Provided by: fuse-emulator-common_1.0.0.1a+dfsg1-1_all bug

NAME

       fuse - Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator

SYNOPSIS

       fuse [options]

DESCRIPTION

       Fuse  is  a Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator. It supports several models (including the 128),
       with quite faithful emulation of the display and sound.

       The emulator can load any of the formats supported by libspectrum(3) - this includes  Z80,
       SNA  and  SZX  snapshots,  and  TAP and TZX virtual-tape files. Saving to SZX, Z80 and SNA
       snapshots and TZX and TAP tape files is supported. The SLT extension to the Z80 format  is
       partly  supported  (enough  for  multi-load  games);  however, loading of the old DAT-file
       variant is not. DSK, UDI, FDI, TR0, SDF, MGT, IMG, SAD, TRD, SCL and OPD disk  images  are
       supported when a disk interface is being emulated, including the integrated disk drives on
       +3, Pentagon or Scorpion machines  as  well  as  the  +D,  Opus  Discovery  and  Beta  128
       interfaces.  DCK  cartridge  images  are  supported  when  emulating a Timex 2068 variant.
       Interface II ROM cartridges are also supported.

       Finally, there is also support for reading and writing the RZX input recording format.

       See the COMPRESSED FILES section for details on reading files compressed with bzip2(3)  or
       gzip(3).

OPTIONS

       --accelerate-loader
              Specify   whether  Fuse  should  attempt  to  accelerate  tape  loaders  by  "short
              circuiting" the loading loop. This will in general speed up loading, but may  cause
              some loaders to fail. (Enabled by default, but you can use `--no-accelerate-loader'
              to disable). The same as the General Options dialog's Accelerate loaders option.

       --aspect-hint
              Specify whether the GTK+ and Xlib user  interfaces  should  `hint'  to  the  window
              manager  about  the preferred aspect ratio for the graphics window, thus preventing
              resizing to non-square sizes which lead to  Fuse  not  displaying  correctly.  This
              option has been observed to cause problems with some window managers when using the
              GTK+ UI which can prevent the window from being resized or moved at  all.  (Enabled
              by  default,  but  you  can  use  `--no-aspect-hint'  to  disable).  See  also  the
              `--strict-aspect-hint' option.

       --autosave-settings
              Specify whether Fuse's current settings should be automatically saved on exit.  The
              same as the General Options dialog's Auto-save settings option.

       --auto-load
              Specify  whether  tape  and disk files should be automatically loaded when they are
              opened using the File, Open...  menu option. (Enabled by default, but you  can  use
              `--no-auto-load'  to disable). Same as the General Options dialog's Auto-load media
              option.

       --beta128
              Emulate a Beta 128 interface. Same as the Peripherals  Options  dialog's  Beta  128
              interface option.

              --betadisk Specify a Betadisk image to load.

       --bw-tv
              Specify whether the display should simulate a colour or black and white television.
              This option is effective under the GTK+, Xlib and SDL user interfaces:  the  others
              will  always  simulate  a colour TV. The same as the General Options dialog's Black
              and white TV option.

       --competition-code code
              Specify the code to be written to competition mode RZX files. The same as  the  RZX
              Options dialog's Competition code option.

       --competition-mode
              Specify whether input recordings should be made in `competition mode'.  The same as
              the RZX Options dialog's Competition mode option.

       --compress-rzx
              Specify whether RZX files should be written out compressed.  (Enabled  by  default,
              but  you  can use `--no-compress-rzx' to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog's
              Compress RZX data option.

       --confirm-actions
              Specify whether `dangerous' actions (those which could cause data loss, for example
              resetting the Spectrum) require confirmation before occurring. (Enabled by default,
              but you can use `--no-confirm-actions' to disable). This option is effective  under
              the  GTK+  UI,  and  is  the  same  as the General Options dialog's Confirm actions
              option.

       --debugger-command string
              Specify a debugger command to be run before emulator startup. This can be  used  to
              set breakpoints or the like. Currently, this is the only method to input multi-line
              debugger commands. (See the MONITOR/DEBUGGER section for more information).

       --detect-loader
              Specify whether Fuse should attempt to detect when the tape is being  accessed  and
              start and stop the virtual tape playing automatically. (Enabled by default, but you
              can use `--no-detect-loader' to disable). Same  as  the  General  Options  dialog's
              Detect loaders option.

       --divide
              Emulate  the  DivIDE interface. The same as the Peripherals Options dialog's DivIDE
              interface option.

       --divide-masterfile file
       --divide-slavefile file
              Specify an IDE image to be loaded into  the  DivIDE's  emulated  master  and  slave
              drives respectively.

       --divide-write-protect
              Specify  that  the emulated DivIDE's write protect jumper should be considered set.
              The same as the Peripherals Options dialog's DivIDE write protect option.

       --dock file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Timex 2068 variant  dock;  also  select
              the TC2068 on startup if available.

       --doublescan-mode
              Specify the the framebuffer UI should attempt to use a double scan mode (where each
              line is displayed twice).

       --embed-snapshot
              Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an  RZX  file  when  recording  is
              started   from  an  existing  snapshot.  (Enabled  by  default,  but  you  can  use
              `--no-embed-snapshot' to disable). Same as the RZX Options  dialog's  Always  embed
              snapshot option.

       --fastload
              Specify whether Fuse should run at the fastest possible speed when the virtual tape
              is playing. (Enabled by default, but you can use `--no-fastload' to  disable).  The
              same as the General Options dialog's Fastloading option.

       -f frequency
       --sound-freq frequency
              Specify what frequency Fuse should use for the sound device, the default is 32 kHz,
              but some devices only support a single frequency or a limited range  (e.g.   48 kHz
              or up to 22 kHz).

       --fuller
              Emulate a Fuller Box interface. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog's Fuller Box
              option.

       --full-screen
              Specify whether Fuse should run in full screen mode.  This option is effective only
              under the SDL UI.

       -g filter
       --graphics-filter mode
              Specify  which  graphics  filter  to use if available. The default is normal, which
              uses no filtering. The available options are 2x, 2xsai, 3x,  advmame2x,  advmame3x,
              dotmatrix, half, halfskip, normal, super2xsai, supereagle, timex15x, timextv, tv2x,
              paltv, paltv2x, and paltv3x.  See the GRAPHICS FILTERS section for more details.

       --graphicsfile file
              Set the filename used for graphical output from the emulated ZX  printer.  See  the
              PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.

       -h
       --help
              Give brief usage help, listing available options.

       --if2cart file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Interface II.

       --interface1
              Emulate  a Sinclair Interface I. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog's Interface
              I option.

       --interface2
              Emulate  a  Sinclair  Interface  II.  (Enabled  by  default,  but   you   can   use
              `--no-interface2'  to  disable). Same as the Peripherals Options dialog's Interface
              II option.

       --issue2
              Emulate an issue 2 keyboard. Same as the General Options dialog's Issue 2  keyboard
              option.

       -j device
       --joystick-1 device
              Read   from   device   to   emulate  the  first  joystick.  Fuse  will  use  either
              `/dev/input/js0' or `/dev/js0' by default.

       --joystick-2 device
              As for --joystick-1 but for  the  second  joystick;  the  default  here  is  either
              `/dev/input/js1' or `/dev/js1'.

       --joystick-prompt
              If  this  option  is  specified,  Fuse  Fuse will prompt you which form of joystick
              emulation you wish to use when loading a snapshot. No prompt will be issued if  the
              configuration in the snapshot matches what you are currently using. The same as the
              General Options dialog's Snap joystick prompt option.

       --kempston
              Emulate a Kempston joystick. Same as  the  Peripherals  Options  dialog's  Kempston
              joystick option.

       --kempston-mouse
              Emulate  a  Kempston mouse. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog's Kempston mouse
              option.

       --late-timings
              It has been observed that some real Spectrums run such that the screen is  rendered
              one  tstate  later  than  on  other  real hardware. This option specifies that Fuse
              should emulate such a machine. Same as the General Options  dialog's  Late  timings
              option.

       --loading-sound
              Specify whether the sound made while tapes are loading should be emulated. (Enabled
              by default, but you can use `--no-loading-sound' to disable).  Same  as  the  Sound
              Options dialog's Loading sound option.

       -m type
       --machine type
              Specify  machine  type to emulate initially. The default is 48, a 48K Spectrum. The
              available options are 16, 48, 48_ntsc,  128,  plus2,  plus2a,  plus3,  2048,  2068,
              ts2068, pentagon, pentagon512, pentagon1024, scorpion and se.

       --melodik
              Emulate a Melodik AY interface for 16/48k Spectums. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's Melodik option.

       --microdrive-file file
       --microdrive-2-file file
       --microdrive-3-file file
       --microdrive-4-file file
       --microdrive-5-file file
       --microdrive-6-file file
       --microdrive-7-file file
       --microdrive-8-file file
              Specify Interface I Microdrive cartridge files to open.

       --opus
              Emulate a Opus Discovery interface. Same as the Peripherals Options  dialog's  Opus
              Discovery interface option.

       --opusdisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated Opus Discovery's drive 1.

       -p file
       --playback file
              Specify an RZX file to begin playback from.

       --paltv2x
              Specify  whether  the PAL TV 2x and PAL TV 3x scalers should also produce scanlines
              along the lines of the TV 2x and Timex TV scalers.  The same as the General Options
              dialog's PAL-TV use TV2x effect option.

       --plus3disk file
              Insert  the  specified  file into the emulated +3's A: drive; also select the +3 on
              startup if available.

       --plus3-detect-speedlock
              Specify whether the +3 drives try to detect Speedlock protected disks, and  emulate
              'weak'  sectors.   If  the disk image file (EDSK or UDI) contains weak sector data,
              than Speedlock detection is automatically omitted.  See also  the  WEAK  DISK  DATA
              section.  Same as the Disk Options dialog's +3 Detect Speedlock option.

       --plusd
              Emulate  a  +D  interface.  Same  as  the Peripherals Options dialog's +D interface
              option.

       --plusddisk file
              Insert the specified file into the emulated +D's drive 1.

       --printer
              Specify whether the emulation should include a printer.  Same  as  the  Peripherals
              Options dialog's Emulate printers option.

       --rate frame
              Specify  the frame rate, the ratio of spectrum frame updates to real frame updates.
              Same as the General Options dialog's Frame rate option.

       -r file
       --record file
              Specify an RZX file to begin recording to.

       --rom-16 file
       --rom-48 file
       --rom-128-0 file
       --rom-128-1 file
       --rom-plus2-0 file
       --rom-plus2-1 file
       --rom-plus2a-0 file
       --rom-plus2a-1 file
       --rom-plus2a-2 file
       --rom-plus2a-3 file
       --rom-plus3-0 file
       --rom-plus3-1 file
       --rom-plus3-2 file
       --rom-plus3-3 file
       --rom-plus3e-0 file
       --rom-plus3e-1 file
       --rom-plus3e-2 file
       --rom-plus3e-3 file
       --rom-tc2048 file
       --rom-tc2068-0 file
       --rom-tc2068-1 file
       --rom-ts2068-0 file
       --rom-ts2068-1 file
       --rom-pentagon-0 file
       --rom-pentagon-1 file
       --rom-pentagon-2 file
       --rom-pentagon-3 file
       --rom-scorpion-0 file
       --rom-scorpion-1 file
       --rom-scorpion-2 file
       --rom-scorpion-3 file
       --rom-spec-se-0 file
       --rom-spec-se-1 file
       --rom-interface-1 file
       --rom-opus file
       --rom-plusd file
       --rom-beta128 file
              Specify the file to  be  used  for  ROM(s)  used  for  each  machine.  The  options
              respectively  refer  to  the  16K Spectrum (48.rom), 48K Spectrum (48.rom), the two
              ROMs for the 128K Spectrum (128-0.rom and 128-1.rom),  the  two  ROMs  for  the  +2
              (plus2-0.rom and plus2-1.rom), the four ROMs for the +2A (plus3-0.rom, plus3-1.rom,
              plus3-2.rom and plus3-3.rom), the four ROMs for the +3  (plus3-0.rom,  plus3-1.rom,
              plus3-2.rom  and  plus3-3.rom),  the  TC2048 ROM (tc2048.rom), the two ROMs for the
              TC2068 (tc2068-0.rom and tc2068-1.rom), the two ROMs for the  TS2068  (tc2068-0.rom
              and  tc2068-1.rom),  the  two main ROMs, the TR-DOS ROM and a reset service ROM for
              the Pentagon (128p-0.rom, 128p-1.rom, trdos.rom and gluck.rom), the four  ROMs  for
              the  Scorpion 256 (256s-0.rom, 256s-1.rom, 256s-2.rom and 256s-3.rom), the two ROMs
              for the Spectrum SE (se-0.rom and se-1.rom), the Interface I ROM  (if1-2.rom),  the
              Opus  Discovery ROM (opus.rom), the +D ROM (plusd.rom), and the TR-DOS ROM for Beta
              128 emulation with the 48K, TC2048, 128K or +2 (trdos.rom).  The names in  brackets
              denote the defaults. Note that not all these ROMs are supplied with Fuse - you must
              supply your own copies of those which are not.

       --no-rs232-handshake
              This option makes Fuse's Interface I emulation assume that the  RS-232  line  other
              end is live when you connect the communication channels.  See also the `--rs232-rx'
              and `--rs232-tx' options.

       --rs232-rx
       --rs232-tx
              Specify the communication channels (FIFO or file) to be used for Interface I RS-232
              emulation as RxD and TxD wire. See also the `--rs232-handshake' options.

       --rzx-autosaves
              Specify that, while recording an RZX file, Fuse should automatically add a snapshot
              to the recording stream every 5 seconds. (Default to on, but you can use `--no-rzx-
              autosaves' to disable). Same as the RZX Options dialog's "Create autosaves" option;
              see there for more details.

       --separation
              Give stereo separation of the 128's AY sound channels. Same as the General  Options
              dialog's AY stereo separation option.

       --simpleide
              Specify  whether  Fuse  will  emulate the simple 8-bit IDE interface as used by the
              Spectrum +3e. Same as the Peripherals Options dialog's Simple 8-bit IDE option.

       --simpleide-masterfile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE  interface's  master
              channel.

       --simpleide-slavefile file
              Specify  a  HDF  file to connect to the emulated Simple 8-bit IDE interface's slave
              channel.

       --slt
              Support the SLT trap instruction. (Enabled by default, but you can  use  `--no-slt'
              to disable). Same as the General Options dialog's Use .slt traps option.

       -s file
       --snapshot file
              Specify  a  snapshot file to load. The file can be in any snapshot format supported
              by libspectrum(3).

       --sound
              Specify whether Fuse should produce sound. (Enabled by default,  but  you  can  use
              `--no-sound' to disable). Same as the Sound Options dialog's Sound enabled option.

       --sound-force-8bit
              Force the use of 8-bit sound, even if 16-bit is possible. Same as the Sound Options
              dialog's Force 8-bit option.

       --speaker-type type
              Select the output speaker emulation, type can be TV speaker, Beeper or  Unfiltered.
              Same as the Sound Options dialog's Speaker type option.

       --volume-ay volume
              Sets  the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a range of 0-100%. Same as the
              Sound Options dialog's AY volume option.

       --volume-beeper volume
              Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of 0-100%.  Same as  the  Sound
              Options dialog's Beeper volume option.

       -d device
       --sound-device device
              Specify  the sound output device to use and any options to give that device. If you
              are not using the SDL UI or using libao or libasound (ALSA) for sound output,  then
              the device parameter just specifies the device to be used for sound output.

              If  you  are using the SDL UI, the device parameter allows you to specify the audio
              driver to be used (e.g. dsp, alsa, dma, esd and arts).

              If you are using libao for sound output, the device parameter allows you to specify
              the  device used for sound output (either `live' to a speaker or to a file) and the
              parameters to be used for that device. In general, the  device  parameter  has  the
              form  driver[:param[=value][,param[=value][,...]].  driver selects the libao driver
              to be used, either one of the `live' drivers (aixs, alsa, alsa09, arts, esd, irix ,
              macosx,  nas,  oss  or sun) or a file driver (au, raw, wav or null).  The available
              parameter and value pairs for each device are:

              ·      aixs: AIX audio system

                     ·      dev=device
                            `device' gives the AIX sound device.

              ·      alsa: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.5.x

                     ·      card=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA card number.

                     ·      dev=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA device number.

                     ·      buf_size=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA buffer size in bytes.

              ·      alsa09: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture version 0.9+

                     ·      dev=string
                            `string' specfies the ALSA device e.g. hw:1.2

                     ·      buffer_time=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA buffer time in microseconds.

                     ·      period_time=num
                            `num' gives the ALSA period time in microseconds.

                     ·      use_mmap=yes|y|true|t|1
                            specifies that libao use memory mapped transfer.

              ·      arts: aRts soundserver: no parameters.

              ·      esd: Enlightened Sound Daemon.

                     ·      host=string
                            `string' gives the ESD host specification.

              ·      irix: IRIX Audio Library: no parameters.

              ·      macosx: MacOS X CoreAudio: no parameters.

              ·      nas: Network Audio System.

                     ·      host=string
                            `string' gives the NAS host specification.

                     ·      buf_size=num
                            `num' gives the buffer size on the server.

              ·      oss: Open Sound System.

                     ·      dsp=string
                            `string' gives the OSS device to be used e.g. /dev/sound/dsp1

              ·      sun: SUN audio system.

                     ·      dev=string
                            `string' gives the audio device to be used.

              ·      au: SUN Sparc audio file: no parameters.

              ·      raw: raw file.

                     ·      byteorder=string
                            `string' can be any of  native  (host  native  byteorder),  big  (big
                            endian) or little (little endian).

              ·      wav: Microsoft audio file: no parameters.

              ·      null: null output: no parameters.

              ·      debug: for debugging libao.

              Finally,  each  of  the  file  output  types (au, raw and wav) have an extra option
              `file=filename' where `filename' gives the file output will be  directed  to.  This
              defaults to `fuse-sound.ao' if it is not specified.

              Some examples of use:

              fuse -d alsa09:dev=hw:1

              causes Fuse to use ALSA 0.9+ output with the second (#1) sound card.

              fuse -d raw:byteorder=little,file=enigma.raw

              causes Fuse to save little endian words to `enigma.raw'.

              See  the  `DEVICE'  section  of ogg123(1) for up to date information of devices and
              options (except for the `file' option which is provided by Fuse itself).
              If you are using libasound or ALSA for sound output, the  device  parameter  allows
              you  to specify the device used for sound output and some parameters to be used for
              that device. In general, the device parameter has the form
              devstr or
              param[=value][,param[=value][,...][,devstr].

              ·      devstr: selects the ALSA device used, it can be any complex or  simple  ALSA
                     device  name.  e.g.:  default or hw:0 or tee:plughw:0,'/tmp/out.raw',raw See
                     the         alsa-lib         pcm          api          reference          at
                     http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-lib/pcm.html      for      further
                     explanation.

              ·      param and values:

                     ·      buffer=nnnn: set the ALSA  buffer  in  frames,  smaller  value  cause
                            smaller  sound  delay but may more buffer underrun (pops and clicks),
                            larger value cause longer delay but fewer underrun. By  default  Fuse
                            determine the buffer size based on the actual sound frequency.
                            If  you  use  some special plugin for your pcm device (e.g.: dmix) or
                            your card not support some needed parameter (e.g. cannot  play  other
                            only  48 kHz  stereo  sound like some AC97 sound card) may cause Fuse
                            unable to set the needed buffer size,  appropriate  sound  frequency,
                            channels  and  so  on, therefore you cannot get optimal result or not
                            hear the sound at all. In this case try the plughw:#, (where  #  mean
                            your card number counted from 0) for ALSA device.

                     ·      verbose : if given, fuse report ALSA buffer underruns to stderr

              Some examples of use:

              fuse -d verbose,buffer=2000

              causes Fuse to use the default ALSA device with 2000 frame length buffer and report
              ALSA buffer underruns on stderr.

              fuse -d tee:plughw:0,'/tmp/aufwm.raw',raw

              causes Fuse to use the first card and parallel save  the  raw  audio  samples  into
              /tmp/aufwm.raw file.

       --speed percentage
              Specify  the  speed  (as  a  percentage  of real Spectrum speed) at which emulation
              should attempt to proceed. Same as the General  Options  dialog's  Emulation  speed
              option.

       --statusbar
              For the GTK+ UI, enables the statusbar beneath the display. For the SDL UI, enables
              the status icons showing whether the disk and tape are being accessed. Same as  the
              General Options dialog's Show statusbar option.

       --strict-aspect-hint
              For  the  GTK+  UI,  use  stricter  limits  for  the aspect ratio limits set by the
              `--aspect-hint'  option.  This  can  cause  some  window  managers  (for   example,
              metacity(1))  to  not allow the window to be resized and moved, but is necessary to
              prevent others (for example, fvwm(1)) from being able resize the window  away  from
              square.

       -v mode
       --fbmode mode
              Specify which mode to use for the FB UI. Available values for mode are `320' (which
              corresponds to a 320x240x256 mode), the default and `640' (a 640x480x256 mode).

       --svga-modes mode1,mode2,mode3
              Specify which SVGA mode to use for  the  SVGAlib  UI  at  different  screen  sizes.
              Available values for mode1, mode2 and mode3 are listed in a table, when Fuse called
              with --svga-modes list command line option.  When user select a not available  mode
              for  a  size,  Fuse  just  ignore  and  try to find the best mode for it. e.g. with
              --svga-modes 0,0,12 Fuse use the specified 1024x768@256 SVGA mode for  triple  size
              filters,  but  select  SVGA  modes automatically for normal or double size filters.
              The above mode number is just an example, and mode numbers and their  meanings  may
              vary graphics card by graphics card.

       -D mode
       --doublescan-mode mode
              Specify  whether  to  use doublescan modes in the FB UI.  Available values for mode
              are 0, 1 and 2. 0 means `never doublescan' (use 640x480 at either 72 Hz or  60 Hz),
              whereas 1 and 2 both mean `try to use doublescan' and will fall back on the 640x480
              modes. 1 selects 72 Hz modes (the same size and shape as your typical 640x480), and
              2 selects 60 Hz modes (overscan).
              If  your  monitor  displays  a blank screen when using 1 or 2, press F10 then try a
              different option or say `--fbmode 640'.

       -t file
       --tape file
              Specify a virtual tape file to use. It must be in TAP or TZX format.

       --textfile file
              Set the filename used for text output from the emulated printers. See  the  PRINTER
              EMULATION section below for more details.

       --traps
              Support  traps  for  ROM  tape loading/saving. (Enabled by default, but you can use
              `--no-traps' to disable). Same as the  General  Options  dialog's  Use  tape  traps
              option.

       --betadisk file
              Insert  the  specified  file  into  the emulated Beta disk interface's drive A: and
              select Pentagon mode on startup.

       -V
       --version
              Show which version of Fuse is being used.

       --writable-roms
              Allow Spectrum programs to overwrite the ROM(s). The same as  the  General  Options
              dialog's Allow writes to ROM option.

       --zxatasp
              Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXATASP interface. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's ZXATASP interface option.

       --zxatasp-upload
              Specify the state of the ZXATASP upload jumper. Same  as  the  Peripherals  Options
              dialog's ZXATASP upload option.

       --zxatasp-write-protect
              Specify  the  state  of  the  ZXATASP write protect jumper. Same as the Peripherals
              Options dialog's ZXATASP write protect option.

       --zxatasp-masterfile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP interface's master channel.

       --zxatasp-slavefile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXATASP interface's slave channel.

       --zxcf
              Specify whether Fuse emulate the ZXCF interface. Same as  the  Peripherals  Options
              dialog's ZXCF interface option.

       --zxcf-upload
              Specify  the  state  of  the  ZXCF  upload  jumper. Same as the Peripherals Options
              dialog's ZXCF upload option.

       --zxcf-cffile file
              Specify a HDF file to connect to the emulated ZXCF interface.

       All long options which control on/off settings can be disabled using  `--no-foo'  (for  an
       option `--foo').  For example, the opposite of `--issue2' is `--no-issue2'.  These options
       can also be modified while the emulator is running, using the options dialogs  -  see  the
       documentation for the Options menu in the MENUS AND KEYS section for details.

THE VARIOUS FRONT-ENDS

       Fuse  supports  various front-ends, or UIs (user interfaces). The usual one is GTK+-based,
       but there are also SDL, Xlib, SVGAlib and framebuffer ones.

       The important difference to note is that the GTK+ version uses `native' dialog boxes  etc.
       (behaving  like  a  fairly  normal GUI-based program) while the others use an alternative,
       Fuse-specific `widget UI'. This latter front-end is easily spotted by the way it uses  the
       main Fuse window/screen for menus and dialogs, and uses the Spectrum's own font.

MENUS AND KEYS

       Since  many of the keys available are devoted to emulation of the Spectrum's keyboard, the
       primary way of controlling Fuse itself (rather than  the  emulated  machine)  is  via  the
       menus. There are also function key shortcuts for some menu options.

       In the GTK+ version, the menu bar is always visible at the top of the Fuse window. You can
       click on a menu name to pop it up. Alternatively, you can press F1  to  display  a  pop-up
       version of the menu bar, which you can then navigate with the cursor keys or mouse.

       In  the  widget  UI  pressing F1 is the only way to get the main menu; and unlike the GTK+
       version, the emulator pauses while the menus are being navigated. The menus show which key
       to  press  for each menu option in brackets. Pressing Esc exits a menu, and pressing Enter
       exits the menu system entirely (as well as `confirming' any current dialog).

       Here's what the menu options do, along with the function  key  mappings  for  those  items
       which have them:

       F3
       File, Open...
              Open  a  Spectrum  file.  Snapshots will be loaded into memory; tape images will be
              inserted into the emulated tape deck, and if the Auto-load media option is set will
              being  loading.  Opening  a  disk  image  or  a  Timex  dock  image  will cause the
              appropriate machine type (+3, Pentagon or TC2068) to be  selected  with  the  image
              inserted,  and  disks will automatically load if the Auto-load media option is set.
              See the FILE SELECTION section below for details on how to choose  the  file.  Note
              that  this  behaviour is different from previous versions of Fuse, when this option
              would open only snapshots.

       F2
       File, Save Snapshot...
              Save a snapshot (machine state, memory contents, etc.) to file. You can select  the
              filename  to  be  saved  to. If it has a .szx, .z80 or .sna extension, the snapshot
              will be saved in that format. Otherwise, it will be saved as a .szx file.

       File, Recording, Record...
              Start recording input to an RZX file, initialised from the current emulation state.
              You will be prompted for a filename to use.

       File, Recording, Record from snapshot...
              Start  recording  input to an RZX file, initialised from a snapshot. You will first
              be asked for the snapshot to use and then the file to save the recording to.

       Insert
       File, Recording, Insert snapshot
              Inserts a snapshot of the current state into the RZX file. This can be  used  at  a
              later point to roll back to the inserted state by using one of the commands below.

       Delete
       File, Recording, Rollback
              Rolls  back the recording to the point at which the previous snapshot was inserted.
              Recording will continue from that point.

       File, Recording, Rollback to...
              Roll back the recording to any snapshot which has been inserted into the recording.

       File, Recording, Play...
              Playback recorded input from an RZX file. This lets you replay keypresses  recorded
              previously. RZX files generally contain a snapshot with the Spectrum's state at the
              start of the recording; if the selected RZX file doesn't, you'll be prompted for  a
              snapshot to load as well.

       File, Recording, Stop
              Stop any currently-recording/playing RZX file.

       File, AY Logging, Record...
              Start  recording  the  bytes output via the AY-3-8192 sound chip to a PSG file. You
              will be prompted for a filename to save the recording to.

       File, AY Logging, Stop
              Stop any current AY logging.

       File, Open SCR Screenshot...
              Load an SCR screenshot (essentially just a binary  dump  of  the  Spectrum's  video
              memory)  onto  the current screen. Fuse supports screenshots saved in the Timex hi-
              colour and hi-res modes as well as `normal'  Spectrum  screens,  and  will  make  a
              simple  conversion  if  a hi-colour or hi-res screenshot is loaded onto a non-Timex
              machine.

       File, Save Screen as SCR...
              Save a copy of whatever's currently displayed on the Spectrum's screen  as  an  SCR
              file. You will be prompted for a filename to save the screenshot to.

       File, Save Screen as PNG...
              Save  the current screen as a PNG file. You will be prompted for a filename to save
              the screenshot to.

       File, Movies, Record Movie as SCR...
              Start recording a `movie' as a series of SCR screenshots. You will be prompted  for
              a filename, and the screenshots will then be saved to `<name>-frame-000000000.scr',
              `<name>-frame-000000001.scr' and so on.

       File, Movies, Record Movie as PNG...
              Start recording a `movie' as a series of PNG images. The filenames used will be the
              same as for the SCR movie, but with a `.png' extension instead of `.scr'.

       File, Movies, Stop Movie Recording
              Stop any movie recording which is currently in progress.

       File, Load Binary Data...
              Load  binary  data from a file into the Spectrum's memory. After selecting the file
              to load data from, you can choose where to load the data and how much data to load.

       File, Save Binary Data...
              Save an arbitrary chunk of the Spectrum's memory to a file.  Select  the  file  you
              wish to save to, followed by the location and length of data you wish to save.

       F10
       File, Exit
              Exit  the emulator. A confirmation dialog will appear checking you actually want to
              do this.

       F4
       Options, General...
              Display the General Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse.  (With  the  widget
              UI,  the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and
              Esc aborts). Note that any changed settings only  apply  to  the  currently-running
              Fuse.

              The options available are:

              Emulation speed
                     Set  how  fast Fuse will attempt to emulate the Spectrum, as a percentage of
                     the speed at which the real machine runs. If your machine isn't fast  enough
                     to  keep  up with the requested speed, Fuse will just run as fast as it can.
                     Note that if the emulation speed is not exactly 100%, no sound  output  will
                     be produced.

              Frame rate
                     Specify  the  frame  rate, the ratio of spectrum frame updates to real frame
                     updates. This is useful if your machine is having trouble  keeping  up  with
                     the spectrum screen updates.

              Issue 2 keyboard
                     Early versions of the Spectrum used a different value for unused bits on the
                     keyboard input ports, and a few games depended on the  old  value  of  these
                     bits. Enabling this option switches to the old value, to let you run them.

              Use tape traps
                     Ordinarily,  Fuse  intercepts calls to the ROM tape-loading routine in order
                     to load from tape files more quickly when possible. But  this  can  (rarely)
                     interfere  with TZX loading; disabling this option avoids the problem at the
                     cost of slower (i.e.  always  real-time)  tape-loading.   When  tape-loading
                     traps are disabled, you need to start tape playback manually, by pressing F8
                     or choosing the Media, Tape, Play menu item. Fuse also uses  tape  traps  to
                     intercept  the  tape-saving  routine  in the ROM to save tape files quickly,
                     tapes can also be saved using the Media, Tape, Record Start menu item.

              Fastloading
                     If this option is enabled, then Fuse will run at the fastest possible  speed
                     when  the  virtual  tape  is playing, thus dramatically reducing the time it
                     takes to load programs. You may wish to disable this option if you  wish  to
                     stop the tape at a specific point.

              Detect loaders
                     If  this  option  is  enabled,  Fuse  will  attempt to detect when a loading
                     routine is in progress, and then automatically start  the  virtual  tape  to
                     load the program in. This is done by using a heuristic to identify a loading
                     routine, so is by no means infallible, but works in most cases.

              Auto-load media
                     On many occasions when you open a tape or disk file, it's because it's got a
                     program  in  you want to load and run. If this option is selected, this will
                     automatically happen for you when you open one  of  these  files  using  the
                     File,  Open...   menu option - you must then use the Media menu to use tapes
                     or disks for saving data to, or for loading data  into  an  already  running
                     program.

              Use .slt traps
                     The  multi-load  aspect  of  SLT  files  requires  a  trap instruction to be
                     supported. This instruction is not generally used except for this trap,  but
                     since it's not inconceivable that a program could be wanting to use the real
                     instruction instead, you can choose whether to support the trap or not.

              Allow writes to ROM
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will happily allow  programs  to  overwrite
                     what  would  normally  be  ROM.  This  probably  isn't  very  useful in most
                     circumstances, especially as the 48K ROM overwrites parts of itself.

              Auto-save settings
                     If this option is selected, Fuse  will  automatically  write  its  currently
                     selected options to its configuration file on exit (if libxml2 was available
                     when Fuse was compiled). If  you  turn  this  option  off,  you'll  have  to
                     manually  use  Options,  Save  afterwards  to  ensure that this setting gets
                     written to Fuse's configuration file.

              MDR cartridge len
                     This option controls the number of blocks in a new Microdrive cartridge.  If
                     the value smaller than 4 or greater than 254 Fuse assumes 4 or 254.

              RS-232 handshake
                     If  you turn this option off, Fuse assumes the RS-232 line other end is live
                     when   you   connect   the   communication   channels.    See    also    the
                     `--rs232-rx--rs232-tx' options.

              Black and white TV
                     This  option  allows you to choose whether to simulate a colour or black and
                     white television. This is effective only under the GTK+, Xlib and  SDL  user
                     interfaces: the others will always simulate a colour TV.

              PAL-TV use TV2x effect
                     This  option  allows  you to choose whether the PAL TV 2x and higher scalers
                     also reproduce scanlines in the same way as the  TV  2x,  3x  and  Timex  TV
                     scalers.

              Confirm actions
                     Specify  whether `dangerous' actions (those which could cause data loss, for
                     example resetting the Spectrum) require confirmation before occurring.

              Show statusbar
                     For the GTK+ UI, enables the statusbar beneath the display. For the SDL  UI,
                     enables  the  status  icons  showing  whether  the  disk  and tape are being
                     accessed. This option has no effect for the other user interfaces.

              Snap joystick prompt
                     If set, Fuse will prompt you which physical joystick or keyboard you want to
                     connect  to the joystick interface enabled in the snapshot unless it already
                     matches your current configuration.

              Late timings
                     If selected, Fuse will cause all screen-related timings (for  example,  when
                     the  screen  is rendered and when memory contention occurs) to be one tstate
                     later than "normal", an effect which is present on some real hardware.

       Options, Sound...
              Display the Sound Options dialog, letting you configure Fuse's sound output.  (With
              the  widget  UI,  the keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any
              changes, and Esc aborts).  Note  that  any  changed  settings  only  apply  to  the
              currently-running Fuse.

              Sound enabled
                     Specify  whether  sound output should be enabled at all. When this option is
                     disabled, Fuse will not make any sound.

              Loading sound
                     Normally, Fuse emulates tape-loading noise when loading from TAPs or TZXs in
                     real-time,  albeit  at  a deliberately lower volume than on a real Spectrum.
                     You can disable this option to eliminate the loading noise entirely.

              AY stereo separation
                     By default, the sound output is mono, since this is  all  you  got  from  an
                     unmodified Spectrum. But enabling this option gives you so-called ACB stereo
                     (for sound from the 128 and other clone's AY-3-8912 sound chip).

              Force 8-bit
                     Force the use of 8-bit sound even if 16-bit (the default) is available. Note
                     that  (when the option is enabled) if 8-bit sound isn't available then there
                     will be no sound at all, so it's best not to use this option unless you have
                     a specific need for it.

              Speaker type
                     This  option allows the emulation of the sound output system to be modified.
                     Different choices of speaker limit the bass and treble response that can  be
                     produced  from  the  machine. Choose between a "TV" type speaker and a small
                     beeper type speaker that significantly  limits  bass  and  treble  response.
                     Choose "Unfiltered" to get unmodified (but less accurate) sound output.

              AY volume
                     Sets the relative volume of the AY-3-8912 chip from a range of 0-100%.

              Beeper volume
                     Sets the relative volume of the beeper from a range of 0-100%.

       Options, Peripherals...
              Display the Peripherals Options dialog, letting you configure the peripherals which
              Fuse will consider to be attached to the emulated machines. (With  the  widget  UI,
              the  keys shown in brackets toggle the options, Enter confirms any changes, and Esc
              aborts). Note that any changed settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

              Kempston joystick
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston joystick  interface
                     (probably  the  most widely supported type on the Spectrum).  Note that this
                     option is basically equivalent to  plugging  the  interface  itself  into  a
                     Spectrum,  not  to  connecting  a  joystick;  this  affects how the Spectrum
                     responds to a read of input port 31. To use a Kempston joystick in  a  game,
                     this  option  must  be enabled, and you must also select a Kempston joystick
                     the Options, Joysticks menu.

              Kempston mouse
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Kempston mouse interface.

                     If you're using Fuse full-screen, your mouse is  automatically  used  as  if
                     attached  to  the Kempston interface. Otherwise, you'll need to click on the
                     Spectrum display in order to tell Fuse to grab  the  pointer  (and  make  it
                     invisible);  to  tell Fuse to release it, click the middle button (or wheel)
                     or press Escape.

                     With the framebuffer UI, Fuse prefers to use GPM; if this is not  available,
                     it  will  fall  back  to built-in PS/2 mouse support. In this mode, it tries
                     /dev/input/mice, /dev/mouse then /dev/psaux, stopping when  it  successfully
                     opens  one. The first of these is preferred since (at least on Linux, with a
                     2.6-series kernel) any type of mouse can be used and any connected mouse may
                     be used.

              Fuller Box
                     If  this  option  is  selected,  Fuse will emulate a Fuller Box AY sound and
                     joystick interface. This emulation is only available for the  16k,  48k  and
                     TC2048 machines.

              Melodik
                     If  this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a Melodik AY sound interface.
                     These interfaces and many  similar  ones  were  produced  to  make  the  48K
                     Spectrum  compatible  with  the  same  AY  music  as the 128K Spectrum. This
                     emulation is only available for the 16k, 48k and TC2048 machines.

              Interface I
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple Sinclair  Interface
                     I,  and allow Microdrive cartridges to be connected and disconnected via the
                     Media, Interface I, Microdrive  menus.  It  also  enables  support  for  the
                     Interface I RS-232 interface.

              Interface II
                     If  this  option is selected, Fuse will emulate a cartridge port as found on
                     the Interface II. Cartridges can then be inserted and removed via the Media,
                     Cartridge,  Interface  II  menu. Note that the Pentagon, Scorpion, Interface
                     II, ZXATASP and ZXCF all use the same hardware mechanism for accessing  some
                     of  their extended features, so only one of these should be selected at once
                     or unpredictable behaviour will occur.

              Emulate printers
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate a  printer.  See  the  PRINTER
                     EMULATION section for more details.

              Simple 8-bit IDE
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the simple 8-bit IDE interface
                     as used by the Spectrum +3e, and  allow  hard  disks  to  be  connected  and
                     disconnected via the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit menu.

              ZXATASP interface
                     If  this  option is selected, Fuse will emulate the ZXATASP interface, which
                     provides both additional RAM and an IDE interface. See the ZXATASP AND  ZXCF
                     section for more details.

              ZXATASP upload
                     This option controls the state of the ZXATASP upload jumper. See the ZXATASP
                     AND ZXCF section for more details.

              ZXATASP write protect
                     This option controls the state of the ZXATASP write protect jumper. See  the
                     ZXATASP AND ZXCF section for more details.

              ZXCF interface
                     If  this  option  is  selected,  Fuse will emulate the ZXCF interface, which
                     provides both additional RAM and a CompactFlash interface. See  the  ZXATASP
                     AND ZXCF section for more details.

              ZXCF upload
                     This  option  controls  the state of the ZXCF upload jumper. See the ZXATASP
                     AND ZXCF section for more details.

              DivIDE interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the DivIDE interface. See  the
                     DIVIDE section for more details.

              DivIDE write protect
                     This  option  controls  the state of the DivIDE write protection jumper. See
                     the DIVIDE section for more details.

              Opus Discovery interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Opus Discovery  interface.
                     See the OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION section for more details.

              +D interface
                     If  this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the +D interface.  See the +D
                     EMULATION section for more details.

              Beta 128 interface
                     If this option is selected, Fuse will emulate the Beta 128  interface.   See
                     the  BETA  128  EMULATION  section  for  more details. Beta 128 emulation is
                     enabled for the Pentagon and Scorpion machines regardless of this option.

       Options, RZX...
              Display the RZX Options dialog, letting you configure how  Fuse's  deals  with  RZX
              input  recordings.  (With  the  widget  UI,  the  keys shown in brackets toggle the
              options, Enter confirms any  changes,  and  Esc  aborts).  Note  that  any  changed
              settings only apply to the currently-running Fuse.

              Create autosaves
                     If  this  option  is  selected,  Fuse will add a snapshot into the recording
                     stream every 5 seconds  while  creating  an  RZX  file,  thus  enabling  the
                     rollback  facilities  to  be used without having to explicitly add snapshots
                     into the stream. Older snapshots will be pruned from the stream to keep  the
                     file  size and number of snapshots down: each snapshot up to 15 seconds will
                     be kept, then one snapshot every 15  seconds  until  one  minute,  then  one
                     snapshot  every  minute  until  5  minutes,  and  then  one snapshot every 5
                     minutes. Note that this "pruning" applies  only  to  automatically  inserted
                     snapshots: snapshots manually inserted into the stream will never be pruned.

              Compress RZX data
                     If  this  option is selected, and zlib was available when Fuse was compiled,
                     any RZX files written by Fuse will be compressed. This is generally  a  good
                     thing  as it makes the files significantly smaller, and you probably want to
                     turn it off only if you're debugging the RZX files  or  there's  some  other
                     program which doesn't support compressed RZX files.

              Competition mode
                     Any  input recordings which are started when this option is selected will be
                     made in `competition mode'. In essence, this means that Fuse will  act  just
                     like a real Spectrum would: you can't load snapshots, pause the emulation in
                     any way, change the speed or anything that  you  couldn't  do  on  the  real
                     machine.  If  any  of these things are attempted, or if the emulated Fuse is
                     running more than 5% faster or slower than normal Spectrum speed,  then  the
                     recording will immediately be stopped.

                     If libgcrypt was available when Fuse was compiled, then recordings made with
                     competition mode active will be digitally signed,  in  theory  to  `certify'
                     that  it  was  made  with  the  above  restrictions in place.  However, this
                     procedure is not secure (and cannot be made so),  so  the  presence  of  any
                     signature  on an RZX file should not be taken as providing proof that it was
                     made with competition mode active.  This feature is included in Fuse  solely
                     as  it  was  one  of  the  requirements  for  Fuse  to be used in an on-line
                     tournament.

              Competition code
                     The numeric code entered here will be written into any  RZX  files  made  in
                     competition  mode. This is another feature for on-line tournaments which can
                     be used to `prove' that the recording was made after  a  specific  code  was
                     released.  If you're not playing in such a tournament, you can safely ignore
                     this option.

              Always embed snapshot
                     Specify whether a snapshot should be embedded in an RZX file when  recording
                     is started from an existing snapshot.

       Options, Joysticks
              Fuse  can emulate many of the common types of joystick which were available for the
              Spectrum. The input for these emulated joysticks can be taken from  real  joysticks
              attached  to the emulating machine (configured via the Options, Joysticks, Joystick
              1...  and Options, Joysticks, Joystick 2...  options), or from the q, a, o, p,  and
              Space  keys  on  the  emulating  machines  keyboard,  configured  via  the Options,
              Joysticks, Keyboard...  option. Note that when using  the  keyboard  to  emulate  a
              joystick,  the  q,  a,  o,  p, and Space keys will not have their normal effect (to
              avoid problems with games which do things  like  use  p  for  pause  when  using  a
              joystick).

              Each of the joysticks (including the `fake' keyboard joystick) can be configured to
              emulate any one of the following joystick types:

                     None
                            No joystick: any input will simply be ignored.

                     Cursor
                            A cursor joystick, equivalent to pressing 5 (left), 6 (down), 7 (up),
                            8 (right), and 0 (fire).

                     Kempston
                            A  Kempston joystick, read from input port 31. Note that the Options,
                            Peripherals, Kempston interface option must also be set for the input
                            to be recognised.

                     Sinclair 1
                     Sinclair 2
                            The  `left'  and `right' Sinclair joysticks, equivalent to pressing 1
                            (left), 2 (right), 3 (down), 4 (up), and 5 (fire),  or  6  (left),  7
                            (right), 8 (down), 9 (up), and 0 (fire) respectively.

                     Timex 1
                     Timex 2
                            The  `left'  and  `right'  joysticks  as  attached  to the Timex 2068
                            variant's built-in joystick interface.

              For the real joysticks, it is also possible to configure (although  currently  only
              when  using  the GTK+ interface) what effect each button on the joystick will have:
              this can be Joystick Fire, equivalent to  pressing  the  emulated  joystick's  fire
              button,  Nothing,  meaning  to  have  no  effect, or any Spectrum key, meaning that
              pressing that button will be equivalent to pressing that Spectrum key.

       Options, Select ROMs
              An individual dialog is available for each Spectrum variant emulated by Fuse  which
              allows selection of the ROM(s) used by that machine. Simply select the ROM you wish
              to use, and then reset the Spectrum for the change to take effect.

       Options, Filter...
              Select the graphics filter currently in use. See the GRAPHICS FILTERS  section  for
              more details.

       F11
       Options, Full Screen
              Switch  Fuse  between  full  screen and windowed mode.  This menu is only available
              under the SDL UI.

              Options, Save
                     If libxml2 was available when Fuse was  compiled,  this  will  cause  Fuse's
                     current  options to be written to .fuserc in your home directory, from which
                     they will be picked up again when Fuse is restarted. The best way to  update
                     this  file is by using this option, but it's a simple XML file and shouldn't
                     be too hard to edit by hand if you really want to.

              Pause
              Machine, Pause
                     Pause or unpause emulation. This option is available only under the GTK+ UI;
                     to  pause  the  other  user interfaces, simply press F1 to bring up the main
                     menu.

              F5
              Machine, Reset
                     Reset the emulated Spectrum. Again, you get  a  chance  to  cancel  this  if
                     you're using the GTK+ UI.

              Machine, Hard reset
                     Reset  the  emulated  Spectrum.  A  hard  reset is equivalent to turning the
                     Spectrum's power off, and then turning it back on. Again, you get  a  chance
                     to cancel this if you're using the GTK+ UI.

              F9
              Machine, Select...
                     Choose  a  type  of  Spectrum to emulate. An brief overview of the Sinclair,
                     Amstrad        and        Timex        can        be        found         at
                     http://www.nvg.ntnu.no/sinclair/computers/zxspectrum/zxspectrum.htm    while
                     more      technical      information       can       be       found       at
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/reference.htm,              and
                     http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/tmxreference.htm.

                     Spectrum 16K
                     Spectrum 48K
                            The original machines as released by Sinclair in 1982 with 16 or  48K
                            of RAM respectively.

                     Spectrum 48K (NTSC)
                            The  NTSC  48K  machine released in limited numbers in parts of South
                            America.

                     Spectrum 128K
                            The 128K machine as released by Sinclair  in  1985  (Spain)  or  1986
                            (UK).

                     Spectrum +2
                            The  first  machine  released  by Amstrad, in 1986. From an emulation
                            point of view, the +2 is virtually identical to the 128K.

                     Spectrum +2A
                     Spectrum +3
                            The two machines  released  by  Amstrad  in  1988.  Technically  very
                            similar  to  each  other, except that the +3 features a 3" disk drive
                            while the +2A does not.

                     Spectrum +3e
                            A +3 with modified ROMs allowing access to IDE  hard  disks  via  the
                            simple  8-bit  interface,  as activated from the Options, Peripherals
                            dialog. See http://www.zxplus3e.plus.com/ for more details.

                     Timex TC2048
                     Timex TC2068
                            The variants of the Spectrum as released by Timex in Portugal.
                     Timex TS2068
                            The variant of the Spectrum released by Timex in North America.

                     Pentagon 128K
                            Russian clone of the Spectrum. There  were  many  different  machines
                            called Pentagon from 1989 to 2006, this machine corresponds to a 1991
                            era Pentagon-128K with the optional AY sound chip and the  integrated
                            Beta 128 disk interface, and is the version of the machine most often
                            emulated.    More    technical    details    can    be    found    at
                            http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html,

                     Pentagon 512K
                     Pentagon 1024K
                            Newer   versions  of  the  Pentagon  Russian  Spectrum  clones  which
                            incorporate more memory and the "Mr Gluk Reset Service" ROM  offering
                            a more powerful firmware.

                     Scorpion ZS 256
                            Another  Russian  clone of the Spectrum. Some details can be found at
                            http://www.worldofspectrum.org/rusfaq/index.html,   like   all    the
                            Russian clones they they have built in 3.5" disk drives, accessed via
                            the Beta 128 disk interface and TR-DOS (the Technology Research  Disk
                            Operating  System).  The most important distinction from the Pentagon
                            128k and similar machines is the display timing details.

                     Spectrum SE
                            A recent variant designed by Andrew Owen and Jarek Adamski, which  is
                            possibly  best thought of as a cross between the 128K machine and the
                            Timex variants, allowing 272K  of  RAM  to  be  accessed.  Some  more
                            details                are                available                at
                            http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/reference/sereference.htm.

              Machine, Debugger...
                     Start the  monitor/debugger.  See  the  MONITOR/DEBUGGER  section  for  more
                     information.

              Machine, Poke Finder...
                     Start the `poke finder'. See the POKE FINDER section for more information.

              Machine, Memory Browser...
                     Start  the  memory  browser.  It  should  be  fairly obvious what this does;
                     perhaps the only thing worth noting is that emulation is  paused  until  you
                     close the window.

              Machine, NMI
                     Sends  a  non-maskable  interrupt to the emulated Spectrum. Due to a typo in
                     the standard 48K ROM, this  will  cause  a  reset,  but  modified  ROMs  are
                     available  which  make use of this feature. When the +D is emulated, this is
                     used to access the  +D's  screenshot  and  snapshot  features  (see  the  +D
                     EMULATION section below).

              F7
              Media, Tape, Open...
                     Choose  a  TAP or TZX virtual-tape file to load from. See the FILE SELECTION
                     section below for details on how to choose the file. If Auto-load  media  is
                     set  in  the  General  Options dialog (as it is by default), you may use the
                     File, Open...   menu  option  instead,  and  the  tape  will  begin  loading
                     automatically.   Otherwise,  you  have  to  start  the  load in the emulated
                     machine (with LOAD "" or the 128's Tape Loader option, though you  may  need
                     to reset first).

                     To  guarantee that TZX files will load properly, you should select the file,
                     make sure tape-loading traps are disabled in  the  General  Options  dialog,
                     then  press  F8  (or  do Media, Tape, Play).  That said, most TZXs will work
                     with tape-loading traps enabled (often quickly loading partway, then loading
                     the rest real-time), so you might want to try it that way first.

              F8
              Media, Tape, Play
                     Start  playing  the  TAP  or TZX file, if required. (Choosing the option (or
                     pressing F8) again pauses playback, and a further press resumes). To explain
                     -  if tape-loading traps have been disabled (in the General Options dialog),
                     starting the loading process in the emulated machine isn't enough. You  also
                     have  to `press play', so to speak :-), and this is how you do that. You may
                     also need to `press play' like this in  certain  other  circumstances,  e.g.
                     TZXs  containing  multi-load  games  may have a stop-the-tape request (which
                     Fuse obeys).

              Media, Tape, Browse
                     Browse through the current tape. A brief display of each of the data  blocks
                     on  the current tape will appear, from which you can select which block Fuse
                     will play next. With the GTK+ UI, emulation will continue while the  browser
                     is  displayed;  double-clicking on a block will select it. In the other UIs,
                     emulation is paused and you can use the  cursor  keys  and  press  Enter  to
                     select it. If you decide you don't want to change block, just press Escape.

              Media, Tape, Rewind
                     Rewind the current virtual tape, so it can be read again from the beginning.

              Media, Tape, Clear
                     Clear  the current virtual tape. This is particularly useful when you want a
                     `clean slate' to  add  newly-saved  files  to,  before  doing  Media,  Tape,
                     Write...  (or F6).

              F6
              Media, Tape, Write...
                     Write  the current virtual-tape contents to a TZX file. You will be prompted
                     for  a  filename.  The  virtual-tape  contents  are  the  contents  of   the
                     previously-loaded  tape  (if any has been loaded since you last did a Media,
                     Tape, Clear), followed by anything you've saved from  the  emulated  machine
                     since.   These  newly-saved files are not written to any tape file until you
                     choose this option!

              Media, Tape, Record Start
                     Starts directly recording the output  from  the  emulated  Spectrum  to  the
                     current  virtual-tape.  This  is useful when you want to record using a non-
                     standard ROM or from  a  custom  save  routine.  Most  tape  operations  are
                     disabled  during  recording.  Stop  recording with the Media, Tape, Write...
                     menu option.

              Media, Tape, Record Stop
                     Stops the direct recording and places the new recording  into  the  virtual-
                     tape.

              Media, Interface I
                     Virtual Microdrive images are accessible only when the Interface I is active
                     from the Options, Peripherals menu. Note that any changes to the  Microdrive
                     image  will  not  be  written to the file on disk until the appropriate save
                     option is used.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Insert New
                     Insert a new (unformatted) Microdrive cartridge into emulated Microdrive 1.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Insert...
                     Insert an existing Microdrive cartridge image into  emulated  Microdrive  1.
                     You will be prompted for a filename.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Eject
                     Eject  the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1. If the image has been modified,
                     you will be asked as to whether you want any changes saved.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Save
                     Save the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Save as...
                     Write the Microdrive image in Microdrive 1 to a file. You will  be  prompted
                     for a filename.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Enable
                     Enable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 1, Write protect, Disable
                     Disable the write protect tab for the image in Microdrive 1.

              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 2, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 3, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 4, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 5, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 6, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 7, ...
              Media, Interface I, Microdrive 8, ...
                     Equivalent options for the other emulated Microdrives.

              Media, Interface I, RS232, Plug RxD
              Media, Interface I, RS232, Unplug RxD
              Media, Interface I, RS232, Plug TxD
              Media, Interface I, RS232, Unplug TxD
                     Connect  or disconnect a communication channels (FIFO or file) to use as the
                     RS-232 TxD or RxD wire.

              Media, Disk
                     Virtual floppy disk images are accessible when emulating a +3, +3e, Pentagon
                     or  Scorpion,  or  when the Beta 128, Opus Discovery or +D interface options
                     are enabled and a machine compatible with the chosen interface is  selected.
                     (See  THE  .DSK  FORMAT,  BETA 128 EMULATION OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION and +D
                     EMULATION sections below for notes on the file formats supported).

                     Once again, any changes made to a disk image will not affect the file  which
                     was  `inserted'  into the drive. If you do want to keep any changes, use the
                     appropriate `eject and write' option before exiting Fuse.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Insert...
                     Insert a disk-image file to read/write in the +3's emulated drive A:.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Eject
                     Eject the disk image currently in the +3's emulated drive A: - or  from  the
                     emulated  machine's perspective, eject it. Note that any changes made to the
                     image will not be saved.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save
                     Save the disk image currently in the +3's drive A:.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive A:, Save as...
                     Save the current state of the disk image currently in the +3's drive A: to a
                     file. You will be prompted for a filename.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Insert...
                     As  above,  but for the +3's drive B:. Fuse emulates drive B: as a second 3"
                     drive.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Eject
                     As above, but for drive B:.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save
                     As above, but for drive B:.

              Media, Disk, +3, Drive B:, Save as...
                     As above, but for drive B:.

              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert New
                     Insert a new (unformatted) disk into the emulated Beta drive A:.

              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Insert...
              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Eject
              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save
              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Save as...
                     As above, but for the emulated Beta disk drive A:.

              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Enable
                     Enable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive A:, Write protect, Disable
                     Disable the write protect tab for the image in Beta drive A:.

              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive B:, ...
              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive C:, ...
              Media, Disk, Beta, Drive D:, ...
                     As above, but for the remaining emulated Beta disk interface drives.

              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert New
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Insert...
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Eject
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Save as...
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
              Media, Disk, Opus, Drive 2, ...
                     As above, but for the emulated Opus Discovery drives.

              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert New
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Insert...
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Eject
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Save as...
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Enable
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 1, Write protect, Disable
              Media, Disk, +D, Drive 2, ...
                     As above, but for the emulated +D drives.

              Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Insert...
                     Insert a cartridge into the Timex 2068 dock. This will  cause  the  emulated
                     machine  to  be  changed to the TC2068 (if it wasn't already a 2068 variant)
                     and reset.

              Media, Cartridge, Timex Dock, Eject
                     Remove the cartridge from the Timex 2068 dock. This will cause the  emulated
                     machine to be reset.

              Media, Cartridge, Interface II, Insert...
                     Insert a cartridge into the Interface II cartridge slot. This will cause the
                     emulated machine to be reset and the cartridge loaded.

              Media, Cartridge, Interface II, Eject...
                     Remove the cartridge from the Interface II cartridge slot. This  will  cause
                     the emulated machine to be reset.

              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Insert...
                     Connect an IDE hard disk to the simple 8-bit interface's master channel.

              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit
                     Cause  any  writes which have been done to virtual hard disk attached to the
                     simple 8-bit interface's master channel to be committed to  the  real  disk,
                     such that they survive the virtual disk being ejected.

              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Eject
                     Eject  the  virtual  hard  disk  from  the  simple  8-bit interface's master
                     channel. Note that any writes to the virtual hard disk will be  lost  unless
                     the  Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master, Commit option is used before the disk
                     is ejected.

              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Insert...
              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Commit
              Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Slave, Eject
                     The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for  the
                     simple 8-bit interface's slave channel.

              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Insert...
              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Commit
              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Master, Eject
              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Insert...
              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Commit
              Media, IDE, ZXATASP, Slave, Eject
                     The  same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for the
                     two channels of the ZXATASP interface.

              Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Insert...
              Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Commit
              Media, IDE, ZXCF CompactFlash, Eject
                     The same as the Media, IDE, Simple 8-bit, Master entries above, but for  the
                     ZXCF interface's CompactFlash slot.

              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Insert...
              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Master, Commit
              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject
              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Insert...
              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Slave, Commit
              Media, IDE, DivIDE, Eject
                     The  same  as  the  Media,  IDE, Simple 8-bit entries above, but for the two
                     channels of the DivIDE interface.

              Help, Keyboard picture...
                     Display a diagram showing the Spectrum keyboard, and  the  various  keywords
                     that  can  be  generated  with each key from (48K) BASIC. Under the GTK+ UI,
                     this will appear in a separate window  and  emulation  continues.  With  the
                     other  UIs, the picture remains onscreen (and the emulator paused) until you
                     press Esc or Enter.

KEY MAPPINGS

       When emulating the Spectrum, keys F1 to F10 are used as shortcuts for various menu  items,
       as described above. The alphanumeric keys (along with Enter and Space) are mapped as-is to
       the Spectrum keys. The other key mappings are:

       Shift  emulated as Caps Shift

       Control, Alt, and Meta
              emulated as Symbol Shift (most other modifiers are also mapped to this)

       Backspace
              emulated as Caps-0 (Delete)

       Esc    emulated as Caps-1 (Edit)

       Caps Lock
              emulated as Caps-2

       Cursor keys
              emulated as Caps-5/6/7/8 (as appropriate)

       Tab    emulated as Caps Shift-Symbol Shift (Extended Mode)

       Some further punctuation keys are supported, if they exist on your keyboard  -  `,',  `.',
       `/', `;', `'', `#', `-', and `='.  These are mapped to the appropriate symbol-shifted keys
       on the Spectrum.

       A list of keys applicable when using the file selection  dialogs  is  given  in  the  FILE
       SELECTION section below.

DISPLAY SIZE

       Some  of  Fuse's  UIs  allow resizing of the emulated Spectrum's display.  For the window-
       based ones (GTK+ and Xlib), you can resize the window by, well, resizing it.  :-)  Exactly
       how  this works depends on your window manager; you may have to make the window over twice
       the width and height of the original size before it actually scales up. Fuse  attempts  to
       keep  the  window  `square',  but  with some window managers this can mean the window will
       never resize at all. If you experience this problem,  the  `--no-aspect-hint'  option  may
       help.

       If  you're  using the SDL UI under X11 or GTK+, the window will automatically resize to be
       the correct size for the graphics filter selected.

GRAPHICS FILTERS

       Fuse has the ability to apply essentially arbitrary filters between building its image  of
       the Spectrum's screen, and displaying it on the emulating machine's monitor. These filters
       can be used to do various forms of smoothing, emulation of TV scanlines and various  other
       possibilities.  Support for graphics filters varies between the different user interfaces,
       but there are two general classes: the GTK+, Xlib, SVGAlib and SDL  user  interfaces  (and
       the saving of .png screenshots) support `interpolating' filters which use a palette larger
       than the Spectrum's 16 colours, while the framebuffer user interface  currently  does  not
       support filters at all.

       A  further  complication  arises  due to the fact that the Timex machines have their high-
       resolution video mode with twice the horizontal resolution. To deal with this, Fuse treats
       these  machines  as  having  a  `normal'  display size which is twice the size of a normal
       Spectrum's screen, leading to a  different  set  of  filters  being  available  for  these
       machines.  Note  that  any  of the double or triple-sizing filters are available for Timex
       machines only when using the SDL or GTK+ user interfaces.

       The available filters, along with their short name used to select them  from  the  command
       line, are:

       Timex half (smoothed) (half)
       Timex half (skipping) (halfskip)
              Two  Timex-machine  specific  filters  which  scale  the screen down to half normal
              (Timex) size; that is, the same size as a normal Spectrum  screen.  The  difference
              between  these  two  filters  is  in  how they handle the high-resolution mode: the
              `smoothed' version is an interpolating filter  which  averages  pairs  of  adjacent
              pixels,  while  the  `skipping'  version is a non-interpolating filter which simply
              drops every other pixel.

       Normal (normal)
              The simplest filter: just display one pixel  for  every  pixel  on  the  Spectrum's
              screen.

       Double size (2x)
              Scale the displayed screen up to double size.

       Triple size (3x)
              Scale  the  displayed  screen up to triple size. Available only with the GTK+, Xlib
              and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots of non-Timex machines.

       2xSaI (2xsai)
       Super 2xSaI (super2xsai)
       SuperEagle (supereagle)
              Three interpolating filters which apply  successively  more  smoothing.  All  three
              double the size of the displayed screen.

       AdvMAME2x (advmame2x)
              A double-sizing, non-interpolating filter which attempts to smooth diagonal lines.

       AdvMAME3x (advmame3x)
              Very similar to AdvMAME2x, except that it triples the size of the displayed screen.
              Available only with  the  GTK+,  Xlib  and  SDL  user  interfaces  or  when  saving
              screenshots of non-Timex machines.

       TV 2x (tv2x)
       TV 3x (tv3x)
       Timex TV (timextv)
              Three  filters  which  attempt  to  emulate the effect of television scanlines. The
              first is a double-sizing filter for non-Timex machines, the  second  is  a  similar
              triple-sizing  filter,  while the last is a single-sizing filter for Timex machines
              (note that this means TV 2X and Timex TV produce the same size output).

       PAL TV(paltv)
       PAL TV 2x (paltv2x)
       PAL TV 3x (paltv3x)
              Three filters which attempt to emulate the effect of the PAL TV system which layers
              a lower-resolution colour image over the top of a higher-resolution black-and-white
              image. The filters can also optionally add  scanlines  like  the  other  TV  series
              scalers.

       Dot matrix (dotmatrix)
              A double-sizing filter which emulates the effect of a dot-matrix display.

       Timex 1.5x (timex15x)
              An interpolating Timex-specific filter which scales the Timex screen up to 1.5x its
              usual size (which is  therefore  3x  the  size  of  a  `normal'  Spectrum  screen).
              Available only for the GTK+ and SDL user interfaces or when saving screenshots.

THE EMULATED SPECTRUM

       The emulated Spectrum is, by default, an unmodified 48K Spectrum with a tape player and ZX
       Printer attached. Oh, and apparently some magical  snapshot  load/save  machine  which  is
       probably best glossed over for the sake of the analogy. :-)

       To  emulate  different  kinds  of Spectrum, select the Machine, Select...  menu option, or
       press F9.

       The Spectrum emulation is paused when any dialogs appear. In  the  widget  UI,  it's  also
       paused when menus or the keyboard picture are displayed.

PRINTER EMULATION

       The  various  models  of  Spectrum supported a range of ways to connect printers, three of
       which are supported by Fuse. Different printers  are  made  available  for  the  different
       models:

       16, 48, TC2048, TC2068, TS2068
              ZX Printer

       128/+2/Pentagon
              Serial printer (text-only)

       +2A, +3
              Parallel printer (text-only)

       If  Opus  Discovery  or +D emulation is in use and printer emulation is enabled, text-only
       emulation of the disk interface's parallel printer interface is provided.

       Any printout is appended to one (or both) of two files, depending on the printer  -  these
       default  to  printout.txt  for  text output, and printout.pbm for graphics (PBM images are
       supported by most image viewers and converters). These  names  can  be  changed  with  the
       --textfile  and  --graphicsfile options from the command line or configuration file. While
       the ZX Printer can only output graphically, simulated text output is generated at the same
       time  using  a  crude  sort  of  OCR  based on the current character set (a bit like using
       SCREEN$). There is currently no  support  for  graphics  when  using  the  serial/parallel
       output, though any escape codes used will be `printed' faithfully. (!)

       By  the  way,  it's not a good idea to modify the printout.pbm file outside of Fuse if you
       want to continue appending to it. The header needs to have a certain layout for Fuse to be
       able  to  continue appending to it correctly, and the file will be overwritten if it can't
       be appended to.

ZXATASP AND ZXCF

       The ZXATASP and ZXCF  interfaces  are  two  peripherals  designed  by  Sami  Vehmaa  which
       significantly  extend the capabilities of the Spectrum. More details on both are available
       from Sami's homepage, http://user.tninet.se/~vjz762w/, but a brief overview is given here.

       The real ZXATASP comes with either 128K or 512K of RAM and the ability to connect  an  IDE
       hard  disks  and a CompactFlash card, while the ZXCF comes with 128K, 512K or 1024K of RAM
       and the ability to connect a CompactFlash card. From an emulation point of view,  the  two
       interfaces  are actually very similar as a CompactFlash card is logically just an IDE hard
       disk. Currently, Fuse's emulation is fixed at having 512K of RAM in the ZXATASP and  1024K
       in the ZXCF.

       To  activate  the  ZXATASP,  simply  select the ZXATASP interface option from the Options,
       Peripherals...  dialog. The state  of  the  upload  and  write  protect  jumpers  is  then
       controlled by the ZXATASP upload and ZXATASP write protect options. Similarly, the ZXCF is
       controlled by the ZXCF interface and ZXCF  upload  options  (the  ZXCF  write  protect  is
       software controlled).

       If  you're  using  either  the  ZXATASP  or ZXCF, you almost certainly want to investigate
       ResiDOS, the operating system designed for use with the ZXATASP and ZXCF. ResiDOS provides
       facilities  for using the extra RAM, accessing the mass storage devices and a task manager
       allowing  virtually  instant   switching   between   programs   on   the   Spectrum.   See
       http://www.worldofspectrum.org/residos/ for more details.

DIVIDE

       The  DivIDE  is another IDE interface for the Spectrum, of which full details can be found
       at http://baze.au.com/divide/.  The interface can be activated via  the  DivIDE  interface
       option from the Options, Peripherals...  dialog, and the state of its write protect jumper
       controlled via the DivIDE write protect option.  If you're going to be using  the  DivIDE,
       you'll probably want one of the firmwares available from the DivIDE homepage.

FILE SELECTION

       The  way  you  select  a  file  (whether snapshot or tape file) depends on which UI you're
       using. So firstly, here's how to use the GTK+ file selector.

       The selector shows the directories and files in the  current  directory  in  two  separate
       subwindows.  If  either list is too big to fit in the window, you can use the scrollbar to
       see the rest (by dragging the slider, for example), or you can use Shift-Tab (to move  the
       keyboard focus to a subwindow) and use the cursor keys.  To change directory, double-click
       it.

       To choose a file to load you can either double-click it, or click it then  click  Ok.   Or
       click Cancel to abort.

       If  you're  using  the  keyboard,  probably the easiest way to use the selector is to just
       ignore it and type in the name. This isn't as irksome as it  sounds,  since  the  filename
       input box has filename completion - type part of a directory or file name, then press Tab.
       It should complete it. If it  was  a  directory,  it  moves  to  that  directory;  if  the
       completion  was  ambiguous,  it  completes  as much as possible, and narrows the filenames
       shown to those which match. You  should  press  Enter  when  you've  finished  typing  the
       filename, or Esc to abort.

       Now,  if you're using the widget UI - the one using the Spectrum font - the selector works
       a bit differently. The files and directories are all listed in  a  single  two-column-wide
       window  (the directories are shown at the top, ending in `/') - the names may be truncated
       onscreen if they're too long to fit.

       To move the cursor, you can either use  the  cursor  keys,  or  the  Spectrum  equivalents
       5/6/7/8,  or  (similarly)  h/j/k/l. For faster movement, the Page Up, Page Down, Home, and
       End keys are supported and do what you'd expect. To select  a  file  or  directory,  press
       Enter.  To abort, press Esc.

       With  both selectors, do bear in mind that all files are shown, whether Fuse would be able
       to load them or not.

MONITOR/DEBUGGER

       Firstly, note that the vast majority of this section applies only if you're using the GTK+
       user interface; if you're using one of the widget user interfaces, you'll get a very basic
       monitor which shows the current values of the registers and  allows  you  to  single  step
       through execution or continue.

       If  you are using the GTK+ user interface, Fuse features a moderately powerful, completely
       transparent monitor/debugger, which can be activated via the Machine, Debugger  ...   menu
       option.  A debugger window will appear, showing the current state of the emulated machine:
       the top-left `pane' shows the current state of the Z80 and the last bytes written  to  any
       emulated peripherals. The bottom-left pane lists any active breakpoints. Moving right, the
       next pane shows where the Spectrum's 64K memory map (the `W?'  and `C?'  indicate  whether
       each 8K chunk is writable or contended respectively), and the next a disassembly, which by
       default starts at the current program counter, although this can be modified either by the
       `disassemble'  command  (see below) or by dragging the scrollbar next to it. The next pane
       shows the current stack, and the final pane any `events' which are due to occur and  could
       affect  emulation.  Any  of  these panes can be removed by use of the View menu. Below the
       displays are an entry box for debugger commands, and  five  buttons  for  controlling  the
       debugger:

       Evaluate
              Evaluate the command currently in the entry box.

       Single Step
              Run precisely one Z80 opcode and then stop emulation again.

       Continue
              Restart  emulation,  but  leave  the  debugger  window open. Note that the debugger
              window will not be updated while emulation is running.

       Break
              Stop emulation and return to the debugger.

       Close
              Close the debugger window and restart emulation.

       Double-clicking on an entry in the stack pane  will  cause  emulation  to  run  until  the
       program  counter  reaches  the  value  stored at that address, while double-clicking on an
       entry in the `events' pane will cause emulation to run until that time is reached.

       The main power of the debugger is via the commands entered into the entry box,  which  are
       similar  in nature (but definitely not identical to or as powerful as) to those in gdb(1).
       In general, the debugger is case-insensitive, and numbers will be interpreted as  decimal,
       unless  prefixed  by either `0x' or `$' when they will be interpreted as hex. Each command
       can be abbreviated to the portion not in curly braces.

       ba{se} number
              Change the debugger window to displaying output in base number.   Available  values
              are 10 (decimal) or 16 (hex).

       br{eakpoint} [address] [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to stop emulation and return to the debugger whenever an opcode is
              executed at address and  condition  evaluates  true.  If  address  is  omitted,  it
              defaults to the current value of PC.

       br{eakpoint} p{ort} (r{ead}|w{rite}) port [condition]
              Set  a  breakpoint  to trigger whenever IO port port is read from or written to and
              condition evaluates true.

       br{eakpoint} (r{ead}|w{rite}) [address] [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to trigger whenever memory location address is  read  from  (other
              than  via  an  opcode  fetch)  or written to and condition evaluates true.  Address
              again defaults to the current value of PC if omitted.

       br{eakpoint} ti{me} time [condition]
              Set a breakpoint to occur time tstates after the start of the every frame, assuming
              condition evaluates true (if one is given).

       br{eakpoint} ev{ent} area:detail [condition]
              Set  a  breakpoint  to  occur  when  the  event specified by area:detail occurs and
              condition evaluates to true. The events which can be caught are:

              divide:page
              divide:unpage
                     The DivIDE interface is paged into or out of memory respectively
              if1:page
              if1:unpage
                     The Interface 1 shadow ROM is paged into or out of memory
              rzx:end
                     An RZX recording finishes playing
              tape:play
              tape:stop
                     The emulated tape starts or stops playing
              zxcf:page
              zxcf:unpage
                     The ZXCF interface is paged into or out of memory
              zxatasp:page
              zxatasp:unpage
                     The ZXATASP interface is paged into or out of memory

              In all cases, the event can be specified as area:* to catch all  events  from  that
              area.

       cl{ear} [address]
              Remove all breakpoints at address or the current value of PC if address is omitted.
              Port read/write breakpoints are unaffected.

       com{mmands} id <newline>
       <debugger command> <newline>
       <debugger command> <newline>
       ...
       end
              Set things such that the specified debugger commands will be automatically executed
              when  breakpoint id is triggered. There is currently no user interface for entering
              multi-line debugger commands, so the only way to specify this  command  is  on  the
              command-line via the --debugger-command option.

       cond{ition} id [condition]
              Set  breakpoint  id  to  trigger only when condition is true, or unconditionally if
              condition is omitted.

       co{ntinue}
              Equivalent to the Continue button.

       del{ete} [id]
              Remove breakpoint id, or all breakpoints if id is omitted.

       di{sassemble} address
              Set the centre panel disassembly to begin at address.

       ex{it}
              Exit the emulator immediately.

       fi{nish}
              Exit from the current CALL or  equivalent.  This  isn't  infallible:  it  works  by
              setting  a  temporary  breakpoint  at the current contents of the stack pointer, so
              will not function correctly if the code returns to some other point or  plays  with
              its  stack  in  other  ways.  Also,  setting  this breakpoint doesn't disable other
              breakpoints, which may trigger  before  this  one.  In  that  case,  the  temporary
              breakpoint remains, and the `continue' command can be used to return to it.

       i{gnore} id count
              Do not trigger the next count times that breakpoint id would have triggered.

       n{ext}
              Step  to  the  opcode following the current one. As with the `finish' command, this
              works by setting a temporary breakpoint at the next opcode, so is not infallible.

       o{ut} port value
              Write value to IO port port.

       pr{int} expression
              Print the value of expression to standard output.

       se{t} address value
              Poke value into memory at address.

       se{t} register value
              Set the value of the Z80 register register to value.

       se{t} $variable value
              Set the value of the debugger variable variable to value.

       s{tep}
              Equivalent to the Single Step button.

       t{breakpoint} [options]
              This is the same as the `breakpoint' command in its various forms, except that that
              breakpoint is temporary: it will trigger once and once only, and then be removed.

       Addresses can be specified in one of two forms: either an absolute addresses, specified by
       an integer in the range 0x0000 to 0xFFFF or as a `page:offset' combination,  which  refers
       to  a  location offset bytes into into memory bank page, independent of where that bank is
       currently paged into memory. RAM pages are indicated simply by an integer, while ROMs  are
       prefixed by `R' (e.g. offset 0x1234 in ROM 1 is specified as `R1:0x1234').  Pages selected
       via the /ROMCS line are prefixed with `C', while the Timex Dock and Exrom use prefixes `D'
       and `X' respectively. The 48K machines are treated as having a permanent mapping of page 5
       at 0x4000, page 2 at 0x8000 and page 0 at 0xC000; the 16K Spectrum is  treated  as  having
       page 5 at 0x4000 and no page at 0x8000 and 0xC000.

       Anywhere  the  debugger is expecting a numeric value, except where it expects a breakpoint
       id, you can instead use a numeric expression, which  uses  a  restricted  version  of  C's
       syntax;  exactly the same syntax is used for conditional breakpoints, with `0' being false
       and any other value being true. In numeric expressions, you can use integer constants (all
       calculations  are done in integers), register names (which simply evaluate to the value of
       the register), debugger variables, parentheses, the standard four numeric operations (`+',
       `-',  `*'  and  `/'), the (non-)equality operators `==' and `!=', the comparison operators
       `>', `<', `>=' and `<=', bitwise and (`&'), or (`|') and exclusive or  (`^')  and  logical
       and (`&&') and or (`||').

THE POKE FINDER

       The  `poke finder' is a tool which is designed to make the task of finding (infinite lives
       etc.) pokes for games a bit easier: it is similar to the  `Lifeguard'  utility  which  was
       available for use with the Multiface. It works by maintaining a list of locations in which
       the current number of lives (etc.) may be stored, and having the ability  to  remove  from
       that list any locations which don't contain a specified value.

       The  poke finder dialog contains an entry box for specifying the value to be searched for,
       a count of the current number of possible  locations  and,  if  there  are  less  than  20
       possible  locations,  a list of the possible locations (in `page:offset' format). The five
       buttons act as follows:

       Incremented
              Remove from the list of possible  locations  all  addresses  which  have  not  been
              incremented since the last search.
       Decremented
              Remove  from  the  list  of  possible  locations  all addresses which have not been
              decremented since the last search.

       Search
              Remove from the list of possible locations all addresses which do not  contain  the
              value specified in the `Search for' field.

       Reset
              Reset the poke finder so that all locations are considered possible.

       Close
              Close  the  dialog.  Note  that  this  does not reset the current state of the poke
              finder.

       Double-clicking on an entry in the list of possible locations will cause a  breakpoint  to
       be set to trigger whenever that location is written to.

       An example of how to use this may make things a bit clearer. We'll use the 128K version of
       Gryzor. Load the game, define keys to suit and start playing. Immediately pause  the  game
       and  bring up the poke finder dialog. We note that we currently have 6 lives, so enter `6'
       into the `Search for' field and click  `Search'.  This  reduces  the  number  of  possible
       locations to around 931 (you may get a slightly different number depending on exactly when
       you paused the game). Play along a bit and then (deliberately) lose a life. Pause the game
       again.  As  we  now have 5 lives, replace the `6' in the 'Search for' field with a `5' and
       click `Search' again. This then reduces the list of possible locations to just  one:  page
       2, offset 0x00BC. This is the only location in memory which stored `6' when we had 6 lives
       and `5' when we had 5 lives, so its pretty likely that this is where the  lives  count  is
       stored.  Double-clicking  on  the  `2:0x00BC' entry in the dialog will set the appropriate
       breakpoint (you may wish to open the debugger at this point to confirm this). Play along a
       bit  more. When you next lose a life, emulation is stopped with PC at 0x91CD. Scrolling up
       a few addresses in the debugger's disassembly pane shows a value was  loaded  from  0x80BC
       (our hypothetical lives counter), decremented and then stored again to 0x80BC, which looks
       very much like the code to reduce the number of lives. We can  now  use  the  debugger  to
       replace  the  decrement  with a NOP (`set 0x91c9 0'), and playing the game some more after
       this reveals that this has worked and we now have infinite lives.

THE .DSK FORMAT

       In general, disk images for the +3 Spectrum  are  thought  of  as  being  in  DSK  format.
       However,  this is actually an slight oversimplification; there in in fact two similar, but
       not identical, DSK formats. (The difference can be seen by doing `head  -1  dskfile':  one
       format will start `MV - CPCEMU' and the other will start `EXTENDED').

       Fuse supports both the `CPCEMU' and `EXTENDED' formats.

BETA 128 EMULATION

       Fuse  supports  Betadisk  emulation in its Pentagon and Scorpion emulation, and also under
       48K, TC2048, 128K and +2 (but not +2A) emulation if the Beta 128 interface option from the
       Options,  Peripherals...   dialog  is enabled.  See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for mode
       details on supported disk file formats.

OPUS DISCOVERY EMULATION

       By default, Fuse emulates the Opus Discovery interface with the optional 2k RAM  expansion
       and a second 40 track single sided disk drive.  See the DISK FILE FORMATS section for mode
       details on supported disk file formats. The Opus Discovery's printer port is also emulated
       for  output only. (See the PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.) The Opus Discovery
       may only be used with 16K, 48K, 128K, TC2048 and +2 (not +2A) emulation.  To access disks,
       use the same syntax as Interface I and Microdrives.

+D EMULATION

       Fuse  supports  emulating  the  +D  disk  and printer interface. See the DISK FILE FORMATS
       section for mode details on  supported  disk  file  formats.  The  +D's  printer  port  is
       emulated.  (See  the  PRINTER EMULATION section for more details.) The +D may only be used
       with 48K, 128K and +2 (not +2A) emulation.  To access disks, you will first need  to  load
       G+DOS, by inserting a disk containing the DOS file (+SYS) and entering "RUN".  Once DOS is
       loaded, you can load to/from +D disks by prefixing filenames with `dn' where  `n'  is  the
       number  of  the  drive  in  use.  For example, `LOAD d1"myfile"' would load the file named
       `myfile' from the emulated drive 1.  Microdrive syntax may also be used.

       To save a snapshot, choose the `Machine, NMI' menu option, and then press `4'  to  save  a
       48K  snapshot, or `5' to save a 128K snapshot.  When saving a 128K snapshot, you must then
       press Y or N to indicate whether the screen changed while saving the snapshot,  to  finish
       saving.   You can also choose `3' to save a screenshot to disk.  Options `1' and `2' allow
       screenshots to be printed (in monochrome) if printer emulation is enabled.

DISK FILE FORMATS

       Fuse supports several disk image formats in its +D and Beta 128 emulation.

       For reading:

       .UDI
              Ultra       Disk       Image;       for       specification       please        see
              http://scratchpad.wikia.com/wiki/Spectrum_emulator_file_format:_udi              or
              http://zxmak.narod.ru/docs.htm
              This is the only image format which can store all the relevant information  of  the
              recorded  data  on  a  magnetic  disk,  so it can be used for any non standard disk
              format. Fuse can read all extended track types too (mixed FM/MFM,  or  tracks  with
              'WEAK' data or even compressed tracks too).

       .FDI
              UKV Spectrum Debugger disk image format.

       .MGT .IMG
              DISCiPLE/+D file formats.

       .SAD .SDF
              For  compatibility  with  SAM Coupé disk images using these formats.  Note that SAM
              Coupé `.DSK' images share the same format as `.MGT'.

       .TRD
              TR-DOS     disk     image;     for     detailed     information     please      see
              http://www.retroplay.com/Mecenate/ramsoft/tr-info.zip

       .SCL
              A simple archive format for TR-DOS disk files.

       .TD0
              Teledisk  image  format;  Fuse  supports  only files which do not use the "Advanced
              Compression"       option.       Detailed        description        found        in
              http://www.classiccmp.org/dunfield/img/td0notes.txt                             and
              http://www.fpns.net/willy/wteledsk.htm

       .DSK
              CPC disk image format; Fuse supports the plain old and the new extended CPC  format
              too.  Further  information  please  see  the THE .DSK FORMAT section and the CPCEMU
              manual   section    7.7.1    http://www.cpc-emu.org/linux/cpcemu_e.txt    or    the
              http://www.kjthacker.f2s.com/docs/extdsk.html

       .OPD .OPU
              Opus Discovery file formats.

       Fuse  supports  most  of the above formats for writing: .UDI .FDI .MGT .IMG .SAD .TRD .SCL
       .OPD .OPU .DSK (only the old CPC format).
       You can save disk images with any output format, just select  the  appropriate  extension.
       (e.g.  ` elite3.udi ' to save as an UDI file). If the appropriate libraries were available
       when libspectrum(3) was compiled, than Fuse will try to create UDI images with  compressed
       tracks  to  save disk space.  There is a .LOG ` image ' format for debugging purpose. This
       is a plain text file contains three dump of the loaded disk image  at  different  details.
       Not  all  image  formats  can store all disk images.  You cannot save a disk image with an
       inappropriate format that loses some information (e.g. variable  track  length  or  sector
       length).

WEAK DISK DATA

       Some  copy protections have what is described as 'weak/random' data.  Each time the sector
       is read one or more bytes will change, the value may be random between  consecutive  reads
       of  the same sector.  Two disk image formats (Extended DSK and UDI) can store this type of
       data.  Fuse can read and use weak sector data from EDSK and UDI files  when  present,  and
       can save back weak sector data to UDI image format.

COMPRESSED FILES

       Assuming  the  appropriate  libraries  were  available  when  libspectrum(3) was compiled,
       snapshots, tape images, dock cartridges and input recording files can be read  from  files
       compressed with bzip2(3) or gzip(3) just as if they were uncompressed.  There is currently
       no support for reading compressed +3, +D or Beta disk images.

BUGS

       Selecting a startup filter doesn't work properly with user interfaces other than  SDL  and
       GTK+.

       Changing  virtual consoles when using SVGAlib for joystick support causes Fuse to exit. If
       this is a problem, compile Fuse with the `--disable-ui-joystick' option.

       The poke finder can't search outside `normal' RAM.

       Using the Options, Joysticks, Joystick 1...  or Options, Joysticks, Joystick 2...  options
       under  GTK+  2.x  produces  a  large  number of GTK+ critical warnings. This is a GTK+ bug
       (#144427), which is fixed in GTK+ 2.4.4.

       The libao file output devices not work properly with the GTK+ UI.  No error reporting, but
       the  created  file  does  not  contain any sound data.  If you use a `weak' machine alsa09
       makes a lot of clicks and pops and will output `ALSA:  underrun,  at  least  0ms.'   error
       messages.

FILES

       ~/.fuserc

SEE ALSO

       bzip2(3), fuse-utils(1), gzip(3), libspectrum(3), ogg123(1), xspect(1), xzx(1)

       The comp.sys.sinclair Spectrum FAQ, at
       http://www.worldofspectrum.org/faq/index.html.

AUTHOR

       Philip Kendall (philip-fuse@shadowmagic.org.uk).

       Matan  Ziv-Av  wrote  the  SVGAlib and framebuffer UIs, the glib replacement code, and did
       some work on the OSS-specific sound code and the original widget UI code.

       Russell Marks wrote  the  sound  emulation  and  OSS-specific  sound  code,  the  joystick
       emulation, some of the printer code, and the original version of this man page.

       John  Elliott's  lib765  and  libdsk libraries were used for the original +3 disk and disk
       image support.

       Ian Collier wrote the ZX Printer emulation (for xz80).

       Darren Salt wrote the original versions of the code for +3 emulation, SLT support,  MITSHM
       support  (for  the  Xlib UI), TZX raw data blocks, RZX embedded snapshots and compression,
       the Kempston mouse emulation and made many improvements to the widget code.

       Alexander Yurchenko wrote the OpenBSD/Solaris-specific sound code.

       Fredrick Meunier wrote the TC2048, TS2068, Pentagon and Spectrum SE support, the CoreAudio
       sound code, as well as maintaining the OS X port and importing the graphics filter code.

       Ludvig Strigeus and The ScummVM project wrote the original graphics filter code.

       Dmitry Sanarin wrote the original Beta disk interface emulation (for Glukalka).

       Witold Filipczyk wrote the TC2068 support.

       Matthew Westcott wrote the AY logging code and the DivIDE emulation.

       Marek  Januszewski wrote various bits of code to make Fuse work under Win32, including the
       DirectDraw user interface.

       Stuart Brady wrote the +D emulation, Scorpion emulation and the HP-UX sound code.

       Garry Lancaster wrote the 8-bit IDE, ZXATASP and ZXCF interface emulations.

       Gergely Szasz wrote the Interface I and Microdrive emulation, the PAL TV scalers,  the  TV
       3x  scaler,  the movie logging code, the libao sound code, the upd765 disk controller used
       in the +3 and made many improvements to the widget code.

       Michael D Wynne wrote the original Opus disk interface emulation (for EightyOne).