Provided by: findimagedupes_2.18-4build2_amd64 bug


       findimagedupes - Finds visually similar or duplicate images


       findimagedupes [option ...] [--] [ - | [file ...] ]

             -f, --fingerprints=FILE    -c, --collection=FILE
             -M, --merge=FILE           -p, --program=PROGRAM
             -P, --prune                -s, --script=FILE
             -a, --add                  -i, --include=TEXT
             -r, --rescan               -I, --include-file=FILE
             -n, --no-compare
                                        -q, --quiet
             -t, --threshold=AMOUNT     -v, --verbosity=LIST

             -0, --null                 -h, --help
             -R, --recurse                  --man

       With no options, compares the specified files and does not use nor update any fingerprint

       Directories of images may be specified instead of individual files; Sub-directories of
       these are not searched unless --recurse is used.


       -0, --null
               If a file "-" is given, a list of files is read from stdin.

               Without -0, the list is specified one file per line, such as produced by find(1)
               with its "-print" option.

               With -0, the list is expected to be null-delimited, such as produced by find(1)
               with its "-print0" option.

       -a, --add
               Only look for duplicates of files specified on the commandline.

               Matches are also sought in any fingerprint databases specified.

       -c, --collection=FILE
               Create GQView collection FILE.gqv of duplicates.

               The program attempts to produce well-formed collections.  In particular, it will
               print a warning and exclude any file whose name contains newline or doublequote.
               (In this situation, gqview(1) seems to create a .gqv collection file that it
               silently fails to read back in properly.)

       -d, --debug=OPTS
               Enable debugging output. Options OPTS are subject to change.  See the program
               source for details.

       -f, --fingerprints=FILE
               Use FILE as fingerprint database.

               May be abbreviated as --fp or --db.

               This option may be given multiple times when --merge is used.  (Note: FILE could
               contain commas, so multiple databases may not be specified as a single comma-
               delimited list.)

       -h, --help
               Print usage and option sections of this manual.

       -i, --include=TEXT
               TEXT is Bourne-shell code to customise --script.

               It is executed after any code included using --include-file.

               May be given multiple times. Code will be concatenated.

       -I, --include-file=FILE
               FILE is a file containing Bourne-shell code to customise --script.

               It is executed before any code included using --include.

       --man   Display the full documentation, using default pager.

               Takes any databases specified with --fingerprints and merges them into a new
               database called FILE.  Conflicting fingerprints for an image will cause one of two
               actions to occur:

               1.  If the image does not exist, then the entry is elided.

               2.  If the image does exist, then the old information is ignored and a new
                   fingerprint is generated from scratch.

               By default, image existence is not checked unless there is a conflict.  To force
               removal of defunct data, use --prune as well.

               A list of image files is not required if this option is used.  However, if a list
               is provided, fingerprint data for the files will be copied or (re)generated as

               When --merge is used, the original fingerprint databases are not modified, even if
               --prune is used.

               See also: --rescan

       -n, --no-compare
               Don't look for duplicates.

       -p, --program=PROGRAM
               Launch PROGRAM (in foreground) to view each set of dupes.

               PROGRAM must be the full path to an existing executable file.  For more
               flexibility, see the --include and --include-file options.

               See also: --script

       --prune Remove fingerprint data for images that do not exist any more.  Has no effect
               unless --fingerprints or --merge is also used.

               Databases specified by --fingerprints are only modified if --merge is not used.

       -q, --quiet
               This option may be given multiple times.

               Usually, progress, warning and error messages are printed on stderr.  If this
               option is given, warnings are not displayed.  If it is given twice or more, errors
               are not displayed either.

               Information requested with --verbosity is still displayed.

       -R, --recurse
               Use --recurse to search recursively for images inside subdirectories. For
               historical reasons, the default is to not do so.  To avoid looping, symbolic links
               to directories are never followed.

       -r, --rescan
               (Re)generate all fingerprints, not just any that are unknown.

               If used with --add, only the fingerprints of files specified on the commandline
               are (re)generated.

               Implies --prune.

       -s, --script=FILE
               When used with --program, PROGRAM is not launched immediately.  Instead
               sh(1)-style commands are saved to FILE.  This script may be edited (if desired)
               and then executed manually.

               When used without --program, two skeletal shell functions are generated: "VIEW"
               simply echo(1)s its arguments; the empty function "END" runs after files-
               processing is finished.

               To display to terminal (or feed into a pipe), use "-" as FILE.

               If --script is not given, the script is still created in memory and is executed
               immediately. So, with the default VIEW and END functions, lines containing sets of
               duplicates are displayed. See: EXAMPLES

               See also: --include, --include-file

       -t, --threshold=AMOUNT
               Use AMOUNT as threshold of similarity.  Append "%" to give a percentage or "b" for
               bits.  For backwards compatibility, a number with no unit is treated as a
               percentage. Percentage is the minimum required for a match; bits is the maximum
               that may differ: bits=floor(2.56(100-percent))

               A fractional part may be given but it is only accurate to 100/256 (0.390625) for
               percentage and it is meaningless for "bits".  Default is "90%" ("25b") if not

       -v, --verbosity=LIST
               Enable display of informational messages to stdout, where LIST is a comma-
               delimited list of:

               md5     Display the checksum for each file, as per md5sum(1).

               fingerprint | fp
                       Display the base64-encoded fingerprint of each file.

               Alternatively, --verbosity may be given multiple times, and accumulates.  Note
               that this may not be sensible. For example, to be useful, md5 output probably
               should not be merged with fingerprint data.


       findimagedupes compares a list of files for visual similarity.

       To calculate an image fingerprint:
         1) Read image.
         2) Resample to 160x160 to standardize size.
         3) Grayscale by reducing saturation.
         4) Blur a lot to get rid of noise.
         5) Normalize to spread out intensity as much as possible.
         6) Equalize to make image as contrasty as possible.
         7) Resample again down to 16x16.
         8) Reduce to 1bpp.
         9) The fingerprint is this raw image data.

       To compare two images for similarity:
         1) Take fingerprint pairs and xor them.
         2) Compute the percentage of 1 bits in the result.
         3) If percentage exceeds threshold, declare files to be similar.


       0   Success.

       1   Usage information was requested (--help or --man), or there were warnings.

       2   Invalid options or arguments were provided.

       3   Runtime error.

       Any other return values indicate an internal error of some sort.


       To be written.


       findimagedupes -R -- .
           Look for and compare images in all subdirectories of the current directory.

       find -type f . -print0 | findimagedupes -0 -- -
           Same as above.

       findimagedupes -i 'echo "# sort: manual"' -i 'VIEW(){ for f in "$@";do echo
       \"file://$f\";done }' -- *.jpg > dupes.gqv
           Use script hooks to produce collection-style output suitable for use with gthumb(1).


       To be written.


       There is a memory leak somewhere.

       Killing the programme may corrupt the fingerprint database(s).

       Changing version of GraphicsMagick invalidates fingerprint databases.


       Directory recursion is deliberately not implemented: Composing a file-list and using it
       with "-" is a more flexible approach.

       Repetitions are culled before comparisons take place, so a commandline like
       "findimagedupes a.jpg a.jpg" will not produce a match.

       The program needs a lot of memory. Probably not an issue, unless your machine has less
       than 128MB of free RAM and you try to compare more than a hundred-thousand files at once
       (and the program will run quite slowly with that many files anyway---about eight hours
       initially to generate fingerprints and another ten minutes to do the actual comparing).


       find(1), md5sum(1)

       gqview - GTK based multiformat image viewer

       gthumb - an image viewer and browser for GNOME


       Jonathan H N Chin <>


        Copyright 2006-2008 by Jonathan H N Chin <>.

        This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify
        it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
        the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or
        (at your option) any later version.

        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
        but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
        GNU General Public License for more details.

        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
        along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
        Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA


       This code has been written from scratch. However it owes its existence to findimagedupes
       by Rob Kudla and uses the same duplicate-detection algorithm.