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       fold - filter for folding lines


       fold [-bs][-w width][file...]


       The  fold  utility  is  a  filter that shall fold lines from its input files, breaking the
       lines to have a maximum of  width  column  positions  (or  bytes,  if  the  -b  option  is
       specified).  Lines  shall  be broken by the insertion of a <newline> such that each output
       line (referred to later in this section as a segment) is the maximum width  possible  that
       does  not  exceed the specified number of column positions (or bytes). A line shall not be
       broken in the middle of a character.  The behavior is undefined if width is less than  the
       number of columns any single character in the input would occupy.

       If  the  <carriage-return>s, <backspace>s, or <tab>s are encountered in the input, and the
       -b option is not specified, they shall be treated specially:

              The current count of line width shall be decremented by  one,  although  the  count
              never  shall  become  negative.  The  fold  utility  shall  not  insert a <newline>
              immediately before or after any <backspace>.


              The current count of line width shall be set to zero. The fold  utility  shall  not
              insert a <newline> immediately before or after any <carriage-return>.

       <tab>  Each  <tab>  encountered  shall advance the column position pointer to the next tab
              stop. Tab stops shall be at each column position n such that n modulo 8 equals 1.


       The fold utility shall conform to the Base  Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -b     Count width in bytes rather than column positions.

       -s     If  a  segment of a line contains a <blank> within the first width column positions
              (or bytes),  break  the  line  after  the  last  such  <blank>  meeting  the  width
              constraints.  If  there is no <blank> meeting the requirements, the -s option shall
              have no effect for that output segment of the input line.

       -w  width
              Specify the maximum line length, in column positions (or bytes if -b is specified).
              The  results are unspecified if width is not a positive decimal number. The default
              value shall be 80.


       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname of a text file to be folded. If no  file  operands  are  specified,  the
              standard input shall be used.


       The  standard  input  shall  be used only if no file operands are specified. See the INPUT
       FILES section.


       If the -b option is specified, the input files shall be text files except that  the  lines
       are  not  limited  to  {LINE_MAX}  bytes in length. If the -b option is not specified, the
       input files shall be text files.


       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of fold:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are  unset  or
              null.  (See  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2,
              Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables
              used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to  a  non-empty  string  value,  override  the  values  of  all the other
              internationalization variables.

              Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
              characters  (for  example,  single-byte  as  opposed  to  multi-byte  characters in
              arguments and input files), and for  the  determination  of  the  width  in  column
              positions each character would occupy on a constant-width font output device.

              Determine  the  locale  that  should  be  used to affect the format and contents of
              diagnostic messages written to standard error.

              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .




       The standard output shall be a file containing a sequence of characters whose order  shall
       be preserved from the input files, possibly with inserted <newline>s.


       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.






       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     All input files were processed successfully.

       >0     An error occurred.



       The following sections are informative.


       The  cut  and  fold utilities can be used to create text files out of files with arbitrary
       line lengths. The cut utility should be used when the number of lines (or  records)  needs
       to  remain  constant. The fold utility should be used when the contents of long lines need
       to be kept contiguous.

       The fold utility is frequently used to send text files to printers that  truncate,  rather
       than  fold,  lines  wider  than  the  printer  is  able to print (usually 80 or 132 column


       An example invocation that submits a file of possibly long lines to the printer (under the
       assumption that the user knows the line width of the printer to be assigned by lp):

              fold -w 132 bigfile | lp


       Although  terminal  input  in  canonical  processing  mode  requires  the  erase character
       (frequently set to <backspace>) to erase  the  previous  character  (not  byte  or  column
       position),  terminal output is not buffered and is extremely difficult, if not impossible,
       to parse correctly; the interpretation  depends  entirely  on  the  physical  device  that
       actually    displays/prints/stores    the   output.   In   all   known   internationalized
       implementations, the utilities producing output for mixed column-width output assume  that
       a  <backspace>  backs  up one column position and outputs enough <backspace>s to return to
       the start of the character when <backspace> is used  to  provide  local  line  motions  to
       support  underlining  and  emboldening  operations.  Since  fold  without the -b option is
       dealing with these same constraints, <backspace> is  always  treated  as  backing  up  one
       column position rather than backing up one character.

       Historical  versions of the fold utility assumed 1 byte was one character and occupied one
       column position when written out. This is no longer always true.  Since  the  most  common
       usage  of  fold  is  believed to be folding long lines for output to limited-length output
       devices, this capability was preserved as the default case. The -b  option  was  added  so
       that  applications could fold files with arbitrary length lines into text files that could
       then be processed by the standard utilities. Note that  although  the  width  for  the  -b
       option  is  in  bytes,  a  line  is  never  split  in  the  middle of a character.  (It is
       unspecified what happens if a width is specified that  is  too  small  to  hold  a  single
       character found in the input followed by a <newline>.)

       The  tab stops are hardcoded to be every eighth column to meet historical practice. No new
       method of specifying other tab stops was invented.






       Portions of this text are reprinted and  reproduced  in  electronic  form  from  IEEE  Std
       1003.1,  2003  Edition,  Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The
       original Standard can be obtained online at .