     cp1258           Windows Vietnamese
                Thai        cp874            Windows Thai
                MacRoman    cp10000, Roman   Macintosh Roman
                MacLatin2   cp10029          Macintosh Latin2 (Central Europe)
                MacCyrillic cp10007          Macintosh Cyrillic
                MacGreek    cp10006          Macintosh Greek
                MacTurkish  cp10081          Macintosh Turkish
                MacRomanian cp10010          Macintosh Romanian
                MacIceland  cp10079          Macintosh Icelandic
                MacCroatian cp10082          Macintosh Croatian

            Other values of TYPE listed below are used to specify the internal
            encoding of various meta information formats.

                TYPE       Description                                  Default
                ---------  -------------------------------------------  -------
                ID3        Internal encoding of ID3v1 information       Latin
                IPTC       Internal IPTC encoding to assume when        Latin
                            IPTC:CodedCharacterSet is not defined
                Photoshop  Internal encoding of Photoshop IRB strings   Latin

            See <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/faq.html#Q10> for
            more information about coded character sets.

       -csv[=CSVFILE]
            Export information in as a CSV file, or import information if
            CSVFILE is specified.  The first row of the CSVFILE must be the
            ExifTool tag names (with optional group names) for each column of
            the file.  A special "SourceFile" column specifies the files
            associated with each row of information (a SourceFile of "*" may
            be used to apply the information to all target images). The
            following examples demonstrate basic use of this option:

                # generate CSV file with common tags from all images in a directory
                exiftool -common -csv dir > out.csv

                # update metadata for all images in a directory from CSV file
                exiftool -csv=a.csv dir

            Empty values are ignored when importing.  To force a tag to be
            deleted, use the -f option and set the value to "-" in the CSV
            file.  May be combined with the -g or -G option to add group names
            to the tags.

            Special feature:  "+="CSVFILE may be used to add items to existing
            lists.  This affects only list-type tags.  Also applies to the -j
            option.

       -d FMT (-dateFormat)
            Set the format for date/time tag values.  The specifics of the FMT
            syntax are system dependent -- consult the "strftime" man page on
            your system for details.  The default format is equivalent to
            "%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S".  This option has no effect on date-only or
            time-only tags and ignores timezone information if present.  Only
            one -d option may be used per command.  The inverse operation (ie.
            un-formatting a date/time value) is currently not applied when
            writing a date/time tag.

       -D (-decimal)
            Show tag ID number in decimal when extracting information.

       -E, -ex (-escapeHTML, -escapeXML)
            Escape characters in output values for HTML (-E) or XML (-ex).
            For HTML, all characters with Unicode code points above U+007F are
            escaped as well as the following 5 characters: & (&amp;) ' (&#39;)
            " (&quot;) > (&gt;) and < (&lt;).  For XML, only these 5
            characters are escaped.  The -E option is implied with -h, and -ex
            is implied with -X.  The inverse conversion is applied when
            writing tags.

       -f (-forcePrint)
            Force printing of tags even if their values are not found.  This
            option only applies when tag names are specified.  May also be
            used to add a 'flags' attribute to the -listx output, or to allow
            tags to be deleted with the -csv option.

       -g[NUM][:NUM...] (-groupHeadings)
            Organize output by tag group.  NUM specifies a group family
            number, and may be 0 (general location), 1 (specific location), 2
            (category), 3 (document number) or 4 (instance number).  Multiple
            families may be specified by separating them with colons.  By
            default the resulting group name is simplified by removing any
            leading "Main:" and collapsing adjacent identical group names, but
            this can be avoided by placing a colon before the first family
            number (ie. -g:3:1).  If NUM is not specified, -g0 is assumed.
            Use the -listg option to list group names for a specified family.

       -G[NUM][:NUM...] (-groupNames)
            Same as -g but print group name for each tag.

       -h (-htmlFormat)
            Use HTML table formatting for output.  Implies the -E option.  The
            formatting options -D, -H, -g, -G, -l and -s may be used in
            combination with -h to influence the HTML format.

       -H (-hex)
            Show tag ID number in hexadecimal when extracting information.

       -htmlDump[OFFSET]
            Generate a dynamic web page containing a hex dump of the EXIF
            information.  This can be a very powerful tool for low-level
            analysis of EXIF information.  The -htmlDump option is also
            invoked if the -v and -h options are used together.  The verbose
            level controls the maximum length of the blocks dumped.  An OFFSET
            may be given to specify the base for displayed offsets.  If not
            provided, the EXIF/TIFF base offset is used.  Use -htmlDump0 for
            absolute offsets.  Currently only EXIF/TIFF and JPEG information
            is dumped, but the -u option can be used to give a raw hex dump of
            other file formats.

       -j[=JSONFILE] (-json)
            Use JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) formatting for console
            output, or import JSON file if JSONFILE is specified.  This option
            may be combined with -g to organize the output into objects by
            group, or -G to add group names to each tag.  List-type tags with
            multiple items are output as JSON arrays unless -sep is used.  By
            default XMP structures are flattened into individual tags in the
            JSON output, but the original structure may be preserved with the
            -struct option (this also causes all List-type XMP tags to be
            output as JSON arrays, otherwise single-item lists would be output
            as simple strings).  The -a option is implied if the -g or -G
            options are used, otherwise it is ignored and duplicate tags are
            suppressed.  The -b, -L and -charset options have no effect on the
            JSON output.

            If JSONFILE is specified, the file is imported and the tag
            definitions from the file are used to set tag values on a per-file
            basis.  The special "SourceFile" entry in each JSON object
            associates the information with a specific target file (see the
            -csv option for details).  The imported JSON file must have the
            same format as the exported JSON files with the exception that the
            -g option is not compatible with the import file format (use -G
            instead).  Additionally, tag names in the input JSON file may be
            suffixed with a "#" to disable print conversion.

       -l (-long)
            Use long 2-line Canon-style output format.  Adds a description and
            unconverted value to the XML output when -X is used.

       -L (-latin)
            Use Windows Latin1 encoding (cp1252) for output tag values instead
            of the default UTF-8.  When writing, -L specifies that input text
            values are Latin1 instead of UTF-8.  Equivalent to "-charset
            latin".

       -lang [LANG]
            Set current language for tag descriptions and converted values.
            LANG is "de", "fr", "ja", etc.  Use -lang with no other arguments
            to get a list of available languages.  The default language is
            "en" if -lang is not specified.  Note that tag/group names are
            always English, independent of the -lang setting, and translation
            of warning/error messages has not yet been implemented.

            By default, ExifTool uses UTF-8 encoding for special characters,
            but the the -L or -charset option may be used to invoke other
            encodings.

            Currently, the language support is not complete, but users are
            welcome to help improve this by submitting their own translations.
            To submit a set of translations, first use the -listx option and
            redirect the output to a file to generate an XML tag database,
            then add entries for other languages, zip this file, and email it
            to phil at owl.phy.queensu.ca for inclusion in ExifTool.

       -n (--printConv)
            Read and write values as numbers instead of words.  By default,
            extracted values are converted to a more human-readable format for
            printing, but the -n option disables this print conversion for all
            tags.  For example:

                > exiftool -Orientation -S a.jpg
                Orientation: Rotate 90 CW
                > exiftool -Orientation -S -n a.jpg
                Orientation: 6

            The print conversion may also be disabled on a per-tag basis by
            suffixing the tag name with a "#" character:

                > exiftool -Orientation# -Orientation -S a.jpg
                Orientation: 6
                Orientation: Rotate 90 CW

            These techniques may also be used to disable the inverse print
            conversion when writing.  For example, the following commands all
            have the same effect:

                > exiftool -Orientation='Rotate 90 CW' a.jpg
                > exiftool -Orientation=6 -n a.jpg
                > exiftool -Orientation#=6 a.jpg

       -p FMTFILE or STR (-printFormat)
            Print output in the format specified by the given file or string
            (and ignore other format options).  Tag names in the format file
            or string begin with a "$" symbol and may contain a leading group
            name and/or a trailing "#".  Case is not significant.  Braces "{}"
            may be used around the tag name to separate it from subsequent
            text.  Use $$ to represent a "$" symbol, and $/ for a newline.
            Multiple -p options may be used, each contributing a line of text
            to the output.  Lines beginning with "#[HEAD]" and "#[TAIL]" are
            output only for the first and last processed files respectively.
            Lines beginning with "#[BODY]" and lines not beginning with "#"
            are output for each processed file.  Other lines beginning with
            "#" are ignored.  For example, this format file:

                # this is a comment line
                #[HEAD]# Generated by ExifTool $exifToolVersion
                File: $FileName - $DateTimeOriginal
                (f/$Aperture, ${ShutterSpeed}s, ISO $EXIF:ISO)
                #[TAIL]# end

            with this command:

                exiftool -p test.fmt a.jpg b.jpg

            produces output like this:

                # Generated by ExifTool 8.10
                File: a.jpg - 2003:10:31 15:44:19
                (f/5.6, 1/60s, ISO 100)
                File: b.jpg - 2006:05:23 11:57:38
                (f/8.0, 1/13s, ISO 100)
                # end

            When -ee (-extractEmbedded) is combined with -p, embedded
            documents are effectively processed as separate input files.

            If a specified tag does not exist, a minor warning is issued and
            the line with the missing tag is not printed.  However, the -f
            option may be used to set the value of missing tags to '-', or the
            -m option may be used to ignore minor warnings and leave the
            missing values empty.

       -s[NUM] (-short)
            Short output format.  Prints tag names instead of descriptions.
            Add NUM or up to 3 -s options for even shorter formats:

                -s1 or -s        - print tag names instead of descriptions
                -s2 or -s -s     - no extra spaces to column-align values
                -s3 or -s -s -s  - print values only

            Also effective when combined with -t, -h, -X or -listx options.

       -S (-veryShort)
            Very short format.  The same as -s2 (or two -s options).  Tag
            names are printed instead of descriptions, and no extra spaces are
            added to column-align values.

       -sep STR (-separator)
            Specify separator string for items in List-type tags.  When
            reading, the default is ", ".  When writing, this option causes
            values assigned to list-type tags to be split into individual
            items at each substring matching specified separator.  Space
            characters in the separator string match zero or more whitespace
            characters.

       -struct, --struct
            Output structured XMP information instead of flattening to
            individual tags.  This option works well when combined with the
            XML (-X) and JSON (-j) output formats.  For other output formats,
            the structures are serialized into the same format as when writing
            structured information (see
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/struct.html> for
            details).  This option is enabled by default when copying tags to
            allow the preservation of complex structures, but this feature may
            be disabled with --struct. These options have no effect when
            assigning new values since both flattened tags and structured tags
            may always be written.

       -t (-tab)
            Output a tab-delimited list of description/values (useful for
            database import).  May be combined with -s to print tag names
            instead of descriptions, or -S to print tag values only, tab-
            delimited on a single line.  The -t option may also be used to add
            tag table information to the -X option output.

       -T (-table)
            Output tag values in table form.  Equivalent to -t -S -q -f.

       -v[NUM] (-verbose)
            Print verbose messages.  NUM specifies the level of verbosity in
            the range 0-5, with higher numbers being more verbose.  If NUM is
            not given, then each -v option increases the level of verbosity by
            1.  With any level greater than 0, most other options are ignored
            and normal console output is suppressed unless specific tags are
            extracted.  Using -v0 causes the console output buffer to be
            flushed after each line (which may be useful to avoid delays when
            piping exiftool output), and prints the name of each processed
            file when writing.

       -w[!] EXT or FMT (-textOut)
            Write console output to files with names ending in EXT, one for
            each source file.  The output file name is obtained by replacing
            the source file extension (including the '.') with the specified
            extension (and a '.' is added to the start of EXT if it doesn't
            already contain one).  Alternatively, a FMT string may be used to
            give more control over the output file name and directory.  In the
            format string, %d, %f and %e represent the directory, filename and
            extension of the source file, and %c represents a copy number
            which is automatically incremented if the file already exists.  %d
            includes the trailing '/' if necessary, but %e does not include
            the leading '.'.  For example:

                -w %d%f.txt       # same effect as "-w txt"
                -w dir/%f_%e.out  # write files to "dir" as "FILE_EXT.out"
                -w dir2/%d%f.txt  # write to "dir2", keeping dir structure
                -w a%c.txt        # write to "a.txt" or "a1.txt" or "a2.txt"...

            Existing files will not be overwritten unless an exclamation point
            is added to the option name (ie. -w! or -textOut!).  Output
            directories are created automatically if necessary.

            Notes:

            1) In a Windows BAT file the "%" character is represented by "%%",
            so an argument like "%d%f.txt" is written as "%%d%%f.txt".

            2) It is not possible to specify a simple filename as an argument
            for -w.  Instead, this simple case is accomplished using shell
            redirection:

                exiftool FILE > out.txt

            Advanced features:  A substring of the original file name,
            directory or extension may be taken by specifying a field width
            immediately following the '%' character.  If the width is
            negative, the substring is taken from the end.  The substring
            position (characters to ignore at the start or end of the string)
            may be given by a second optional value after a decimal point.
            For example:

                Input File Name     Format Specifier    Output File Name
                ----------------    ----------------    ----------------
                Picture-123.jpg     %7f.txt             Picture.txt
                Picture-123.jpg     %-.4f.out           Picture.out
                Picture-123.jpg     %7f.%-3f            Picture.123
                Picture-123a.jpg    Meta%-3.1f.txt      Meta123.txt

            For %c, these modifiers have a different effects.  If a field
            width is given, the copy number is padded with zeros to the
            specified width.  A leading '-' adds a dash before the copy
            number, and a '+' adds an underline.  By default, a copy number of
            zero is omitted, but this can be changed by adding a decimal point
            to the modifier.  For example:

                -w A%-cZ.txt      # AZ.txt, A-1Z.txt, A-2Z.txt ...
                -w B%5c.txt       # B.txt, B00001.txt, B00002.txt ...
                -w C%.c.txt       # C0.txt, C1.txt, C2.txt ...
                -w D%-.c.txt      # D-0.txt, D-1.txt, D-2.txt ...
                -w E%-.4c.txt     # E-0000.txt, E-0001.txt, E-0002.txt ...
                -w F%-.4nc.txt    # F-0001.txt, F-0002.txt, F-0003.txt ...
                -w G%+c.txt       # G.txt, G_1.txt G_2.txt ...
                -w H%-lc.txt      # H.txt, H-b.txt, H-c.txt ...

            A special feature allows the copy number to be incremented for
            each processed file by using %C (upper case) instead of %c.  This
            allows a sequential number to be added to output file names, even
            if the names are different.  For %C, the number before the decimal
            place gives the starting index, and the number after the decimal
            place gives the field width.  The following examples show the
            output filenames when used with the command "exiftool rose.jpg
            star.jpg jet.jpg ...":

                -w %C%f.txt       # 0rose.txt, 1star.txt, 2jet.txt
                -w %f-%10C.txt    # rose-10.txt, star-11.txt, jet-12.txt
                -w %.3C-%f.txt    # 000-rose.txt, 001-star.txt, 002-jet.txt
                -w %57.4C%f.txt   # 0057rose.txt, 0058star.txt, 0059jet.txt

            All format codes may be modified by 'l' or 'u' to specify lower or
            upper case respectively (ie. %le for a lower case file extension).
            When used to modify %c or %C, the numbers are changed to an
            alphabetical base (see example H above).  Also, %c may be modified
            by 'n' to count using natural numbers starting from 1, instead of
            0 (see example F).

            This same FMT syntax is used with the -o and -tagsFromFile
            options, although %c is only valid for output file names.

       -X (-xmlFormat)
            Use RDF/XML formatting for console output.  Implies the -a option,
            so duplicate tags are extracted.  The formatting options -b, -D,
            -H, -l, -s, -sep, -struct and -t may be used in combination with
            -X to affect the output, but note that the tag ID (-D, -H and -t),
            binary data (-b) and structured output (-struct) options are not
            effective for the short output (-s).  Another restriction of -s is
            that only one tag with a given group and name may appear in the
            output.  Note that the tag ID options (-D, -H and -t) will produce
            non-standard RDF/XML unless the -l option is also used.  By
            default, list-type tags with multiple values are formatted as an
            RDF Bag, but they are combined into a single string when -s or
            -sep is used.  Using -L changes the XML encoding from "UTF-8" to
            "windows-1252".  Other -charset settings change the encoding only
            if there is a corresponding standard XML character set.  The -b
            option causes binary data values to be written, encoded in base64
            if necessary.  The -t option adds tag table information to the
            output (table "name", decimal tag "id", and "index" for cases
            where multiple conditional tags exist with the same ID).

       Processing control

       -a, --a (-duplicates, --duplicates)
            Allow (-a) or suppress (--a) duplicate tag names to be extracted.
            By default, duplicate tags are suppressed unless the -ee or -X
            options are used or the Duplicates option is enabled in the
            configuration file.

       -e (--composite)
            Extract existing tags only -- don't calculate composite tags.

       -ee (-extractEmbedded)
            Extract information from embedded documents in EPS and PDF files,
            embedded MPF images in JPEG and MPO files, streaming metadata in
            AVCHD videos, and the resource fork of Mac OS files.  Implies the
            -a option.  Use -g3 or -G3 to identify the originating document
            for extracted information.  Embedded documents containing sub-
            documents are indicated with dashes in the family 3 group name.
            (ie. "Doc2-3" is the 3rd sub-document of the 2nd embedded
            document.)

       -ext EXT, --ext EXT (-extension)
            Process only files with (-ext) or without (--ext) a specified
            extension.  There may be multiple -ext and --ext options.
            Extensions may begin with a leading '.', and case is not
            significant.  For example:

                exiftool -ext .JPG DIR            # process only JPG files
                exiftool --ext crw --ext dng DIR  # process all but CRW and DNG
                exiftool --ext . DIR              # ignore if no extension

            Using this option has two main advantages over specifying "*.EXT"
            on the command line:  1) It applies to files in subdirectories
            when combined with the -r option.  2) The -ext option is case-
            insensitive, which is useful when processing files on case-
            sensitive filesystems.

       -F[OFFSET] (-fixBase)
            Fix the base for maker notes offsets.  A common problem with some
            image editors is that offsets in the maker notes are not adjusted
            properly when the file is modified.  This may cause the wrong
            values to be extracted for some maker note entries when reading
            the edited file.  This option allows an integer OFFSET to be
            specified for adjusting the maker notes base offset.  If no OFFSET
            is given, ExifTool takes its best guess at the correct base.  Note
            that exiftool will automatically fix the offsets for images which
            store original offset information (ie. newer Canon models).
            Offsets are fixed permanently if -F is used when writing EXIF to
            an image. ie)

                exiftool -F -exif:resolutionunit=inches image.jpg

       -fast[NUM]
            Increase speed of extracting information from JPEG images.  With
            this option, ExifTool will not scan to the end of a JPEG image to
            check for an AFCP or PreviewImage trailer, or past the first
            comment in GIF images or the audio/video data in WAV/AVI files to
            search for additional metadata.  These speed benefits are small
            when reading images directly from disk, but can be substantial if
            piping images through a network connection.  For more substantial
            speed benefits, -fast2 also causes exiftool to avoid extracting
            any EXIF MakerNote information.

       -fileOrder [-]TAG
            Set file processing order according to the sorted value of the
            specified TAG.  For example, to process files in order of date:

                exiftool -fileOrder DateTimeOriginal DIR

            Additional -fileOrder options may be added as secondary sort keys.
            Floating point values are sorted numerically, and all other values
            are sorted alphabetically.  The sort order may be reversed by
            prefixing the tag name with a "-" (ie. "-fileOrder -createdate").
            A "#" may be appended to the tag name to disable print conversion
            for the sorted values.  Note that this option has a large
            performance impact since it involves an additional processing pass
            of each file.

       -i DIR (-ignore)
            Ignore specified directory name.  Use multiple -i options to
            ignore more than one directory name.  A special DIR value of
            "SYMLINKS" (case sensitive) may be specified to ignore symbolic
            links when the -r option is used.

       -if EXPR
            Specify a condition to be evaluated before processing each FILE.
            EXPR is a Perl-like expression containing tag names prefixed by
            "$" symbols.  It is evaluated with the tags from each FILE in
            turn, and the file is processed only if the expression returns
            true.  Unlike Perl variable names, tag names are not case
            sensitive and may contain a hyphen.  As well, tag names may have a
            leading group name separated by a colon, and/or a trailing "#"
            character to disable print conversion.  When multiple -if options
            are used, all conditions must be satisfied to process the file.
            Returns an exit status of 1 if all files fail the condition.
            Below are a few examples:

                # extract shutterspeed from all Canon images in a directory
                exiftool -shutterspeed -if '$make eq "Canon"' dir

                # add one hour to all images created on or after Apr. 2, 2006
                exiftool -alldates+=1 -if '$CreateDate ge "2006:04:02"' dir

                # set EXIF ISO value if possible, unless it is set already
                exiftool '-exif:iso<iso' -if 'not $exif:iso' dir

                # find images containing a specific keyword (case insensitive)
                exiftool -if '$keywords =~ /harvey/i' -filename dir

       -m (-ignoreMinorErrors)
            Ignore minor errors and warnings.  This enables writing to files
            with minor errors and disables some validation checks which could
            result in minor warnings.  Generally, minor errors/warnings
            indicate a problem which usually won't result in loss of metadata
            if ignored.  However, there are exceptions, so ExifTool leaves it
            up to you to make the final decision.

       -o OUTFILE or FMT (-out)
            Set the output file or directory name when writing information.
            (Without this option, the original file is renamed to
            "FILE_original" and output is sent to FILE.)  OUTFILE may be "-"
            to write to stdout.  The output file name may also be specified
            using a FMT string in which %d, %f and %e represent the directory,
            file name and extension of FILE.  Also, %c may be used to add a
            copy number.  See the -w option for FMT string examples.

            The output file is taken to be a directory name if it already
            exists as a directory or if the name ends with '/'.  Output
            directories are created if necessary.  Existing files will not be
            overwritten.  Combining the -overwrite_original option with -o
            causes the original source file to be erased after the output file
            is successfully written.

            A special feature of this option allows the creation of certain
            types of files from scratch.  Currently, this can be done with
            XMP, ICC/ICM, MIE, VRD and EXIF files by specifying the
            appropriate extension for OUTFILE.  The file is then created from
            a combination of information in FILE (as if the -tagsFromFile
            option was used), and tag values assigned on the command line.  If
            no FILE is specified, the output file may be created from scratch
            using only tags assigned on the command line.

       -overwrite_original
            Overwrite the original FILE (instead of preserving it by adding
            "_original" to the file name) when writing information to an
            image.  Caution: This option should only be used if you already
            have separate backup copies of your image files.  The overwrite is
            implemented by renaming a temporary file to replace the original.
            This deletes the original file and replaces it with the edited
            version in a single operation.  When combined with -o, this option
            causes the original file to be deleted if the output file was
            successfully written.

       -overwrite_original_in_place
            Similar to -overwrite_original except that an extra step is added
            to allow the original file attributes to be preserved.  For
            example, on a Mac this causes the original file creation date,
            ownership, type, creator, label color and icon to be preserved.
            This is implemented by opening the original file in update mode
            and replacing its data with a copy of a temporary file before
            deleting the temporary.  The extra step results in slower
            performance, so the -overwrite_original option should be used
            instead unless necessary.

       -P (-preserve)
            Preserve the filesystem modification date/time of the original
            file ("FileModifyDate") when writing.  Note that some filesystems
            (ie. Mac and Windows) store a creation date which is not preserved
            by this option.  For these systems, the
            -overwrite_original_in_place option may be used to preserve the
            creation date.

       -password PASSWD
            Specify password to allow processing of password-protected PDF
            documents.  If a password is required but not given, a warning is
            issued and the document is not processed.  Ignored if a password
            is not required.

       -q (-quiet)
            Quiet processing.  One -q suppresses normal informational
            messages, and a second -q suppresses warnings as well.  Error
            messages can not be suppressed, although minor errors may be
            downgraded to warnings with the -m option.

       -r (-recurse)
            Recursively process files in subdirectories.  Only meaningful if
            FILE is a directory name.  By default, exiftool will also follow
            symbolic links to directories if supported by the system, but this
            may be disabled with "-i SYMLINKS" (see the -i option for
            details).

       -scanForXMP
            Scan all files (even unsupported formats) for XMP information
            unless found already.  When combined with the -fast option, only
            unsupported file types are scanned.  Warning: It can be time
            consuming to scan large files.

       -u (-unknown)
            Extract values of unknown tags.  Add another -u to also extract
            unknown information from binary data blocks.  This option applies
            to tags with numerical tag ID's, and causes tag names like
            "Exif_0xc5d9" to be generated for unknown information.  It has no
            effect on information types which have human-readable tag ID's
            (such as XMP), since unknown tags are extracted automatically from
            these formats.

       -U (-unknown2)
            Extract values of unknown tags as well as unknown information from
            some binary data blocks.  This is the same as two -u options.

       -z (-zip)
            When reading, causes information to be extracted from .gz and .bz2
            compressed images.  (Only one image per archive. Requires gzip and
            bzip2 to be installed on the system.)  When writing, causes
            compressed information to be written if supported by the image
            format.  (ie. The PNG format supports compressed text.)

       Special features

       -geotag TRKFILE
            Geotag images from the specified GPS track log file.  Using the
            -geotag option is equivalent to writing a value to the "Geotag"
            tag.  After the -geotag option has been specified, the value of
            the "Geotime" tag is written to define a date/time for the
            position interpolation.  If "Geotime" is not specified, the value
            is copied from "DateTimeOriginal".  For example, the following two
            commands are equivalent:

                exiftool -geotag track.log image.jpg
                exiftool -geotag "-Geotime<DateTimeOriginal" image.jpg

            When the "Geotime" value is converted to UTC, the local system
            timezone is assumed unless the date/time value contains a
            timezone.  Writing "Geotime" causes the following 8 EXIF tags to
            be created:  GPSLatitude, GPSLatitudeRef, GPSLongitude,
            GPSLongitudeRef, GPSAltitude, GPSAltitudeRef, GPSDateStamp and
            GPSTimeStamp.  Alternately "XMP:Geotime" may be written to create
            the following 5 XMP tags: GPSLatitude, GPSLongitude, GPSAltitude,
            GPSAltitudeRef and GPSDateTime.

            The "Geosync" tag may be used to specify a time correction which
            is applied to each "Geotime" value for synchronization with GPS
            time.  For example, the following command compensates for image
            times which are 1 minute and 20 seconds behind GPS:

                exiftool -geosync=+1:20 -geotag a.log DIR

            "Geosync" must be set before "Geotime" (if specified) to be
            effective.  Advanced "Geosync" features allow a linear time drift
            correction and synchronization from previously geotagged images.
            See "geotag.html" in the full ExifTool distribution for more
            information.

            Multiple -geotag options may be used to concatinate GPS track log
            data.  Also, a single -geotag option may be used to load multiple
            track log files by using wildcards in the TRKFILE name, but note
            that in this case TRKFILE must be quoted on most systems (with the
            notable exception of Windows) to prevent filename expansion.  For
            example:

                exiftool -geotag "TRACKDIR/*.log" IMAGEDIR

            Currently supported track file formats are GPX, NMEA RMC/GGA/GLL,
            KML, IGC, Garmin XML and TCX, and Magellan PMGNTRK.  See
            "GEOTAGGING EXAMPLES" for examples.  Also see "geotag.html" in the
            full ExifTool distribution and the Image::ExifTool Options for
            more details and for information about geotag configuration
            options.

       -use MODULE
            Add features from specified plug-in MODULE.  Currently, the MWG
            module is the only plug-in module distributed with exiftool.  This
            module adds read/write support for tags as recommended by the
            Metadata Working Group.  To save typing, "-use MWG" is assumed if
            the "MWG" group is specified for any tag on the command line.  See
            the MWG Tags documentation for more details.

       Utilities

       -restore_original
       -delete_original[!]
            These utility options automate the maintenance of the "_original"
            files created by exiftool.  They have no effect on files without
            an "_original" copy.  The -restore_original option restores the
            specified files from their original copies by renaming the
            "_original" files to replace the edited versions.  For example,
            the following command restores the originals of all .jpeg images
            in directory "DIR":

                exiftool -restore_original -ext jpg DIR

            The -delete_original option deletes the "_original" copies of all
            files specified on the command line.  Without a trailing "!" this
            option prompts for confirmation before continuing.  For example,
            the following command deletes "a.jpg_original" if it exists, after
            asking "Are you sure?":

                exiftool -delete_original a.jpg

            These options may not be used with other options to read or write
            tag values in the same command, but may be combined with options
            such -ext, -if, -r, -q and -v.

       Other options

       -@ ARGFILE
            Read command-line arguments from the specified file.  The file
            contains one argument per line (NOT one option per line -- some
            options require additional arguments which must be placed on
            separate lines).  Blank lines and lines beginning with "#" and are
            ignored.  Normal shell processing of arguments is not performed,
            which among other things means that arguments should not be
            quoted.  ARGFILE may exist relative to either the current
            directory or the exiftool directory unless an absolute pathname is
            given.

            For example, the following ARGFILE will set the value of Copyright
            to "Copyright YYYY, Phil Harvey", where "YYYY" is the year of
            CreateDate:

                -d
                %Y
                -copyright<Copyright $createdate, Phil Harvey

       -k (-pause)
            Pause with the message "-- press any key --" or "-- press RETURN
            --" (depending on your system) before terminating.  This option is
            used to prevent the command window from closing when run as a
            Windows drag and drop application.

       -list, -listw, -listf, -listr, -listwf, -listg[NUM], -listd, -listx
            Print a list of all valid tag names (-list), all writable tag
            names (-listw), all supported file extensions (-listff), all
            recognized file extensions (-listr), all writable file extensions
            (-listwf), all tag groups [in a specified family] (-listg[NUM]),
            all deletable tag groups (-listd), or an XML database of tag
            details (-listx).  The -list, -listw and -listx options may be
            followed by an additional argument of the form "-GROUP:All" to
            list all tags in a specific group, where "GROUP" is one or more
            family 0-2 group names (excepting EXIF IFD groups) separated by
            colons.  With -listg, NUM may be given to specify the group
            family, otherwise family 0 is assumed.  When combined with -listx,
            the -s option shortens the output by omitting the descriptions and
            values, and -f adds a 'flags' attribute.  Here are some examples:

                -list               # list all tag names
                -list -EXIF:All     # list all EXIF tags
                -list -xmp:time:all # list all XMP tags relating to time
                -listw -XMP-dc:All  # list all writable XMP-dc tags
                -listf              # list all supported file extensions
                -listr              # list all recognized file extensions
                -listwf             # list all writable file extensions
                -listg1             # list all groups in family 1
                -listd              # list all deletable groups
                -listx -EXIF:All    # list database of EXIF tags in XML format
                -listx -XMP:All -s  # list short XML database of XMP tags

            Note that none of the -list options require an input FILE.

       -ver Print exiftool version number.

       Advanced options

       Among other things, the advanced options allow complex processing to be
       performed from a single command without the need for additional
       scripting.  This may be particularly useful for implementations such as
       Windows drag-and-drop applications.  These options may also be used to
       improve performance in multi-pass processing by reducing the overhead
       required to load exiftool for each invocation.

       -common_args
            Specifies that all arguments following this option are common to
            all executed commands when -execute is used.  This and the -config
            option are the only options that may not be used inside a -@
            ARGFILE.

       -config CFGFILE
            Load specified configuration file instead of the default
            ".ExifTool_config".  If used, this option must come before all
            other arguments on the command line.  The CFGFILE name may contain
            a directory specification (otherwise the file must exist in the
            current directory), or may be set to an empty string ("") to
            disable loading of the config file.  See the sample configuration
            file and "config.html" in the full ExifTool distribution for more
            information about the ExifTool configuration file.

       -execute
            Execute command for all arguments up to this point on the command
            line.  Allows multiple commands to be executed from a single
            command line.

       -srcfile FMT
            Specify a different source file to be processed based on the name
            of the original FILE.  This may be useful in some special
            situations for processing related preview images or sidecar files.
            See the -w option for a description of the FMT syntax.  Note that
            file name FMT strings for all options are based on the original
            FILE specified from the command line, not the name of the source
            file specified by -srcfile.

       -stay_open FLAG
            If FLAG is 1 or "True", causes exiftool keep reading from the -@
            ARGFILE even after reaching the end of file.  This feature allows
            calling applications to pre-load exiftool, thus avoiding the
            overhead of loading exiftool for each command.  The procedure is
            as follows:

            1) Execute "exiftool -stay_open True -@ ARGFILE", where ARGFILE is
            the name of an existing (possibly empty) argument file or "-" to
            pipe arguments from the standard input.

            2) Write exiftool command-line arguments to ARGFILE, one argument
            per line (see the -@ option for details).

            3) Write "-execute\n" to ARGFILE, where "\n" represents a newline
            sequence.  (Note: You may need to flush your write buffers here if
            using buffered output.)  Exiftool will then execute the command
            with the arguments received up to this point, send a "{ready}"
            message to stdout when done (unless the -q option is used), and
            continue trying to read arguments for the next command from
            ARGFILE.

            4) Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each command.

            5) Write "-stay_open\nFalse\n" to ARGFILE when done.  This will
            cause exiftool to process any remaining arguments then exit
            normally.

            The input ARGFILE may be changed at any time before step 5 above
            by writing the following lines to the currently open ARGFILE:

                -stay_open
                True
                -@
                NEWARGFILE

            This causes ARGFILE to be closed, and NEWARGFILE to be kept open.
            (Without the -stay_open here, exiftool would have returned to
            reading arguments from ARGFILE after reaching the end of
            NEWARGFILE.)

READING EXAMPLES

       Note: Beware when cutting and pasting these examples into your
       terminal!  Some characters such as single and double quotes and hyphens
       may have been changed into similar-looking but functionally-different
       characters by the text formatter used to display this documentation.
       Also note that Windows users must use double quotes instead of single
       quotes as below around arguments containing special characters.

       exiftool -a -u -g1 a.jpg
            Print all meta information in an image, including duplicate and
            unknown tags, sorted by group (for family 1).

       exiftool -common dir
            Print common meta information for all images in "dir".

       exiftool -T -createdate -aperture -shutterspeed -iso dir > out.txt
            List specified meta information in tab-delimited column form for
            all images in "dir" to an output text file named "out.txt".

       exiftool -s -ImageSize -ExposureTime b.jpg
            Print ImageSize and ExposureTime tag names and values.

       exiftool -l -canon c.jpg d.jpg
            Print standard Canon information from two image files.

       exiftool -r -w .txt -common pictures
            Recursively extract common meta information from files in
            "pictures" directory, writing text output to ".txt" files with the
            same names.

       exiftool -b -ThumbnailImage image.jpg > thumbnail.jpg
            Save thumbnail image from "image.jpg" to a file called
            "thumbnail.jpg".

       exiftool -b -JpgFromRaw -w _JFR.JPG -ext CRW -r .
            Recursively extract JPG image from all Canon CRW files in the
            current directory, adding "_JFR.JPG" for the name of the output
            JPG files.

       exiftool -d '%r %a, %B %e, %Y' -DateTimeOriginal -S -s *.jpg
            Print formatted date/time for all JPG files in the current
            directory.

       exiftool -IFD1:XResolution -IFD1:YResolution image.jpg
            Extract image resolution from EXIF IFD1 information (thumbnail
            image IFD).

       exiftool '-*resolution*' image.jpg
            Extract all tags with names containing the word "Resolution" from
            an image.

       exiftool -xmp:author:all -a image.jpg
            Extract all author-related XMP information from an image.

       exiftool -xmp -b a.jpg > out.xmp
            Extract complete XMP data record intact from "a.jpg" and write it
            to "out.xmp" using the special "XMP" tag (see the Extra tags in
            Image::ExifTool::TagNames).

       exiftool -p '$filename has date $dateTimeOriginal' -q -f dir
            Print one line of output containing the file name and
            DateTimeOriginal for each image in directory "dir".

       exiftool -ee -p '$gpslatitude, $gpslongitude, $gpstimestamp' a.m2ts
            Extract all GPS positions from an AVCHD video.

       exiftool -icc_profile -b -w icc image.jpg
            Save complete ICC_Profile from an image to an output file with the
            same name and an extension of ".icc".

       exiftool -htmldump -w tmp/%f_%e.html t/images
            Generate HTML pages from a hex dump of EXIF information in all
            images from the "t/images" directory.  The output HTML files are
            written to the "tmp" directory (which is created if it didn't
            exist), with names of the form 'FILENAME_EXT.html'.

WRITING EXAMPLES

       Note that quotes are necessary around arguments which contain certain
       special characters such as ">", "<" or any white space.  These quoting
       techniques are shell dependent, but the examples below will work for
       most Unix shells.  With the Windows cmd shell however, double quotes
       should be used (ie. -Comment="This is a new comment").

       exiftool -Comment='This is a new comment' dst.jpg
            Write new comment to a JPG image (replaces any existing comment).

       exiftool -comment= -o newdir *.jpg
            Remove comment from all JPG images in the current directory,
            writing the modified images to a new directory.

       exiftool -keywords=EXIF -keywords=editor dst.jpg
            Replace existing keyword list with two new keywords ("EXIF" and
            "editor").

       exiftool -Keywords+=word -o newfile.jpg src.jpg
            Copy a source image to a new file, and add a keyword ("word") to
            the current list of keywords.

       exiftool -credit-=xxx dir
            Delete Credit information from all files in a directory where the
            Credit value was ("xxx").

       exiftool -xmp:description-de='k&uuml;hl' -E dst.jpg
            Write alternate language for XMP:Description, using HTML character
            escaping to input special characters.

       exiftool -all= dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information from an image.  Note: You should NOT
            do this to RAW images (except DNG) since proprietary RAW image
            formats often contain information in the makernotes that is
            necessary for converting the image.

       exiftool -all= -comment='lonely' dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information from an image and add a comment back
            in.  (Note that the order is important: "-comment='lonely' -all="
            would also delete the new comment.)

       exiftool -all= --jfif:all dst.jpg
            Delete all meta information except JFIF group from an image.

       exiftool -Photoshop:All= dst.jpg
            Delete Photoshop meta information from an image (note that the
            Photoshop information also includes IPTC).

       exiftool -r -XMP-crss:all= DIR
            Recursively delete all XMP-crss information from images in a
            directory.

       exiftool '-ThumbnailImage<=thumb.jpg' dst.jpg
            Set the thumbnail image from specified file (Note: The quotes are
            neccessary to prevent shell redirection).

       exiftool '-JpgFromRaw<=%d%f_JFR.JPG' -ext CRW -r .
            Recursively write JPEG images with filenames ending in "_JFR.JPG"
            to the JpgFromRaw tag of like-named files with extension ".CRW" in
            the current directory.  (This is the inverse of the "-JpgFromRaw"
            command of the "READING EXAMPLES" section above.)

       exiftool -DateTimeOriginal-='0:0:0 1:30:0' dir
            Adjust original date/time of all images in directory "dir" by
            subtracting one hour and 30 minutes.  (This is equivalent to
            "-DateTimeOriginal-=1.5".  See Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl for
            details.)

       exiftool -createdate+=3 -modifydate+=3 a.jpg b.jpg
            Add 3 hours to the CreateDate and ModifyDate timestamps of two
            images.

       exiftool -AllDates+=1:30 -if '$make eq "Canon"' dir
            Shift the values of DateTimeOriginal, CreateDate and ModifyDate
            forward by 1 hour and 30 minutes for all Canon images in a
            directory.  (The AllDates tag is provided as a shortcut for these
            three tags, allowing them to be accessed via a single tag.)

       exiftool -xmp:city=Kingston image1.jpg image2.nef
            Write a tag to the XMP group of two images.  (Without the "xmp:"
            this tag would get written to the IPTC group since "City" exists
            in both, and IPTC is preferred by default.)

       exiftool -LightSource-='Unknown (0)' dst.tiff
            Delete "LightSource" tag only if it is unknown with a value of 0.

       exiftool -whitebalance-=auto -WhiteBalance=tung dst.jpg
            Set "WhiteBalance" to "Tungsten" only if it was previously "Auto".

       exiftool -comment-= -comment='new comment' a.jpg
            Write a new comment only if the image doesn't have one already.

       exiftool -o %d%f.xmp dir
            Create XMP meta information data files for all images in "dir".

       exiftool -o test.xmp -owner=Phil -title='XMP File'
            Create an XMP data file only from tags defined on the command
            line.

       exiftool '-ICC_Profile<=%d%f.icc' image.jpg
            Write ICC_Profile to an image from a ".icc" file of the same name.

       exiftool -hierarchicalkeywords='{keyword=one,children={keyword=B}}'
            Write structured XMP information.

       exiftool -trailer:all= image.jpg
            Delete any trailer found after the end of image (EOI) in a JPEG
            file.  A number of digital cameras store a large PreviewImage
            after the JPEG EOI, and the file size may be reduced significantly
            by deleting this trailer.  See the JPEG Tags documentation for a
            list of recognized JPEG trailers.

COPYING EXAMPLES

       These examples demonstrate the ability to copy tag values between
       files.

       exiftool -tagsFromFile src.crw dst.jpg
            Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.crw" to "dst.jpg",
            writing the information to the preferred groups.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.jpg
            Copy the values of all writable tags from "src.jpg" to "dst.jpg",
            preserving the original tag groups.

       exiftool -all= -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all dst.jpg
            Erase all meta information from "dst.jpg" image, then copy EXIF
            tags from "src.jpg".

       exiftool -exif:all= -tagsfromfile @ -all:all -unsafe bad.jpg
            Rebuild all EXIF meta information from scratch in an image.  This
            technique can be used in JPEG images to repair corrupted EXIF
            information which otherwise could not be written due to errors.
            The "Unsafe" tag is a shortcut for unsafe EXIF tags in JPEG images
            which are not normally copied.  See the tag name documentation for
            more details about unsafe tags.

       exiftool -Tagsfromfile a.jpg out.xmp
            Copy meta information from "a.jpg" to an XMP data file.  If the
            XMP data file "out.xmp" already exists, it will be updated with
            the new information.  Otherwise the XMP data file will be created.
            Only XMP, ICC and MIE files may be created like this (other file
            types may be edited but not created).  See "WRITING EXAMPLES"
            above for another technique to generate XMP files.

       exiftool -tagsFromFile a.jpg -XMP:All= -ThumbnailImage= -m b.jpg
            Copy all meta information from "a.jpg" to "b.jpg", deleting all
            XMP information and the thumbnail image from the destination.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -title -author=Phil dst.jpg
            Copy title from one image to another and set a new author name.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile a.jpg -ISO -TagsFromFile b.jpg -comment dst.jpg
            Copy ISO from one image and Comment from another image to a
            destination image.

       exiftool -tagsfromfile src.jpg -exif:all --subifd:all dst.jpg
            Copy only the EXIF information from one image to another,
            excluding SubIFD tags.

       exiftool '-DateTimeOriginal>FileModifyDate' dir
            Use the original date from the meta information to set the same
            file's filesystem modification date for all images in a directory.
            (Note that "-TagsFromFile @" is assumed if no other -TagsFromFile
            is specified when redirecting information as in this example.)

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg '-all>xmp:all' dst.jpg
            Copy all possible information from "src.jpg" and write in XMP
            format to "dst.jpg".

       exiftool -@ iptc2xmp.args -iptc:all= a.jpg
            Translate IPTC information to XMP with appropriate tag name
            conversions, and delete the original IPTC information from an
            image.  This example uses iptc2xmp.args, which is a file included
            with the ExifTool distribution that contains the required
            arguments to convert IPTC information to XMP format.  Also
            included with the distribution are xmp2iptc.args (which performs
            the inverse conversion) and a few more .args files for other
            conversions between EXIF, IPTC and XMP.

       exiftool -tagsfromfile %d%f.CRW -r -ext JPG dir
            Recursively rewrite all "JPG" images in "dir" with information
            copied from the corresponding "CRW" images in the same
            directories.

       exiftool '-make+>keywords' image.jpg
            Add camera make to list of keywords.

       exiftool '-comment<ISO=$exif:iso Exposure=${shutterspeed}' dir
            Set the Comment tag of all images in "dir" from the values of the
            EXIF:ISO and ShutterSpeed tags.  The resulting comment will be in
            the form "ISO=100 Exposure=1/60".

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -icc_profile dst.jpg
            Copy ICC_Profile from one image to another.

       exiftool -TagsFromFile src.jpg -all:all dst.mie
            Copy all meta information in its original form from a JPEG image
            to a MIE file.  The MIE file will be created if it doesn't exist.
            This technique can be used to store the metadata of an image so it
            can be inserted back into the image (with the inverse command)
            later in a workflow.

       exiftool -o dst.mie -all:all src.jpg
            This command performs exactly the same task as the command above,
            except that the -o option will not write to an output file that
            already exists.

       exiftool -XMP:Flash="{mode=on,fired=true,return=not}" a.jpg
            Write a structured tag.  See
            <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/struct.html> for more
            details.

       exiftool -if '$jpgfromraw' -b -jpgfromraw -w %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute -if
       '$previewimage' -b -previewimage -w %d%f_%ue.jpg -execute -tagsfromfile
       @ -srcfile %d%f_%ue.jpg -overwrite_original -common_args --ext jpg DIR
            [Advanced] Extract JpgFromRaw or PreviewImage from all but JPG
            files in DIR, saving them with file names like "image_EXT.jpg",
            then add all meta information from the original files to the
            extracted images.  Here, the command line is broken into three
            sections (separated by -execute options), and each is executed as
            if it were a separate command.  The -common_args option causes the
            "--ext jpg DIR" arguments to be applied to all three commands, and
            the -srcfile option allows the extracted JPG image to be the
            source file for the third command (whereas the RAW files are the
            source files for the other two commands).

RENAMING EXAMPLES

       By writing the "FileName" and "Directory" tags, files are renamed
       and/or moved to new directories.  This can be particularly useful and
       powerful for organizing files by date when combined with the -d option.
       New directories are created as necessary, but existing files will not
       be overwritten.  The format codes %d, %f and %e may be used in the new
       file name to represent the directory, name and extension of the
       original file, and %c may be used to add a copy number if the file
       already exists (see the -w option for details).  Note that if used
       within a date format string, an extra '%' must be added to pass these
       codes through the date/time parser.  (And further note that in a
       Windows batch file, all '%' characters must also be escaped, so in this
       extreme case '%%%%f' is necessary to pass a simple '%f' through the two
       levels of parsing.)  See
       <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/filename.html> for additional
       documentation and examples.

       exiftool -filename=new.jpg dir/old.jpg
            Rename "old.jpg" to "new.jpg" in directory "dir".

       exiftool -directory=%e dir
            Move all files from directory "dir" into directories named by the
            original file extensions.

       exiftool '-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
            Move all files in "dir" into a directory hierarchy based on year,
            month and day of "DateTimeOriginal".  ie) This command would move
            the file "dir/image.jpg" with a "DateTimeOriginal" of "2005:10:12
            16:05:56" to "2005/10/12/image.jpg".

       exiftool -o . '-Directory<DateTimeOriginal' -d %Y/%m/%d dir
            Same effect as above except files are copied instead of moved.

       exiftool '-filename<%f_${focallength}.%e' dir
            Rename all files in "dir" by adding FocalLength to the file name.

       exiftool '-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y%m%d_%H%M%S%%-c.%%e dir
            Rename all images in "dir" according to the "CreateDate" date and
            time, adding a copy number with leading '-' if the file already
            exists ("%-c"), and preserving the original file extension (%e).
            Note the extra '%' necessary to escape the filename codes (%c and
            %e) in the date format string.

       exiftool -r '-FileName<CreateDate' -d %Y-%m-%d/%H%M_%%f.%%e dir
            Both the directory and the filename may be changed together via
            the "FileName" tag if the new "FileName" contains a '/'.  The
            example above recursively renames all images in a directory by
            adding a "CreateDate" timestamp to the start of the filename, then
            moves them into new directories named by date.

       exiftool '-FileName<${CreateDate}_$filenumber.jpg' -d %Y%m%d *.jpg
            Set the filename of all JPG images in the current directory from
            the CreateDate and FileNumber tags, in the form
            "20060507_118-1861.jpg".

GEOTAGGING EXAMPLES

       ExifTool implements geotagging via 3 special tags: Geotag (which for
       convenience is also implemented as an exiftool option), Geosync and
       Geotime.  The examples below highlight some geotagging features.  See
       <http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/geotag.html> for additional
       documentation.

       exiftool -geotag track.log a.jpg
            Geotag an image ("a.jpg") from position information in a GPS track
            log ("track.log").  Since the "Geotime" tag is not specified, the
            value of DateTimeOriginal is used for geotagging.  Local system
            time is assumed unless DateTimeOriginal contains a timezone.

       exiftool -geotag t.log -geotime='2009:04:02 13:41:12-05:00' a.jpg
            Geotag an image with the GPS position for a specific time.  (Note
            that the "Geotag" tag must be assigned before "Geotime" for the
            GPS data to be available when "Geotime" is set.)

       exiftool -geotag log.gpx '-xmp:geotime<createdate' dir
            Geotag all images in directory "dir" with XMP tags instead of EXIF
            tags, based on the image CreateDate.  (In this case, the order of
            the arguments doesn't matter because tags with values copied from
            other tags are always set after constant values.)

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geosync=-20 dir
            Geotag images in directory "dir", accounting for image timestamps
            which were 20 seconds ahead of GPS.

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geosync=1.jpg -geosync=2.jpg dir
            Geotag images using time synchronization from two previously
            geotagged images (1.jpg and 2.jpg), synchronizing the image and
            GPS times using a linear time drift correction.

       exiftool -geotag a.log '-geotime<${createdate}+01:00' dir
            Geotag images in "dir" using CreateDate with the specified
            timezone.  If CreateDate already contained a timezone, then the
            timezone specified on the command line is ignored.

       exiftool -geotag= a.jpg
            Delete GPS tags which may have been added by the geotag feature.
            Note that this does not remove all GPS tags -- to do this instead
            use "-gps:all=".

       exiftool -xmp:geotag= a.jpg
            Delete XMP GPS tags which were added by the geotag feature.

       exiftool -xmp:geotag=track.log a.jpg
            Geotag an image with XMP tags, using the time from
            DateTimeOriginal.

       exiftool -geotag a.log -geotag b.log -r dir
            Combine multiple track logs and geotag an entire directory tree of
            images.

       exiftool -geotag 'tracks/*.log' -r dir
            Read all track logs from the "tracks" directory.

       exiftool -p gpx.fmt -d %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ dir > out.gpx
            Generate a GPX track log from all images in directory "dir".  This
            example uses the "gpx.fmt" file included in the full ExifTool
            distribution package and assumes that the images in "dir" have all
            been previously geotagged.

PIPING EXAMPLES

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -
            Extract information from stdin.

       exiftool image.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -
            Extract information from an embedded thumbnail image.

       cat a.jpg | exiftool -iptc:keywords+=fantastic - > b.jpg
            Add an IPTC keyword in a pipeline, saving output to a new file.

       wget -qO - http://a.domain.com/bigfile.jpg | exiftool -fast -
            Extract information from an image over the internet using the GNU
            wget utility.  The -fast option prevents exiftool from scanning
            for trailer information, so only the meta information header is
            transferred.

       exiftool a.jpg -thumbnailimage -b | exiftool -comment=wow - | exiftool
       a.jpg -thumbnailimage'<=-'
            Add a comment to an embedded thumbnail image.  (Why anyone would
            want to do this I don't know, but I've included this as an example
            to illustrate the flexibility of ExifTool.)

DIAGNOSTICS

       The exiftool application exits with a status of 0 on success, or 1 if
       an error occured or if all files failed the -if condition.

AUTHOR

       Copyright 2003-2011, Phil Harvey

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO

       Image::ExifTool(3pm), Image::ExifTool::TagNames(3pm),
       Image::ExifTool::Shortcuts(3pm), Image::ExifTool::Shift.pl