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GRASS GIS 6.4.1 Reference Manual

       Geographic  Resources  Analysis  Support  System,  commonly  referred to as GRASS, is a <a
       href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system">Geographic   Information
       System  (GIS)  used  for  geospatial  data  management  and  analysis,  image  processing,
       graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used  in
       academic  and  commercial  settings  around  the  world,  as  well as by many governmental
       agencies and environmental consulting companies.

       This reference manual details the use of modules  distributed  with  Geographic  Resources
       Analysis  Support  System  (GRASS),  an  open  source  (GNU  GPL'ed), image processing and
       geographic information system (GIS).  Go back to help overview

   Full command index:
       [ v.* ]
            |   d.*   | display commands
            |   db.*  | database commands
            |   g.*   | general commands
            |   i.*   | imagery commands
            |   m.*   | miscellaneous commands
            |   ps.*  | postscript commands
            |   r.*   | raster commands
            |   r3.*  | raster3D commands
            |   v.*   | vector commands
            |   gis.m      | GUI frontend to GIS menus and display
            |   nviz  | visualization suite
            |   wxGUI      | wxPython-based GUI frontend
            |   xganim     | raster map slideshow

   d.* commands:
            | d.ask   | Prompts the user to select a  GRASS  data  base  file  from  among  files
       displayed in a menu on the graphics monitor.
            | d.barscale   | Displays a barscale on the graphics monitor.
            |  d.colorlist   |  Output a list of all available display colors with a configurable
       separator (default is comma).
            | d.colors     | Allows the user to interactively change the color table of a  raster
       map layer displayed on the graphics monitor.
            | d.colortable      | Displays the color table associated with a raster map layer.
            | d.correlate  | Prints a graph of the correlation between data layers (in pairs).
            |  d.erase       |  Erase  the contents of the active display frame with user defined
       color
            | d.extend     | Sets window region so that all currently displayed raster and vector
       maps can be shown in a monitor.
            | d.extract    | Selects and extracts vectors with mouse into new vector map.
            |  d.font   | Selects the font in which text will be displayed on the user's graphics
       monitor.
            | d.frame      | Manages display frames on the user's graphics monitor.
            | d.geodesic   | Displays a geodesic line, tracing the shortest distance between  two
       geographic points along a great circle, in a longitude/latitude data set.
            | d.graph      | Program for generating and displaying simple graphics on the display
       monitor.
            | d.grid  | Overlays a user-specified  grid  in  the  active  display  frame  on  the
       graphics monitor.
            |  d.his   | Displays the result obtained by combining hue, intensity, and saturation
       (his) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
            | d.histogram  | Displays a histogram in the form of a pie or bar chart for  a  user-
       specified raster map.
            | d.info  | Display information about the active display monitor
            |  d.labels      | Displays text labels (created with v.label) to the active frame on
       the graphics monitor.
            | d.legend     | Displays a legend for a raster  map  in  the  active  frame  of  the
       graphics monitor.
            |  d.linegraph   |  Generates  and displays simple line graphs in the active graphics
       monitor display frame.
            | d.m     | Display manager for GRASS
            | d.mapgraph   | Generates and displays simple graphics on map layers  drawn  in  the
       active graphics monitor display frame.
            |  d.measure    | Measures the lengths and areas of features drawn by the user in the
       active display frame on the graphics monitor.
            | d.menu  | Creates and displays a menu within  the  active  frame  on  the  graphics
       monitor.
            | d.mon   | To establish and control use of a graphics display monitor.
            | d.monsize    | Selects/starts specified monitor at specified size
            | d.mvmon      | Moves displayed maps to another monitor
            | d.nviz  | Creates fly-through script to run in NVIZ.
            | d.out.file   | Saves the contents of the active display monitor to a graphics file.
            | d.out.gpsdrive    | Export display monitor to a GpsDrive compatible backdrop image
            | d.out.png    | Saves active display monitor to PNG file in home directory
            | d.path  | Finds shortest path for selected starting and ending node.
            | d.polar      | Draws polar diagram of angle map such as aspect or flow directions
            | d.profile    | Interactive profile plotting utility with optional output.
            |  d.rast.arrow       |  Draws arrows representing cell aspect direction for a raster
       map containing aspect data.
            | d.rast.edit  | Interactively edit cell values in a raster map.
            | d.rast  | Displays user-specified raster map in the active graphics frame.
            | d.rast.leg   | Displays a raster map and its legend on a graphics window
            | d.rast.num   | Overlays cell category values on a raster map layer displayed to the
       graphics monitor.
            | d.redraw     | Redraws the current display frame in the GRASS monitor
            | d.resize     | Resizes active display monitor
            |  d.rgb    |  Displays  three  user-specified  raster  maps  as red, green, and blue
       overlays in the active graphics frame.
            | d.rhumbline  | Displays the rhumbline joining two  user-specified  points,  in  the
       active frame on the user's graphics monitor.
            | d.save  | Creates a list of commands for recreating screen graphics.
            | d.shadedmap  | Drapes a color raster over a shaded relief map using d.his
            | d.slide.show      | Slide show of GRASS raster/vector maps.
            | d.split.frame     | Split the display into subframes.
            |  d.split       |  Divides  active  display into two frames & displays maps/executes
       commands in each frame.
            | d.text  | Draws text in the active display frame on the graphics monitor using  the
       current font.
            |  d.thematic.area   | Displays a thematic vector area map in the active frame on the
       graphics monitor.
            | d.title      | Create a TITLE for a raster map in a form suitable for display  with
       d.text.
            |  d.vect.chart       |  Displays  charts  of  vector data in the active frame on the
       graphics monitor.
            | d.vect  | Displays user-specified vector map in the active graphics frame.
            | d.vect.thematic   | Displays thematic vector map
            | d.what.rast  | Allows the user to interactively  query  the  category  contents  of
       multiple  raster  map  layers  at  user  specified locations within the current geographic
       region.
            | d.what.vect  | Allows the user to interactively query a vector map layer  at  user-
       selected locations within the current geographic region.
            |  d.where       |  Identifies  the  geographic  coordinates  associated  with  point
       locations in the active frame on the graphics monitor.
            | d.zoom  | Allows  the  user  to  change  the  current  geographic  region  settings
       interactively, with a mouse.

   db.* commands:
            | db.columns   | List all columns for a given table.
            | db.connect   | Prints/sets general DB connection for current mapset and exits.
            | db.copy      | Copy a table.
            | db.describe  | Describes a table in detail.
            | db.drivers   | List all database drivers.
            | db.dropcol   | Drops a column from selected attribute table
            | db.droptable      | Drops an attribute table.
            | db.execute   | Executes any SQL statement.
            | db.in.ogr    | Imports attribute tables in various formats.
            | db.login     | Sets user/password for driver/database.
            | db.out.ogr   | Exports attribute tables into various formats.
            | db.select    | Selects data from table.
            | db.tables    | Lists all tables for a given database.
            | db.test      | Test database driver, database must exist and set by db.connect.

   g.* commands:
            | g.access     | Controls access to the current mapset for other users on the system.
            | g.ask   | Prompts the user for the names of GRASS data base files.
            |  g.copy  | Copies available data files in the user's current mapset search path and
       location to the appropriate element directories under the user's current mapset.
            |  g.dirseps     |  Internal  GRASS  utility  for  converting   directory   separator
       characters.
            | g.extension  | Tool to maintain GRASS extensions in local GRASS installation.
            | g.filename   | Prints GRASS data base file names.
            | g.findetc    | Searches for GRASS support files.
            | g.findfile   | Searches for GRASS data base files and sets variables for the shell.
            | g.gisenv     | Outputs and modifies the user's current GRASS variable settings.
            | g.gui   | Launches a GRASS graphical user interface (GUI) session.
            |  g.list  | Lists available GRASS data base files of the user-specified data type to
       standard output.
            | g.manual     | Display the HTML man pages of GRASS
            | g.mapset     | Changes current mapset.
            | g.mapsets    | Modifies the user's current mapset search path.
            | g.message    | Prints a message, warning, progress info,  or  fatal  error  in  the
       GRASS way.
            |   g.mkfontcap   |  Generates  the  font  configuration  file  by  scanning  various
       directories for fonts
            | g.mlist      | Lists available GRASS data base files  of  the  user-specified  data
       type to standard output.
            | g.mremove    | Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.
            | g.parser     | Provides automated parser, GUI, and help support for GRASS scipts.
            | g.pnmcomp    | Overlays multiple PPM image files
            |  g.proj   |  Converts co-ordinate system descriptions (i.e. projection information)
       between various formats (including GRASS format).
            | g.region     | Manages the boundary definitions for the geographic region.
            | g.remove     | Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.
            | g.rename     | Renames data base element files in the user's current mapset.
            | g.setproj    | Interactively reset the location's projection settings.
            | g.tempfile   | Creates a temporary file and prints the file name.
            | g.transform  | Computes a coordinate transformation based on the control points.
            | g.version    | Displays version and copyright information.

   i.* commands:
            | i.atcorr     | Performs atmospheric correction using the 6S algorithm.
            | i.cca   | Canonical components analysis (cca) program for image processing.
            | i.class      | Generates spectral signatures for an image by allowing the  user  to
       outline regions of interest.
            | i.cluster    | Generates spectral signatures for land cover types in an image using
       a clustering algorithm.
            | i.fft   | Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for image processing.
            |  i.fusion.brovey    |  Brovey  transform  to  merge  multispectral   and   high-res
       panchromatic channels
            | i.gensig     | Generates statistics for i.maxlik from raster map.
            | i.gensigset  | Generates statistics for i.smap from raster map.
            | i.group      | Creates, edits, and lists groups and subgroups of imagery files.
            |  i.his.rgb     |  Transforms  raster maps from HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color
       space to RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space.
            | i.ifft  | Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) for image processing.
            | i.image.mosaic    | Mosaics up to  4  images  and  extends  colormap;  creates  map
       *.mosaic
            | i.in.spotvgt      | Import of SPOT VGT NDVI file into a raster map
            | i.landsat.rgb     | Performs auto-balancing of colors for LANDSAT images.
            | i.maxlik     | Classifies the cell spectral reflectances in imagery data.
            | i.oif   | Calculates Optimum-Index-Factor table for LANDSAT TM bands 1-5, & 7
            | i.ortho.photo     | Menu driver for the photo imagery programs.
            | i.pca   | Principal components analysis (PCA) for image processing.
            | i.photo.2image    | Interactively mark fiducial or reseau points on an image.
            | i.photo.2target   | Creates control points on an image to be ortho-rectified.
            |  i.photo.camera     |  Interactively  select  and  modify  the imagery group camera
       reference file.
            | i.photo.init      | Interactively creates or modifies entries in a  camera  initial
       exposure station file for imagery group referenced by a sub-block.
            |  i.photo.rectify   | Orthorectifies an image by using the image to photo coordinate
       transformation matrix.
            | i.points     | Mark ground control points on image to be rectified.
            | i.rectify    | Rectifies an image by computing a coordinate transformation for each
       pixel in the image based on the control points.
            |  i.rgb.his    | Transforms raster maps from RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space to HIS
       (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color space.
            | i.smap  | Performs contextual  image  classification  using  sequential  maximum  a
       posteriori (SMAP) estimation.
            |  i.spectral    | Displays spectral response at user specified locations in group or
       images.
            | i.target     | Targets an imagery group to a GRASS location and mapset.
            | i.tasscap    | Tasseled Cap (Kauth Thomas) transformation for LANDSAT-TM data
            | i.vpoints    | Set registration points for an imagery group from a  vector  map  or
       keyboard entry.
            | i.zc    | Zero-crossing "edge detection" raster function for image processing.

   m.* commands:
            |  m.cogo   |  A  simple  utility for converting bearing and distance measurements to
       coordinates and vice versa.
            | m.proj  | Convert coordinates from one projection to another (cs2cs frontend).

   ps.* commands:
            | ps.map  | Hardcopy PostScript map output utility.

   r.* commands:
            | r.average    | Finds the average of values in a cover map within areas assigned the
       same category value in a user-specified base map.
            | r.basins.fill     | Generates watershed subbasins raster map.
            | r.bilinear   | Bilinear interpolation utility for raster map layers.
            | r.bitpattern      | Compares bit patterns with a raster map.
            | r.blend      | Blends color components of two raster maps by a given ratio.
            |  r.buffer      |  Creates a raster map layer showing buffer zones surrounding cells
       that contain non-NULL category values.
            | r.carve      | Takes vector stream data, transforms  it  to  raster  and  subtracts
       depth from the output DEM.
            |  r.category    |  Manages category values and labels associated with user-specified
       raster map layers.
            | r.circle     | Creates a raster map containing  concentric  rings  around  a  given
       point.
            |  r.clump       |  Recategorizes  data  in  a raster map by grouping cells that form
       physically discrete areas into unique categories.
            | r.coin  | Tabulates the mutual  occurrence  (coincidence)  of  categories  for  two
       raster map layers.
            | r.colors     | Creates/modifies the color table associated with a raster map layer.
            | r.colors.out      | Exports the color table associated with a raster map layer.
            | r.colors.stddev   | Set color rules based on stddev from a map's mean value.
            |  r.composite   |  Combines  red, green and blue raster maps into a single composite
       raster map.
            | r.compress   | Compresses and decompresses raster maps.
            | r.contour    | Produces a vector map of specified contours from a raster map.
            | r.cost  | Creates a raster map  showing  the  cumulative  cost  of  moving  between
       different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent
       cost.
            | r.covar      | Outputs a covariance/correlation matrix  for  user-specified  raster
       map layer(s).
            |  r.cross      | Creates a cross product of the category values from multiple raster
       map layers.
            | r.describe   | Prints terse list of category values found in a raster map layer.
            | r.digit      | Interactive tool used to draw and save vector features on a graphics
       monitor using a pointing device (mouse) and save to a raster map.
            | r.distance   | Locates the closest points between objects in two raster maps.
            | r.drain      | Traces a flow through an elevation model on a raster map.
            | r.external   | Link GDAL supported raster file to a binary raster map layer.
            |  r.fill.dir    |  Filters  and  generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow
       direction map from a given elevation layer.
            | r.fillnulls  |  Fills  no-data  areas  in  raster  maps  using  v.surf.rst  splines
       interpolation
            |  r.flow  | Construction of slope curves (flowlines), flowpath lengths, and flowline
       densities (upslope areas) from a raster digital elevation model (DEM)
            | r.grow.distance   | Generates a raster map layer of distance to features  in  input
       layer.
            | r.grow  | Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.
            | r.gwflow     | Numerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined
       groundwater flow in two dimensions.
            | r.his   | Generates red, green and blue raster map layers combining hue,  intensity
       and saturation (HIS) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
            | r.horizon    | Horizon angle computation from a digital elevation model.
            |  r.in.arc      | Converts an ESRI ARC/INFO ascii raster file (GRID) into a (binary)
       raster map layer.
            | r.in.ascii   | Converts ASCII raster file to binary raster map layer.
            | r.in.aster   | Georeference, rectify and import Terra-ASTER  imagery  and  relative
       DEM's using gdalwarp.
            | r.in.bin     | Import a binary raster file into a GRASS raster map layer.
            | r.in.gdal    | Import GDAL supported raster file into a binary raster map layer.
            | r.in.gridatb      | Imports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into GRASS raster map
            | r.in.mat     | Imports a binary MAT-File(v4) to a GRASS raster.
            | r.in.poly    | Creates raster maps from ASCII polygon/line/point data files.
            | r.in.srtm    | Import SRTM HGT files into GRASS
            | r.in.wms     | Downloads and imports data from WMS servers.
            |  r.in.xyz      |  Create  a raster map from an assemblage of many coordinates using
       univariate statistics.
            | r.info  | Output basic information about a raster map layer.
            | r.kappa      | Calculate error matrix and kappa parameter for  accuracy  assessment
       of classification result.
            | r.lake  | Fills lake from seed at given level.
            |  r.le.patch    |  Calculates  attribute,  patch  size, core (interior) size, shape,
       fractal dimension, and perimeter measures for sets of patches in a landscape.
            | r.le.pixel   | Contains a set  of  measures  for  attributes,  diversity,  texture,
       juxtaposition, and edge.
            |  r.le.setup    | Interactive tool used to setup the sampling and analysis framework
       that will be used by the other r.le programs.
            | r.le.trace   | Displays the boundary of each r.le patch and shows how the  boundary
       is  traced,  displays  the attribute, size, perimeter and shape indices for each patch and
       saves the data in an output file.
            | r.li.cwed    | Calculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map
            | r.li.daemon  | Support module for r.li landscape index calculations.
            | r.li.dominance    | Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.li.edgedensity  | Calculates edge density index  on  a  raster  map,  using  a  4
       neighbour algorithm
            | r.li    | Landscape structure analysis package overview.
            | r.li.mpa     | Calculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map
            |  r.li.mps      |  Calculates  mean  patch  size  index  on  a raster map, using a 4
       neighbour algorithm
            | r.li.padcv   | Calculates coefficient of variation of patch area on a raster map
            | r.li.padrange     | Calculates range of patch area size on a raster map
            | r.li.padsd   | Calculates standard deviation of patch area a raster map
            | r.li.patchdensity      | Calculates patch density index on a raster map, using a  4
       neighbour algorithm
            |  r.li.patchnum      |  Calculates  patch  number  index  on a raster map, using a 4
       neighbour algorithm.
            | r.li.pielou  | Calculates Pielou's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.li.renyi   | Calculates Renyi's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.li.richness     | Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.li.setup   | Configuration editor for r.li.'index'
            | r.li.shannon      | Calculates Shannon's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.li.shape   | Calculates shape index on a raster map
            | r.li.simpson      | Calculates Simpson's diversity index on a raster map
            | r.los   | Line-of-sight raster analysis program.
            | r.mapcalc    | Raster map calculator.
            | r.mapcalculator   | Calculate new raster map from a r.mapcalc expression.
            | r.mask  | Create a MASK for limiting raster operation
            | r.median     | Finds the median of values in a cover map within areas assigned  the
       same category value in a user-specified base map.
            | r.mfilter.fp      | Raster map matrix filter.
            | r.mfilter    | Performs raster map matrix filter.
            |  r.mode   |  Finds the mode of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same
       category value in a user-specified base map.
            | r.neighbors  | Makes each cell category value a function  of  the  category  values
       assigned to the cells around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.
            | r.null  | Manages NULL-values of given raster map.
            | r.out.arc    | Converts a raster map layer into an ESRI ARCGRID file.
            | r.out.ascii  | Converts a raster map layer into an ASCII text file.
            | r.out.bin    | Exports a GRASS raster to a binary array.
            | r.out.gdal   | Exports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.
            | r.out.gdal.sh     | Exports GRASS raster into GDAL supported formats.
            | r.out.gridatb     | Exports GRASS raster map to GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL)
            | r.out.mat    | Exports a GRASS raster to a binary MAT-File.
            | r.out.mpeg   | Raster File Series to MPEG Conversion Program.
            | r.out.png    | Export GRASS raster as non-georeferenced PNG image.
            | r.out.pov    | Converts a raster map layer into a height-field file for POVRAY.
            |  r.out.ppm     |  Converts  a  GRASS  raster  map  to a PPM image file at the pixel
       resolution of the currently defined region.
            | r.out.ppm3   | Converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image  file  at  the
       pixel resolution of the CURRENTLY DEFINED REGION.
            | r.out.tiff   | Exports a GRASS raster map to a 8/24bit TIFF image file at the pixel
       resolution of the currently defined region.
            | r.out.vrml   | Export a raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
            | r.out.vtk    | Converts raster maps into the VTK-Ascii format
            | r.out.xyz    | Export a raster map to a text file as x,y,z  values  based  on  cell
       centers.
            | r.param.scale     | Extracts terrain parameters from a DEM.
            |  r.patch      | Creates a composite raster map layer by using known category values
       from one (or more) map layer(s) to fill in areas of "no data" in another map layer.
            | r.plane      | Creates raster plane map given dip (inclination),  aspect  (azimuth)
       and one point.
            | r.profile    | Outputs the raster map layer values lying on user-defined line(s).
            | r.proj  | Re-projects a raster map from one location to the current location.
            | r.quant      | Produces the quantization file for a floating-point map.
            | r.quantile   | Compute quantiles using two passes.
            | r.random.cells    | Generates random cell values with spatial dependence.
            |  r.random     | Creates a raster map layer and vector point map containing randomly
       located points.
            | r.random.surface  | Generates random surface(s) with spatial dependence.
            | r.reclass.area    | Reclasses a raster map greater or less than user specified area
       size (in hectares).
            |  r.reclass     |  Creates  a  new  map layer whose category values are based upon a
       reclassification of the categories in an existing raster map layer.
            | r.recode     | Recodes categorical raster maps.
            | r.region     | Sets the boundary definitions for a raster map.
            | r.regression.line      | Calculates linear regression from two raster maps: y = a +
       b*x
            | r.report     | Reports statistics for raster map layers.
            |   r.resamp.interp     |   Resamples  raster  map  layers  to  a  finer  grid  using
       interpolation.
            | r.resamp.rst      | Reinterpolates and  optionally  computes  topographic  analysis
       from  input  raster  map  to  a  new raster map (possibly with different resolution) using
       regularized spline with tension and smoothing.
            |  r.resamp.stats     |  Resamples  raster  map  layers  to  a  coarser  grid   using
       aggregation.
            | r.resample   | GRASS raster map layer data resampling capability.
            |  r.rescale.eq      | Rescales histogram equalized the range of category values in a
       raster map layer.
            | r.rescale    | Rescales the range of category values in a raster map layer.
            | r.ros   |  Generates  three,  or  four  raster  map  layers  showing  1)  the  base
       (perpendicular)  rate  of  spread (ROS), 2) the maximum (forward) ROS, 3) the direction of
       the maximum ROS, and optionally 4) the maximum potential spotting distance.
            | r.series     | Makes each output cell value a function of the  values  assigned  to
       the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
            | r.shaded.relief   | Creates shaded relief map from an elevation map (DEM).
            | r.sim.sediment    | Sediment transport and erosion/deposition simulation using path
       sampling method (SIMWE)
            | r.sim.water  | Overland flow  hydrologic  simulation  using  path  sampling  method
       (SIMWE)
            |  r.slope.aspect    | Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial
       derivatives from a elevation raster map.
            | r.spread     | Simulates elliptically anisotropic spread on a graphics  window  and
       generates  a raster map of the cumulative time of spread, given raster maps containing the
       rates of spread (ROS), the ROS directions and the spread origins.
            | r.spreadpath      | Recursively traces the least cost path backwards to cells  from
       which the cumulative cost was determined.
            | r.statistics      | Calculates category or object oriented statistics.
            | r.stats      | Generates area statistics for raster map layers.
            | r.sum   | Sums up the raster cell values.
            | r.sun   | Solar irradiance and irradiation model.
            |  r.sunmask    | Calculates cast shadow areas from sun position and elevation raster
       map.
            | r.support    | Allows creation and/or modification  of  raster  map  layer  support
       files.
            | r.support.stats   | Update raster map statistics
            | r.surf.area  | Surface area estimation for rasters.
            | r.surf.contour    | Surface generation program from rasterized contours.
            | r.surf.fractal    | Creates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension.
            | r.surf.gauss      | GRASS module to produce a raster map layer of gaussian deviates
       whose mean and standard deviation can be expressed by the user. It uses a gaussian  random
       number generator.
            | r.surf.idw   | Surface interpolation utility for raster map.
            | r.surf.idw2  | Surface generation program.
            |  r.surf.random      |  Produces a raster map of uniform random deviates whose range
       can be expressed by the user.
            | r.terraflow  | Flow computation for massive grids (float version).
            | r.texture    | Generate images with textural features from a raster map.
            | r.thin  | Thins non-zero cells that denote linear features in a raster map.
            | r.tileset    | Produces tilings of the source projection for use in the destination
       region and projection.
            | r.timestamp  | Modifies a timestamp for a raster map.
            | r.to.rast3   | Converts 2D raster map slices to one 3D raster volume map.
            |  r.to.rast3elev    | Creates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster
       maps.
            | r.to.vect    | Converts a raster map into a vector map layer.
            | r.topidx     | Creates topographic index [ln(a/tan(beta))] map from elevation map.
            | r.topmodel   | Simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.
            | r.transect   | Outputs raster map layer values lying along  user  defined  transect
       line(s).
            | r.univar     | Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells of a raster
       map.
            | r.univar.sh  | calculates univariate statistics from a GRASS raster map
            | r.volume     | Calculates the volume of data "clumps", and (optionally) produces  a
       GRASS vector points map containing the calculated centroids of these clumps.
            |  r.walk   |  Outputs  a raster map layer showing the anisotropic cumulative cost of
       moving between different geographic locations on an input elevation raster map layer whose
       cell  category  values  represent  elevation combined with an input raster map layer whose
       cell values represent friction cost.
            | r.water.outlet    | Watershed basin creation program.
            | r.watershed  | Watershed basin analysis program.
            | r.what.color      | Queries colors for a raster map layer.
            | r.what  | Queries raster map layers on their category values and category labels.

   r3.* commands:
            | r3.cross.rast     | Creates cross section 2D raster map from 3d raster map based on
       2D elevation map
            |  r3.gwflow     |  Numerical calculation program for transient, confined groundwater
       flow in three dimensions
            | r3.in.ascii  | Convert a 3D ASCII raster text file into a (binary)  3D  raster  map
       layer
            |  r3.in.v5d     |    import  of  3-dimensional Vis5D files (i.e. the v5d file with 1
       variable and 1 time step)
            | r3.info      | Outputs basic information  about  a  user-specified  3D  raster  map
       layer.
            | r3.mapcalc   | 3D raster map calculator.
            | r3.mapcalculator  | Calculates new grid3D volume from r3.mapcalc expression.
            | r3.mask      | Establishes the current working 3D raster mask.
            |  r3.mkdspf     |  Creates  a  display file from an existing grid3 file according to
       specified threshold levels.
            | r3.null      | Explicitly create the 3D NULL-value bitmap file.
            | r3.out.ascii      | Converts a 3D raster map layer into an ASCII text file
            | r3.out.v5d   | Export of GRASS 3D raster map to 3-dimensional Vis5D file.
            | r3.out.vtk   | Converts 3D raster maps (G3D) into the VTK-Ascii format
            | r3.stats     | Generates volume statistics for raster3d maps.
            | r3.timestamp      | Print/add/remove a timestamp for a 3D raster map
            | r3.to.rast   | Converts 3D raster maps to 2D raster maps
            | r3.univar    | Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null  3d  cells  of  a
       raster3d map.

   v.* commands:
            |  v.buffer      | Creates a buffer around features of given type (areas must contain
       centroid).
            | v.build.all  | Rebuilds topology on all vector maps in the current mapset.
            | v.build      | Creates topology for GRASS vector map.
            | v.build.polylines      | Builds polylines from lines or boundaries.
            | v.category   | Attach, delete or report vector categories to map geometry.
            | v.centroids  | Adds missing centroids to closed boundaries.
            | v.class      | Classifies attribute data, e.g. for thematic mapping
            | v.clean      | Toolset for cleaning topology of vector map.
            | v.colors     | Set color rules for features in a vector using a  numeric  attribute
       column.
            | v.convert.all     | Convert all old GRASS < Ver5.7 vector maps in current mapset to
       current format
            | v.convert    | Imports older versions of GRASS vector maps.
            | v.db.addcol  | Adds one or more columns to the attribute table connected to a given
       vector map.
            |  v.db.addtable     | Creates and connects a new attribute table to a given layer of
       an existing vector map.
            | v.db.connect      | Prints/sets DB connection for a vector map to attribute table.
            | v.db.dropcol      | Drops a column from the attribute table connected  to  a  given
       vector map.
            | v.db.droptable    | Removes existing attribute table of a vector map.
            | v.db.join    | Allows to join a table to a vector map table.
            | v.db.reconnect.all     | Reconnects vectors to a new database.
            |  v.db.renamecol     |  Renames a column in the attribute table connected to a given
       vector map.
            | v.db.select  | Prints vector map attributes.
            | v.db.univar  | Calculates univariate statistics on  selected  table  column  for  a
       GRASS vector map.
            |  v.db.update   |  Allows  to  update a column in the attribute table connected to a
       vector map.
            | v.delaunay   | Creates a Delaunay triangulation from an input vector map containing
       points or centroids.
            | v.digit      | Interactive editing and digitization of vector maps.
            |  v.dissolve    |  Dissolves  boundaries  between  adjacent  areas  sharing a common
       category number or attribute.
            | v.distance   | Finds the nearest element in vector map 'to' for elements in  vector
       map 'from'.
            | v.drape      | Converts vector map to 3D by sampling of elevation raster map.
            | v.edit  | Edits a vector map, allows adding, deleting and modifying selected vector
       features.
            | v.external   | Creates a new vector as a read-only link to OGR layer.
            | v.extract    | Selects vector objects from an existing vector map and creates a new
       map containing only the selected objects.
            | v.extrude    | Extrudes flat vector object to 3D with defined height.
            | v.generalize      | Vector based generalization.
            | v.hull  | Produces a convex hull for a given vector map.
            | v.in.ascii   | Creates a vector map from ASCII points file or ASCII vector file.
            |  v.in.db       |  Creates  new  vector  (points) map from database table containing
       coordinates.
            | v.in.dxf     | Converts files in DXF format to GRASS vector map format.
            | v.in.e00     | Import E00 file into a vector map.
            | v.in.garmin  | Download waypoints, routes, and tracks from a  Garmin  GPS  receiver
       into a vector map.
            |  v.in.geonames      | Imports geonames.org country files into a GRASS vector points
       map.
            | v.in.gns     | Imports US-NGA GEOnet Names Server (GNS) country files into a  GRASS
       vector points map.
            | v.in.gpsbabel     | Import waypoints, routes, and tracks from a GPS receiver or GPS
       download file into a vector map.
            | v.in.lines   | Import ASCII x,y[,z] coordinates as a series of lines.
            | v.in.mapgen  | Import Mapgen or Matlab-ASCII vector maps into GRASS.
            | v.in.ogr     | Convert OGR vector layers to GRASS vector map.
            | v.in.region  | Create a new vector from the current region.
            | v.in.sites.all    | Converts all old GRASS < Ver5.7 sites maps in current mapset to
       vector maps.
            | v.in.sites   | Converts a GRASS site_lists file into a vector map.
            | v.in.wfs     | Import GetFeature from WFS
            | v.info  | Outputs basic information about a user-specified vector map.
            | v.kcv   | Randomly partition points into test/train sets.
            |  v.kernel      |  Generates  a  raster  density map from vector points data using a
       moving 2D isotropic Gaussian kernel or optionally generates a vector density map on vector
       network with a 1D kernel.
            | v.label      | Creates paint labels for a vector map from attached attributes.
            | v.label.sa   | Create optimally placed labels for vector map(s)
            |  v.lidar.correction      | Correction of the v.lidar.growing output. It is the last
       of the three algorithms for LIDAR filtering.
            | v.lidar.edgedetection  | Detects the object's edges from a LIDAR data set.
            | v.lidar.growing   | Building contour determination and Region Growing algorithm for
       determining the building inside
            | v.lrs.create      | Create Linear Reference System
            | v.lrs.label  | Create stationing from input lines, and linear reference system
            |  v.lrs.segment      |  Creates  points/segments  from input lines, linear reference
       system and positions read from stdin or a file.
            | v.lrs.where  | Finds line id and real km+offset for  given  points  in  vector  map
       using linear reference system.
            | v.mkgrid     | Creates a GRASS vector map of a user-defined grid.
            | v.neighbors  | Makes each cell value a function of the attribute values assigned to
       the vector points or centroids around it, and stores new cell values in an  output  raster
       map layer.
            | v.net.alloc  | Allocate subnets for nearest centres (direction from centre).
            | v.net   | Performs network maintenance.
            | v.net.iso    | Splits net by cost isolines.
            | v.net.path   | Finds shortest path on vector network.
            |  v.net.salesman     |  Creates  a  cycle connecting given nodes (Traveling salesman
       problem).
            | v.net.steiner     | Create Steiner tree for the network and given terminals
            | v.net.visibility  | Visibility graph construction.
            | v.normal     | Tests for normality for points.
            | v.out.ascii  | Converts a GRASS binary vector map to a GRASS ASCII vector map.
            | v.out.dxf    | Exports GRASS vector map layers to DXF file format.
            | v.out.gpsbabel    | Exports a vector map to a GPS receiver or file format supported
       by GpsBabel.
            | v.out.ogr    | Converts to one of the supported OGR vector formats.
            | v.out.pov    | Converts to POV-Ray format, GRASS x,y,z -> POV-Ray x,z,y
            | v.out.svg    | Exports a GRASS vector map to SVG.
            | v.out.vtk    | Converts a GRASS binary vector map to VTK ASCII output.
            | v.outlier    | Removes outliers from vector point data.
            | v.overlay    | Overlays two vector maps.
            | v.parallel   | Creates parallel line to input vector lines.
            | v.patch      | Create a new vector map layer by combining other vector map layers.
            | v.perturb    | Random location perturbations of GRASS vector points
            | v.proj  | Re-projects a vector map from one location to the current location.
            | v.qcount     | Indices for quadrat counts of sites lists.
            | v.random     | Randomly generate a 2D/3D vector points map.
            |  v.rast.stats       |  Calculates  univariate statistics from a raster map based on
       vector polygons and uploads statistics to new attribute columns.
            | v.reclass    | Changes vector category values for an existing vector map  according
       to results of SQL queries or a value in attribute table column.
            | v.report     | Reports geometry statistics for vectors.
            | v.sample     | Samples a raster map at vector point locations.
            | v.segment    | Creates points/segments from input vector lines and positions.
            |  v.select      | Selects features from vector map (A) by features from other vector
       map (B).
            | v.split      | Split lines to shorter segments.
            | v.support    | Updates vector map metadata.
            |  v.surf.bspline     |  Bicubic  or  bilinear  spline  interpolation  with  Tykhonov
       regularization.
            |  v.surf.idw    |  Surface  interpolation from vector point data by Inverse Distance
       Squared Weighting.
            | v.surf.rst   | Spatial approximation and topographic analysis from given  point  or
       isoline  data  in  vector  format to floating point raster format using regularized spline
       with tension.
            | v.to.3d      | Performs transformation of 2D vector features to 3D.
            | v.to.db      | Populates database values from vector features.
            | v.to.points  | Create points along input lines in new vector with 2 layers.
            | v.to.rast    | Converts (rasterize) a vector map into a raster map.
            | v.to.rast3   | Converts a binary GRASS vector map (only points)  layer  into  a  3D
       GRASS raster map layer.
            | v.transform  | Performs an affine transformation (shift, scale and rotate, or GPCs)
       on vector map.
            | v.type  | Change the type of geometry elements.
            | v.univar      |  Calculates  univariate  statistics  for  attribute.  Variance  and
       standard deviation is calculated only for points if specified.
            |  v.univar.sh   |  Calculates  univariate  statistics on selected table column for a
       GRASS vector map.
            | v.vol.rst    | Interpolates point data to  a  G3D  grid  volume  using  regularized
       spline with tension (RST) algorithm.
            | v.voronoi    | Creates a Voronoi diagram from an input vector map containing points
       or centroids.
            | v.what  | Queries a vector map layer at given locations.
            | v.what.rast  | Uploads raster values at positions of vector points to the table.
            | v.what.vect  | Uploads vector values at positions of vector points to the table.

       Full Index
       © 2003-2010 GRASS Development Team