Provided by: genisoimage_1.1.11-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       genisoimage - create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS

       genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION

       genisoimage is a pre-mastering program to generate ISO9660/Joliet/HFS hybrid filesystems.

       genisoimage  is  capable  of  generating  the  System  Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP)
       specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This is used to  further  describe  the
       files  in  the  ISO9660  filesystem  to a Unix host, and provides information such as long
       filenames, UID/GID, POSIX permissions, symbolic links,  and  block  and  character  device
       files.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS hybrid command line options are specified, genisoimage will create the
       additional filesystem metadata needed for  Joliet  or  HFS.   Otherwise  genisoimage  will
       generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem.

       genisoimage can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen
       as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files when accessed from  other
       machines.  HFS  stands  for  Hierarchical File System and is the native filesystem used on
       Macintosh computers.

       As an alternative, genisoimage can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 for each file.
       These  extensions  provide  each  file  with  CREATOR,  TYPE and certain Finder flags when
       accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       genisoimage takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which
       will correspond to an ISO9660 and/or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each  file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (up to
       8 characters, period, up to 3 characters, all uppercase), even if Rock Ridge  is  in  use.
       This  filename  is  used  on  systems  that  are  not  able  to make use of the Rock Ridge
       extensions (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must  be  different  from
       the  other  filenames  in the same directory.  genisoimage generally tries to form correct
       names by forcing the Unix filename to uppercase and truncating as required, but often this
       yields  unsatisfactory  results  when the truncated names are not all unique.  genisoimage
       assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that  are  otherwise  the  same  are
       found, the name with the lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit number (guaranteed
       to be unique).  For example, the two files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ could  be  rendered  as
       FOO.BAR;1 and FOO000.BAR;1.

       When  used with various HFS options, genisoimage will attempt to recognise files stored in
       a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the data and resource forks as  well  as
       any relevant Finder information. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more
       about formats genisoimage supports.

       Note that genisoimage is not designed to  communicate  with  the  writer  directly.   Most
       writers have proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you
       need a specialized tool to actually burn the disc.  wodim is one such  tool.   The  latest
       version of wodim is available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       pathspec  is  the  path  of  the  directory tree to be copied into the ISO9660 filesystem.
       Multiple paths can be specified, and genisoimage will merge the files found in all of  the
       specified path components to form the filesystem image.

       If  the  option  -graft-points  has  been  specified, it is possible to graft the paths at
       points other than the root directory, and it is possible to  graft  files  or  directories
       onto  the  cdrom  image with names different than what they have in the source filesystem.
       This is easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples.  Let's start by assuming  that  a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

              foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

              foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will  include  old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax can be
       used with directories as well.  genisoimage will create any directories required such that
       the  graft  points exist on the cdrom image — the directories do not need to appear in one
       of the paths.  By default, any directories that are created on the fly like this will have
       permissions  0555  and  appear to be owned by the person running genisoimage.  If you wish
       other permissions or owners of the intermediate directories, see  -uid,  -gid,  -dir-mode,
       -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       genisoimage will also run on Windows machines when compiled with Cygnus' cygwin (available
       from http://www.cygwin.com/).  Therefore most references in this man page to Unix  can  be
       replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS

       Several  options  can  be specified as defaults in a .genisoimagerc configuration file, as
       well as on the command line.  If a parameter is specified in both places, the setting from
       the  command line is used.  For details on the format and possible locations of this file,
       see genisoimagerc(5).

       -abstract file
              Specifies the abstract filename.  There is space for 37 characters.  Equivalent  to
              ABST in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -A application_id
              Specifies  a  text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should
              describe the application that will  be  on  the  disc.   There  is  space  for  128
              characters.  Equivalent to APPI in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -allow-limited-size
              When  processing  files  larger  than  2GiB  which  cannot be easily represented in
              ISO9660, add them with a shrunk visible file size to ISO9660 and with  the  correct
              visible  file  size to the UDF system. The result is an inconsistent filesystem and
              users need to make sure that they really use UDF rather than ISO9660 driver to read
              a such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period.  Usually, a leading dot is replaced
              with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
              with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This options allows lowercase characters to appear in ISO9660 filenames.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on some systems.  Use
              with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This options allows more than one dot to appear in ISO9660  filenames.   A  leading
              dot   is  not  affected  by  this  option,  it  may  be  allowed  separately  using
              -allow-leading-dots.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
              with caution.

       -biblio file
              Specifies   the   bibliographic  filename.   There  is  space  for  37  characters.
              Equivalent to BIBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -cache-inodes

       -no-cache-inodes
              Enable or disable caching inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
              genisoimage  finds  a hard link (a file with multiple names), the file will also be
              hard-linked on the CD, so the file contents only appear once.  This helps  to  save
              space.    -cache-inodes   is   default   on   Unix-like   operating   systems,  but
              -no-cache-inodes is default on some other systems such as Cygwin, because it is not
              safe  to  assume that inode numbers are unique on those systems.  (Some versions of
              Cygwin create fake inode numbers using a weak hashing algorithm, which may  produce
              duplicates.)  If two files have the same inode number but are not hard links to the
              same file, genisoimage -cache-inodes will not behave  correctly.   -no-cache-inodes
              is  safe  in all situations, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect hard links,
              so the resulting CD image may be larger than necessary.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the  boot  image  to  be  used  when  making  an
              Alpha/SRM  bootable  CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified
              to genisoimage.

       -hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when  making  an  HPPA
              bootable  CD.  The  pathname  must  be  relative  to  the  source path specified to
              genisoimage.  Other options are required, at the very least a kernel filename and a
              boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
              Specifies  the  command  line  to  be  passed to the HPPA boot loader when making a
              bootable CD. Separate the parameters with spaces or commas. More  options  must  be
              passed  to  genisoimage,  at  the  very least a kernel filename and the boot loader
              filename.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
              Specifies the path and filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit  kernel  images  to  be
              used  when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathnames must be relative to the source
              path specified to genisoimage.  Other options are required, at the very  least  the
              boot  loader  filename and the boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES section below
              for more information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be used when making an HPPA
              bootable  CD.  The  pathname  must  be  relative  to  the  source path specified to
              genisoimage.  This parameter is optional.  Other options are required, at the  very
              least a kernel filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES section below
              for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the  boot  image  to  be  used  when  making  an
              SGI/big-endian  MIPS  bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path
              specified to genisoimage.  This option may be specified several times, to store  up
              to 15 boot images.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename  of  the  boot  image to be used when making an
              DEC/little-endian MIPS bootable CD. The pathname must be  relative  to  the  source
              path specified to genisoimage.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies  a comma-separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable
              CD for SPARC systems.  Partition 0 is used for the ISO9660 image, the  first  image
              file  is  mapped to partition 1.  The comma-separated list may have up to 7 fields,
              including empty fields.  This option is required to make  a  bootable  CD  for  Sun
              SPARC  systems.   If  -B or -sparc-boot has been specified, the first sector of the
              resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk label  specifies  slice  0
              for  the  ISO9660  image  and  slices  1  to  7  for the boot images that have been
              specified with this option. Byte offsets 512 to 8191 within each of the  additional
              boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot  that works for the appropriate SPARC
              architecture. The rest of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem used
              for the primary kernel boot stage.

              The  implemented  boot  method  is  the  one  found  with  SunOS 4.x and SunOS 5.x.
              However, it does not depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of  the  Open
              Boot  prom,  so  it  should  be  usable  for  any  OS  for SPARC systems.  For more
              information also see the NOTES section below.

              If the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all following boot  partitions
              are mapped to the previous partition. If genisoimage is called with -G image -B ...
              all boot  partitions  are  mapped  to  the  partition  that  contains  the  ISO9660
              filesystem image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16 sectors
              of the disc is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making  a
              generic  bootable CD.  The boot image will be placed on the first 16 sectors of the
              CD, before the ISO9660 primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used  together
              with  -sparc-boot,  the  Sun  disk  label  will  overlay the first 512 bytes of the
              generic boot image.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be  used  when  making  an  El
              Torito  bootable  CD  for x86 PCs. The pathname must be relative to the source path
              specified to genisoimage.  This option is required to make an  El  Torito  bootable
              CD.   The  boot  image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440 kB or 2880 kB, and genisoimage
              will use this size when creating the output ISO9660 filesystem.  The PC  BIOS  will
              use the image to emulate a floppy disk, so the first 512-byte sector should contain
              PC boot code.  This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO-based  boot
              floppy.

              If  the  boot  image  is  not  an  image  of  a  floppy,  you  need  to  add either
              -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not boot off  the  emulated
              disk, use -no-boot.

              If  -sort has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with low priority (+2)
              to the beginning of the medium.  If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort
              weight of 0 for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start with a new set of El Torito boot parameters.  Up to 63 El Torito boot entries
              may be stored on a single CD.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable CDs is a hard  disk
              image.  The  image  must  begin  with  a  master boot record that contains a single
              partition.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies that the boot image used to create  El  Torito  bootable  CDs  is  a  "no
              emulation"  image.  The  system will load and execute this image without performing
              any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies that the created El Torito CD should  be  marked  as  not  bootable.  The
              system  will  provide an emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard
              boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load segment address of the boot image  for  no-emulation  El  Torito
              CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation mode.
              The default is to load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this
              is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a  56-byte  table  with  information  of the CD-ROM layout will be
              patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this option is given, the boot file is
              modified  in  the  source  filesystem,  so make a copy of this file if it cannot be
              easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description of
              this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This  option  is  needed to create a CD Extra or the image of a second session or a
              higher-level session for a multisession disc.  -C takes two numbers separated by  a
              comma. The first is the first sector in the last session of the disc that should be
              appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of the  new  session.
              The correct numbers may be retrieved by calling wodim -msinfo ...  If -C is used in
              conjunction with -M, genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is intended to
              be  a  continuation of the previous session.  If -C is used without -M, genisoimage
              will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a second session  on
              a  CD  Extra.  This is a multisession CD that holds audio data in the first session
              and an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog, which is required  for  an  El
              Torito  bootable  CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to
              genisoimage.  This file will be inserted into the output tree and  not  created  in
              the  source filesystem, so be sure the specified filename does not conflict with an
              existing file, or it will be excluded. Usually a name like boot.catalog is chosen.

              If -sort has not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with low priority (+1)  to
              the  beginning  of  the medium.  If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort
              weight of 0 for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check all filenames imported from the old session for compliance with  the  ISO9660
              file  naming  rules.  Without this option, only names longer than 31 characters are
              checked, as these files are a serious violation of the ISO9660 standard.

       -check-session file
              Check all old sessions for compliance with actual genisoimage ISO9660  file  naming
              rules.   This  is a high-level option that combines -M file -C 0,0 -check-oldnames.
              For the parameter file, see the description of -M.

       -copyright file
              Specifies copyright information, typically a filename on the disc.  There is  space
              for 37 characters.  Equivalent to COPY in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -d     Do not append a period to files that do not have one.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
              with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we  see
              them.
              If  ISO9660:1999  has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660 standard, but it
              happens to work on many systems.  Use with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides the mode of directories used to create the image to mode, specified as  4
              digits  of  permission bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically enables Rock
              Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is done by sorting the order of
              the  content  of  the  appropriate files and by adding padding between the files if
              needed.  Note that the sorting  only  works  if  the  DVD-Video  filenames  include
              uppercase characters only.

              Note  that  in  order  to  get  a DVD-Video compliant filesystem image, you need to
              prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.  This requires a  directory  VIDEO_TS
              (all  caps)  in  the  root  directory  of  the  resulting  DVD, and usually another
              directory AUDIO_TS.  VIDEO_TS needs to include all needed files (filenames must  be
              all caps) for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow  symbolic  links when generating the filesystem.  When this option is not in
              use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge  if  enabled,  otherwise  they
              will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides  the mode of regular files used to create the image to mode, specified as
              4 digits of permission bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically enables Rock
              Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
              Overrides  the group ID read from the source files to the value of gid.  Specifying
              this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output  more  verbose  but
              may have other effects in the future.

       -graft-points
              Allow  use of graft points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames are
              checked for graft points. The filename is divided  at  the  first  unescaped  equal
              sign.  All  occurrences  of  `\'  and  `='  characters  must be escaped with `\' if
              -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide any files matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern,  from  being  seen  in  the
              ISO9660  or Rock Ridge directory.  glob may match any part of the filename or path.
              If glob matches a directory, the contents of that directory  will  be  hidden.   In
              order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing
              `/' character.  All the hidden files will still be written to the output  CD  image
              file.   See  also  -hide-joliet, and README.hide.  This option may be used multiple
              times.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden.  See -hide.

       -hidden glob
              Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for  files  and  directories
              matching  glob,  a  shell  wildcard pattern.  This attribute will prevent the files
              from being shown by some MS-DOS and Windows commands.  glob may match any  part  of
              the  filename  or path.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname
              does not include a trailing `/' character.  This option may be used multiple times.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards  to  get  the  hidden  attribute.   See
              -hidden.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being seen
              in the Joliet directory.  glob may match any part of the filename or path.  If glob
              matches  a  directory,  the contents of that directory will be hidden.  In order to
              match a directory name, make sure the pathname does  not  include  a  trailing  `/'
              character.  All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image file.
              This option is usually used with -hide.  See also README.hide.  This option may  be
              used multiple times.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden from the Joliet tree.  See
              -hide-joliet.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.   These  files  usually  don't  make
              sense in the Joliet world as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may
              both be different from the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree.  It seems to  be
              impossible  to  completely  hide  the  RR_MOVED directory from the Rock Ridge tree.
              This option only makes the visible tree less confusing for people  who  don't  know
              what  this directory is for.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all, you
              should use -D.  Note that if -D has been specified, the resulting filesystem is not
              ISO9660  level-1  compliant and will not be readable on MS-DOS.  See also the NOTES
              section.

       -input-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in local filenames.  To get  a  list
              of  valid  charset  names,  call  genisoimage  -input-charset  help.   To get a 1:1
              mapping, you may use default as charset name. The default initial values are  cp437
              on  DOS-based  systems  and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See the CHARACTER SETS
              section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output charset that defines  the  characters  that  will  be  used  in  Rock  Ridge
              filenames.   Defaults  to  the input charset.  See CHARACTER SETS section below for
              more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to 4.

              With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to
              8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988) do apply.

              With  all  ISO9660  levels  from  1 to 3, all filenames are restricted to uppercase
              letters, numbers and underscores (_).  Filenames  are  limited  to  31  characters,
              directory  nesting  is  limited  to  8  levels,  and  pathnames  are limited to 255
              characters.

              Level 4 officially does not exist but genisoimage maps it to  ISO-9660:1999,  which
              is ISO9660 version 2.

              With  level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number and file structure
              version number set to 2 is emitted.  Directory nesting is not limited to 8  levels,
              there  is  no  need for a file to contain a dot and the dot has no special meaning,
              filenames do not have version numbers, and filenames can be up  to  207  characters
              long, or 197 characters if Rock Ridge is used.

              When  creating  Version  2 images, genisoimage emits an enhanced volume descriptor,
              similar but not identical to a primary volume descriptor. Be  careful  not  to  use
              broken  software  to make ISO9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and
              patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular ISO9660  filenames.   This
              is  primarily  useful  when  the  discs are to be used on Windows machines.  Joliet
              filenames are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64  Unicode
              characters  long.   Note that Joliet is not a standard — only Microsoft Windows and
              Linux systems can read Joliet extensions.  For greater portability, consider  using
              both Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions.

       -joliet-long
              Allow  Joliet  filenames  to  be up to 103 Unicode characters, instead of 64.  This
              breaks the Joliet specification, but appears to work. Use with caution.

       -jcharset charset
              A combination of -J -input-charset charset.  See the CHARACTER SETS  section  below
              for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31-character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3
              format which is compatible with MS-DOS, even though  the  ISO9660  standard  allows
              filenames  of  up  to  31  characters.   If  you  use  this option, the disc may be
              difficult to use on a MS-DOS system, but will work on most other systems.  Use with
              caution.

       -L     Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
              Produce  a  jigdo  .jigdo  metadata  file as well as the filesystem image.  See the
              JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
              Produce a jigdo .template file as well as the  filesystem  image.   See  the  JIGDO
              NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
              Specify  the  minimum size for a file to be listed in the .jigdo file. Default (and
              minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5 path
              Specify a file pattern where files must be contained in the externally-supplied MD5
              list  as  supplied  by  -md5-list.   See  the  JIGDO  NOTES  section below for more
              information.

       -jigdo-exclude path
              Specify a file pattern where files will not be listed in the .jigdo file.  See  the
              JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-map path
              Specify  a  pattern  mapping for the jigdo file (e.g.  Debian=/mirror/debian).  See
              the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -md5-list md5_file
              Specify a file containing the MD5sums, sizes and  pathnames  of  the  files  to  be
              included  in  the  .jigdo  file.  See  the  JIGDO  NOTES  section  below  for  more
              information.

       -jigdo-template-compress algorithm
              Specify a compression algorithm to use  for  template  date.  gzip  and  bzip2  are
              currently supported, and gzip is the default. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for
              more information.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead  of  the
              standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude  files  matching  glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being written to CD-
              ROM.  glob may match either the filename component  or  the  full  pathname.   This
              option may be used multiple times.  For example:

                   genisoimage -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

              would  exclude  all  files ending in `.o', or called core or foobar from the image.
              Note that if you had a directory called foobar, it  too  (and  of  course  all  its
              descendants) would be excluded.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be excluded.  See -m.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow  ISO9660 filenames to be up to 37 characters long.  This option enables -N as
              the extra name space is taken from the space reserved for file version numbers.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard,  but  it  happens  to  work  on  many  systems.
              Although  a  conforming  application needs to provide a buffer space of at least 37
              characters, discs created with this option may  cause  a  buffer  overflow  in  the
              reading operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device

       -dev device
              Specifies  path  to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The alternate form takes a
              SCSI device specifier that uses the same syntax as the  dev=  parameter  of  wodim.
              The output of genisoimage will be a new session which should get written to the end
              of the image specified in -M.  Typically this requires multisession capability  for
              the  CD  recorder  used  to  write  the  image.   This  option  may only be used in
              conjunction with -C.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one  really  uses  the  version  numbers
              anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Specify  the  mode,  a 4-digit number as used in chmod(1), to use when creating new
              directories in the filesystem image.  The default is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Exclude backup files files on the  ISO9660  filesystem;  that  is,  filenames  that
              contain the characters `~' or `#' or end in .bak.  These are typically backup files
              for Unix text editors.

       -force-rr
              Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for  previous  sessions.
              This can work around problems with images created by, e.g., NERO Burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock  Ridge attributes from previous sessions.  This may help to
              avoid problems when genisoimage finds illegal  Rock  Ridge  signatures  on  an  old
              session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don't split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead.
              This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a  bug  in  reading
              split symlink components.

              It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don't  split  the  symlink  fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead.
              This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver  have
              a bug in reading split symlink fields (a `/' can be dropped).

              It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -o filename
              Specify  the  output file for the the ISO9660 filesystem image.  This can be a disk
              file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device name of the optical
              disc writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output can also be a
              block device for a regular disk partition, in which case the ISO9660 filesystem can
              be mounted normally to verify that it was generated correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  This option is enabled by
              default.  If used in combination with -B, padding is inserted between  the  ISO9660
              partition  and  the boot partitions, such that the first boot partition starts on a
              sector number that is a multiple of 16.

              The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux)  implement  read-ahead
              bugs  in  their  filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on files that are
              located near the end of a track, particularly if the disc is written  in  Track  At
              Once mode, or where a CD audio track follows the data track.

       -no-pad
              Do  not pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the the boot partitions
              start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added  to  the
              ISO9660  filesystem.  This list of pathspecs are processed after any that appear on
              the command line. If the argument is -, the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
              describe  the  publisher  of  the  CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone
              number.   There  is  space  for  128  characters.   Equivalent  to  PUBL   in   the
              .genisoimagerc file.

       -p preparer_id
              Specifies  a  text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should
              describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usually  with  a  mailing  address  and  phone
              number.    There   is  space  for  128  characters.   Equivalent  to  PREP  in  the
              .genisoimagerc file.

       -print-size
              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size  (2048  bytes)  and
              exit.  This  option  is needed for Disk At Once mode and with some CD-R drives when
              piping directly into wodim, cases where  wodim  needs  to  know  the  size  of  the
              filesystem image in advance.  Old versions of mkisofs wrote this information (among
              other information) to stderr.  As this turns out to be hard to  parse,  the  number
              without any other information is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a
              simple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout.  This may be
              done with:

                   cdblocks=` genisoimage -print-size -quiet ... `
                   genisoimage ... | wodim ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes genisoimage even less verbose.  No progress output will be provided.

       -R     Generate  SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the
              files on the ISO9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are  set  to  more  useful
              values.   The  uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only useful on
              the author's system, and not useful to the client.  All the file read bits are  set
              true,  so  that  files and directories are globally readable on the client.  If any
              execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are
              globally  executable  on the client.  If any search bit is set for a directory, set
              all of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the  client.
              All write bits are cleared, because the filesystem will be mounted read-only in any
              case.  If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks  are
              not  useful  on a read-only filesystem, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0
              or gid 0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is set  on  all  files.  This  is  a
              result  of  the  lack  of  file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX emulation
              layer.  See also -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              Allows ISO9660 filenames to include all 7-bit  ASCII  characters  except  lowercase
              letters.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
              with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves all files and directories into dir in the image. This is essentially the same
              as  using -graft-points and adding dir in front of every pathspec, but is easier to
              use.  dir may actually be  several  levels  deep.  It  is  created  with  the  same
              permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
              This  option  is  necessary  when writing a multisession image and the previous (or
              even older) session was written with -root dir.  Using a directory name  not  found
              in  the  previous  session causes genisoimage to abort with an error.  Without this
              option, genisoimage would not be able to find unmodified files and would be  forced
              to  write their data into the image once more.  -root and -old-root are meant to be
              used together to do incremental backups.   The  initial  session  would  e.g.  use:
              genisoimage  -root  backup_1  dirs.   The  next incremental backup with genisoimage
              -root backup_2 -old-root  backup_1  dirs  would  take  another  snapshot  of  these
              directories.  The  first  snapshot  would  be  found in backup_1, the second one in
              backup_2, but only modified or new  files  need  to  be  written  into  the  second
              session.   Without  these  options,  new files would be added and old ones would be
              preserved. But old ones would be overwritten if the file was  modified.  Recovering
              the files by copying the whole directory back from CD would also restore files that
              were deleted intentionally. Accessing several older versions  of  a  file  requires
              support by the operating system to choose which sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort_file
              Sort  file  locations  on  the media. Sorting is controlled by a file that contains
              pairs of filenames and sorting offset weighting.  If the weighting is  higher,  the
              file  will  be  located  closer  to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is
              lower, the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There must be  only
              one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight and the weight must
              be the last characters on a  line.  The  filename  is  taken  to  include  all  the
              characters up to, but not including the last space or tab character on a line. This
              is to allow for space characters to be in, or at  the  end  of  a  filename.   This
              option  does  not  sort  the  order  of  the  filenames  that appear in the ISO9660
              directory. It sorts the order in which the file data is written to  the  CD  image,
              which  is  useful in order to optimize the data layout on a CD. See README.sort for
              more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that  is  created  with  -sparc-
              boot.

       -split-output
              Split  the  output image into several files of approximately 1 GB each.  This helps
              to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images on operating systems without large file support.
              wodim  will concatenate more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.
              To make -split-output work, -o filename must be  specified.  The  resulting  output
              images will be named: filename_00, filename_01, filename_02....

       -stream-media-size #
              Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.  This allows you to
              pipe the output of the tar(1) program into genisoimage and  to  create  an  ISO9660
              filesystem  without  the  need of an intermediate tar archive file.  If this option
              has been specified, genisoimage reads from stdin and creates a file with  the  name
              STREAM.IMG.   The  maximum size of the file (with padding) is 200 sectors less than
              the specified media size. If -no-pad has  been  specified,  the  file  size  is  50
              sectors  less  than  the specified media size.  If the file is smaller, genisoimage
              will write padding. This may take awhile.

              The option -stream-media-size creates simple ISO9660 filesystems only and  may  not
              used together with multisession or hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
              Specifies  a  comma-separated  list  of filesystem images that are needed to make a
              bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO9660 image and that  partition  2  is  the
              whole  disk,  so partition 1 and 2 may not be used by external partition data.  The
              first image file is mapped to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in the comma-
              separated  list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must be empty.  The maximum
              number of supported partitions is 8 (although the Solaris x86 partition table could
              support  up to 16 partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 partition
              images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              If -sunx86-boot has been specified, the first sector of the  resulting  image  will
              contain  a  PC  fdisk label with a Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at
              offset 512 and spans the whole CD.  In addition, for the Solaris  type  0x82  fdisk
              partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first sector of the CD.
              This disk label specifies slice 0 for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image
              that  is  used to boot the PC and slice 1 for the ISO9660 image.  Slice 2 spans the
              whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for additional filesystem images that have
              been specified with this option.

              A  Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that uses the El-Torito
              no-emulation boot mode and a secondary generic boot that is in  CD  sectors  1..15.
              For this reason, both -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set  the  SVr4  disk  label  name  for  the  SVr4  disk  label that is created with
              -sunx86-boot.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies the system ID.  There is space for 32 characters.  Equivalent to SYSI  in
              the .genisoimagerc file.

       -T     Generate  a  file  TRANS.TBL  in each directory on the CD-ROM, which can be used on
              non-Rock Ridge-capable systems to help establish the correct filenames.   There  is
              also information present in the file that indicates the major and minor numbers for
              block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.

       -table-name table_name
              Alternative translation table  filename  (see  above).  Implies  -T.   If  you  are
              creating  a  multisession  image  you  must  use  the  same name as in the previous
              session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3.  It may be
              set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  filesystem support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF support is
              currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is not possible  to  create  UDF-
              only  images.   UDF data structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures,
              so there are many pitfalls with the current implementation.  There  is  no  UID/GID
              support,  there  is  no POSIX permission support, there is no support for symlinks.
              Note that UDF wastes the space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at  the  beginning  of
              the disc in addition to the space needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides  the uid read from the source files to the value of uid.  Specifying this
              option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to use file version numbers from the
              filesystem.   If  the option is not specified, genisoimage creates a version number
              of 1 for all files.  File versions are strings in  the  range  ;1  to  ;32767  This
              option is the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "untranslated"  filenames,  completely  violating  the  ISO9660  standards
              described above.   Enables  the  following  flags:  -d  -l  -N  -allow-leading-dots
              -relaxed-filenames -allow-lowercase -allow-multidot -no-iso-translate.  Allows more
              than one `.' character in the filename, as well as mixed-case filenames.   This  is
              useful  on  HP-UX,  where  the  built-in  cdfs  filesystem  does  not recognize any
              extensions. Use with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do not translate  the  characters  `#'  and  `~'  which  are  invalid  for  ISO9660
              filenames.  Although invalid, these characters are often used by Microsoft systems.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
              with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block.
              There  is  space for 32 characters.  Equivalent to VOLI in the .genisoimagerc file.
              The volume ID is used as the mount point by the Solaris volume  manager  and  as  a
              label  assigned  to a disc on various other platforms such as Windows and Apple Mac
              OS.

       -volset ID
              Specifies the volume set ID.  There is space for  128  characters.   Equivalent  to
              VOLS in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -volset-size #
              Sets  the  volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the number of CDs that are
              in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a collection of one or more volumes, on  which
              a set of files is recorded.

              Volume  Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered CDs that are part
              of e.g. a Operation System installation set of CDs.  Volume Sets are rather used to
              record  a big directory tree that would not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of
              a Volume Set contains a description of all  the  directories  and  files  that  are
              recorded  on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less than, or equal to, the
              assigned Volume Set Size of the current volume.

              genisoimage currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger than 1.

              The option -volset-size must be specified  before  -volset-seqno  on  each  command
              line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets  the  volume  set sequence number to #.  The volume set sequence number is the
              index number of the current CD in a  CD  set.   The  option  -volset-size  must  be
              specified before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will
              be printed.

       -x glob
              Identical to -m glob.

       -z     Generate special RRIP records for transparently compressed files.  This is only  of
              use  and  interest  for hosts that support transparent decompression, such as Linux
              2.4.14 or later.  You must specify -R or -r to  enable  Rock  Ridge,  and  generate
              compressed  files using the mkzftree utility before running genisoimage.  Note that
              transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks
              are  only  transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems you
              will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS

       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the
              -map, -magic and/or the various double dash options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with  Apple's extensions. Similar to -hfs, except that the
              Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of creating  an  HFS  hybrid  volume.
              Former  genisoimage versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if -apple
              was specified. This versions of genisoimage does not do this anymore. If  you  like
              to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use  the  mapping_file  to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a file based on
              the filename's extension. A filename is mapped only if it is not one  of  the  know
              Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the
              first few bytes of a file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one of the
              known  Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using
              -map.  See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-creator creator
              Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters.  See  the  HFS
              CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type type
              Set  the  default  TYPE  for  all  files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS
              CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file  formats.   See  the
              HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS section below for more about these formats.  However,
              the only way to check for MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them,
              so this option may increase processing time. It is better to use one or more double
              dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the
              CD  is  used  on  a Macintosh (and stored in the System Folder).  By default, empty
              Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use the HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and  Rock  Ridge
              filenames. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs  the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the HFS
              BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is  generated,  but
              some older Macintosh CD-ROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CD-ROM to be
              able to recognize a hybrid CD-ROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or
              document.  The given filename must be the name of a document or application located
              at the top level of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation  units  of  PC  Exchange  files.
              Implies --exchange.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide  glob,  a  shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS volume.  The file or directory
              will still exist in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob may match  any  part
              of the filename.  Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

                   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

              would  exclude  all files ending in `.o' or called foobar from the HFS volume. Note
              that if you had  a  directory  called  foobar,  it  too  (and  of  course  all  its
              descendants)  would  be excluded.  The glob can also be a path name relative to the
              source directories given on the command line. Example:

                   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would exclude just the file or directory called html from the src  directory.   Any
              other  file  or  directory called html in the tree will not be excluded.  Should be
              used with -hide and/or -hide-joliet.  In order to match a directory name, make sure
              the  pattern  does  not  include a trailing `/' character. See README.hide for more
              details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              Specify a file containing a list of wildcard patterns to be hidden as in -hide-hfs.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on
              a Macintosh and replaces the volid used with -V.

       -icon-position
              Use  the  icon  position  information, if it exists, from the Apple/Unix file.  The
              icons will appear in the same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder
              location  and  size  on  screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons,
              Small Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for  the  root
              folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot file
              PReP  boot  image  file.  Up  to  4  are  allowed.  See  README.prep_boot  for more
              information.  (Alpha)

       -chrp-boot
              Add CHRP boot header.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in  HFS  filenames  when  used  with
              -mac-name.  The default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman).  See the CHARACTER SETS and
              HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS  filenames.
              Defaults  to  the  input  charset.  See  the  CHARACTER SETS section below for more
              details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By default, genisoimage will create an HFS volume  that  is  locked.   This  option
              leaves  the  volume unlocked so that other applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify
              the volume. See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using
              this option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and is used
              in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the whole path name
              as  genisoimage  sees it.  E.g., if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required
              folder is called System Folder, the whole  path  name  is  "/cddata/System  Folder"
              (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms parameters
              Override  certain parameters used to create the HFS filesystem. Unlikely to be used
              in normal circumstances.  See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP  Apple/Unix  file  formats  only.
              Searching  for the other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless other
              double dash options are given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for Mac OS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for Mac OS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS

       genisoimage processes filenames in a POSIX-compliant way as strings of  8-bit  characters.
       To  represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient.  Unicode
       or ISO-10646 define character codings that need at least 21 bits to  represent  all  known
       languages.  They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32 uses a
       plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by Microsoft with Win32 with
       the  disadvantage  that  16-bit  characters  are  not  compliant with the POSIX filesystem
       interface.

       Modern Unix operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  Each  32-bit  character
       is  represented  by  one  or more 8-bit characters.  If a character is coded in ISO-8859-1
       (used in Central Europe and North America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode
       character.   If  a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries with
       limited character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded  Unicode  character.
       Character  codes  that  cannot be represented as a single byte in UTF-8 (if the value is >
       0x7F) use escape sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems used UTF-8, genisoimage would not need to  recode  characters  in
       filenames.   Unfortunately, Apple uses completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a
       Unicode coding that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non-UTF-8-coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte  represents
       depends  on  the  character set or codepage (the name used by Microsoft) used by the local
       operating system — the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language set by the user.

       Usually  character  codes  0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f are the 7-bit
       ASCII characters and (on PCs and Macs) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

       As there are a lot more than 256 characters/symbols  in  use,  only  a  small  subset  are
       represented  in  a  character  set.  Therefore  the  same  character  code may represent a
       different character in different character sets. So a filename generated, say  in  central
       Europe,  may  not  display  the  same  character  when viewed on a machine in, say eastern
       Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets
       for  the  region  or language. For example, the character code for `é' (small e with acute
       accent) may be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a  Unix
       system in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

       As  long  as  not all operating systems and applications use the same character set as the
       basis for filenames, it may be necessary to specify which character set your filenames use
       in and which character set the filenames should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines  the local character set you are using on your host machine.  Any character
              set conversions that take place will use this character set as the starting  point.
              The default input character sets are cp437 on MS-DOS-based systems and iso8859-1 on
              all other systems.  If -J is given, the Unicode equivalents of the input  character
              set  will be used in the Joliet directory.  -jcharset is the same as -input-charset
              -J.

       -output-charset
              Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge  names  on  the
              CD.  Defaults to the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines  the  HFS  character  set  used  for  HFS filenames decoded from any of the
              various Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful when used with -mac-name.  See the HFS
              MACINTOSH FILENAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS filenames from the input character
              set in use. In  most  cases  this  will  be  from  the  character  set  given  with
              -input-charset.  Defaults to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of  character  sets built in to genisoimage.  To get a listing, use
       -input-charset help.  This list doesn't include  the  charset  derived  from  the  current
       locale, if genisoimage is built with iconv support.

       Additional  character  sets  can be read from file for any of the character set options by
       giving a filename as the argument to the options. The given file will only be read if  its
       name does not match one of the built-in character sets.

       The  format  of  the  character  set files is the same as the mapping files available from
       http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS.  This format is:

              Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
              Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
              The rest of the line is ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or  comments  lines
       (starting  with  the # character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input code
       is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note that, while UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode  encodings  such  as  UCS-2/UTF-16  and
       UCS-4/UTF-32 are not, as POSIX operating systems cannot handle them natively.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to
       any of the character set options. This is the behaviour of old versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 filenames generated from the input filenames are not converted from the  input
       character set. The ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters,
       so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any character that genisoimage cannot convert will be replaced with a `_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE

       A Macintosh file has two properties associated with  it  which  define  which  application
       created  the  file,  the  CREATOR  and  what  data  the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are
       (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this allows a Macintosh user to double-click on a file
       and  launch  the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various  Apple/Unix  encoded  files.
       For  other  files  it is possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension
       using a mapping file (with -map) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in the
       first few bytes) of a file (with -magic).  If both these options are given, their order on
       the command line is significant.  If -map is given first, a filename  extension  match  is
       attempted  before  a magic number match. However, if -magic is given first, a magic number
       match is attempted before a filename extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found, the default CREATOR and TYPE
       for  all  regular  files  can  be set by using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or using
       -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs.  This file  has
       five  columns  for  the  extension,  file  translation,  CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines
       starting with the `#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example  file  would
       be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     '8BIM'    'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   'BnHq'    'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     'MSWD'    'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     'TVOD'    'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   'ttxt'    'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

              The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default
              mapping for any filename extension that doesn't  match  is  defined  with  the  `*'
              character.

              The  Xlate  column  defines  the  type  of  text  translation  between the Unix and
              Macintosh file it is ignored by genisoimage, but is  kept  to  be  compatible  with
              aufs(1).   Although  genisoimage does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary
              file has its TYPE set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore
              a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

              The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  keywords  must be 4 characters long and enclosed in single
              quotes.

              The comment field is enclosed in double quotes — it is ignored by genisoimage,  but
              is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(5) file used by the file(1)
       command.

       This file has four tab-separated columns for the byte  offset,  type,  test  and  message.
       Lines  starting  with the `#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file
       would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard Unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in magic(5).  The only difference  here  is  that  for
       each  entry  in the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be be 4 characters
       for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for the TYPE — white space  is  optional  between
       them.  Any other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (starting with a
       `>') are also ignored, i.e., only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using -magic may significantly increase processing time as each file  has  to  opened  and
       read to find its magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default CREATOR is Unix and the default TYPE is TEXT.
       These can be changed by using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or by using  -hfs-creator
       and/or -hfs-type.

       If  the  a  file  is  in  one  of  the  known  Apple/Unix formats (and the format has been
       selected), the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their filename extension (with -map),
       or  their  magic  number (with -magic).  If the default match is used in the mapping file,
       these values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A full CREATOR/TYPE database can be found at http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS

       Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and Resource fork.  Either  may  be  empty.
       Unix  (and  many  other OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork). To add to
       this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated with them — probably the most
       important  are  the  TYPE  and  CREATOR.   Again,  Unix  has  no concept of these types of
       attributes.

       E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork  and
       a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data
       fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be  found  to  cope
       with  the  two  forks and the extra attributes (which are referred to as the Finder info).
       Unfortunately, it seems that every software package that stores Macintosh  files  on  Unix
       has chosen a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same
              filename as data fork. Finder info in subdirectory .finderinfo with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name  prefixed
              with  `%'. Finder info also stored in same `%' file. Netatalk uses the same format,
              but the resource fork/Finder info stored in  subdirectory  .AppleDouble  with  same
              filename as data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data  structures  similar to above, except both forks and Finder info are stored in
              one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data fork stored in a file.  Resource fork and Finder info together in subdirectory
              .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
              Like the EtherShare format, but the Finder info is stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and Finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a
              file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder info as
              one  record  in file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT).  Separate finder.dat for each data
              fork directory.

              Note: genisoimage needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the disk that the PC
              Exchange  files  are  on  (or  have  been  copied  from).  This  size  is  given by
              -cluster-size.  The cluster or allocation size  can  be  found  by  using  the  DOS
              utility chkdsk.

              May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS
              media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat)  when
              using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used  by  SGI  machines  when  they  mount  HFS  disks. Data fork stored in a file.
              Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same filename.  Finder info  as  one
              record in file .HSancillary.  Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows  Macintoshes  to  store  Apple  files on SMB servers.  Data fork stored in a
              file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk.  Uses the AppleDouble  format  to
              store resource fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format  of  files  stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork is stored as
              filename.  Resource fork stored as a NTFS stream called filename:AFP_Resource.  The
              Finder  info  is stored as a NTFS stream called filename:Afp_AfpInfo.  NTFS streams
              are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning: genisoimage only partially supports the SFM format.  If  an  HFS  file  or
              folder  stored  on  the  NT server contains an illegal NT character in its name, NT
              converts these characters to Private Use Unicode characters.  The characters are: "
              *  /  <  > ? \ | and a space or period if it is the last character of the filename,
              character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple's apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable by the genisoimage
              NT  executable.  Therefore  any  file or directory name containing these characters
              will be ignored — including the contents of any such directory.

       Mac OS X AppleDouble
              When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by Mac OS X  on  to  a  non-HFS  filesystem
              (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored
              in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with `._'. Finder
              info also stored in same `._' file.

       Mac OS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a Mac OS X system.
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a pseudo  file  with  the  same
              name  with  the  suffix  /rsrc.   The  Finder info is only available via a Mac OS X
              library call.

              See also README.macosx.

              Only works when used on Mac OS X.

              If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and  empty  finderinfo,  it  is
              assumed  not  to have any Apple/Unix encoding — therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be
              set using other methods.

       genisoimage will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other flags from  the
       finder  info.  Additionally,  if  it exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder
       info, otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename — see the  HFS  MACINTOSH
       FILENAMES section below.

       When  using  -apple,  the  TYPE  and CREATOR are stored in the optional System Use or SUSP
       field in the ISO9660 Directory Record — in much the same way as the Rock Ridge  attributes
       are.  In  fact  to  make life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the beginning of the
       existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e., to get the Apple extensions you get the  Rock  Ridge
       extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file.
       This is just like any normal file  stored  in  the  ISO9660  filesystem  except  that  the
       associated  file  flag is set in the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name
       as the data fork (the file seen by non-Apple  machines).  Associated  files  are  normally
       ignored by other OSs

       When using -hfs, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored in a separate HFS
       directory, not visible on the ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the  same  data
       and resource fork files described above.

       In  most  cases,  it  is  better  to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the latter imposes the
       limited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the
       advantage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible to
       fit more files on a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES

       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is  used  for  the
       HFS  part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with
       the finderinfo. In these  cases,  the  Unix  filename  is  used  —  with  escaped  special
       characters. Special characters include `/' and characters with codes over 127.

       AUFS  escapes  these  characters  by  using  `:' followed by the character code as two hex
       digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses `%' instead of a `:'.

       If genisoimage cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with  any  %xx  or  :xx
       characters  (xx  are  two hex digits) converted to a single character code.  If xx are not
       hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), they are left alone — although any remaining `:' is converted to
       `%',  as  `:' is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix file
       with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters,  the  filesystem
       is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and AbC are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding
       `_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If  an HFS filename exists for a file, genisoimage can use this name as the starting point
       for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge  filenames  using  -mac-name.   Normal  Unix  files
       without an HFS name will still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a  MacBinary  (or  PC  Exchange)  file  is  stored  as  someimage.gif.bin  on the Unix
       filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, this  is  the  name  that  would
       appear  on  the  HFS  part  of  the  CD. However, as genisoimage uses the Unix name as the
       starting point  for  the  other  names,  the  ISO9660  name  generated  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.BIN  and  the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  This option will use
       the HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name will probably be  SOMEIMAG.GIF
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       -mac-name  will  not  currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL
       file, not the Macintosh name.

       The character set used to convert  any  HFS  filename  to  a  Joliet/Rock  Ridge  filename
       defaults  to  cp10000  (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set  used  can  be  specified using
       -input-hfs-charset.  Other built-in HFS character sets are:  cp10006  (MacGreek),  cp10007
       (MacCyrillic), cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note:  the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the various Apple/Unix formats
       will not be converted as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character  set.  Only
       the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS filenames will be converted.

       The  existing  genisoimage code will filter out any illegal characters for the ISO9660 and
       Joliet filenames, but as genisoimage expects to be dealing directly with  Unix  names,  it
       leaves  the  Rock  Ridge  names  as  is.   But  as  `/' is a legal HFS filename character,
       -mac-name converts `/' to a `_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the Macintosh.
       However,  as  the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, you can use options
       like -allow-multidot without problems on a Macintosh — still take care over the names, for
       example  this.file.name  will  be  converted  to  THIS.FILE  i.e.  only have one `.', also
       filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen as ABCDEFGHI.   i.e.
       with   a   `.'   at   the  end  —  don't  know  if  this  is  a  Macintosh  problem  or  a
       genisoimage/mkhybrid problem. All  filenames  will  be  in  uppercase  when  viewed  on  a
       Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS

       To  give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a standard
       Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has  to
       be  pasted  over  the  volume's  icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume. This creates an
       invisible file called Icon\r (`\r' is the carriage return character) in the root folder.

       A custom folder icon is very similar — an invisible  file  called  Icon\r  exists  in  the
       folder itself.

       Probably  the  easiest way to create a custom icon that genisoimage can use is to format a
       blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac and paste an icon to its "Get Info"  box.  If  using  Linux
       with the HFS module installed, mount the floppy:

              mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be  mounted as a CAP filesystem by default.  Then run genisoimage using
       something like:

              genisoimage --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils to copy the icon file  from  the  floppy.
       However,  care  has  to  be  taken,  as  the  icon file contains a control character.  For
       example:

              hmount /dev/fd0
              hdir -a
              hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where `^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run genisoimage by  using  something
       like:

              genisoimage --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure  for  creating/using custom folder icons is very similar — paste an icon to
       folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting Icon\r file to the  relevant  directory
       in the genisoimage source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To   give   a   custom   icon   to   a   Joliet  CD,  follow  the  instructions  found  at
       http://www.cdrfaq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER

       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires  an  Apple  CD-ROM  (or  compatible)  driver,  a  bootable  HFS
       partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A  driver  can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using the apple_driver
       utility. This file can then be used with -boot-hfs-file.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in  our  case)  must  contain  a  suitable  System
       Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The boot block is in the
       first two blocks of a partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block  is  full  of
       zeros.  Normally,  when a System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot
       block is filled with a number of required settings — unfortunately I don't know  the  full
       spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work.

       Therefore,  the  utility  apple_driver  also  extracts  the  boot block from the first HFS
       partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used for the HFS partition  created  by
       genisoimage.

       Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to your CD, you
       become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE

       When -boot-info-table is given, genisoimage will modify the boot file specified by  -b  by
       inserting  a 56-byte boot information table at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is
       done in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if  this  file  is  not  easily
       recreated!   This  file  contains pointers which may not be easily or reliably obtained at
       boot time.

       The format of this table is as  follows;  all  integers  are  in  section  7.3.1  ("little
       endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

              The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting at
              byte offset 64.  All  linear  block  addresses  (LBAs)  are  given  in  CD  sectors
              (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES

       To make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a boot loader file (-hppa-bootloader), a
       kernel image file (32-bit, 64-bit, or both, depending on hardware) and a boot command line
       (-hppa-cmdline)  must be specified. Some systems can boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel,
       and the firmware will choose one if both are present.  Optionally, a ramdisk can  be  used
       for the root filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES

       Jigdo  is  a  tool  to help in the distribution of large files like CD and DVD images; see
       http://atterer.org/jigdo/ for more details.  Debian CDs and DVD ISO images  are  published
       on the web in jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently.

       To  create  jigdo  and  template  files alongside the ISO image from genisoimage, you must
       first generate a list of the files that will be used, in the following format:

         MD5sum   File size  Path
         32 chars 12 chars   to end of line

       The MD5sum must be written in standard hexadecimal notation, the file size must  list  the
       size  of  the  file  in  bytes,  and the path must list the absolute path to the file. For
       example:

       00006dcd58ff0756c36d2efae21be376         14736  /mirror/debian/file1
       000635c69b254a1be8badcec3a8d05c1        211822  /mirror/debian/file2
       00083436a3899a09633fc1026ef1e66e         22762  /mirror/debian/file3

       Once you have this file, call genisoimage with all of your normal command-line parameters.
       Specify  the  output  filenames  for  the  jigdo and template files using -jigdo-jigdo and
       -jigdo-template, and pass in the location of your MD5 list with -md5-list.

       If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file (e.g. if they  are
       likely  to change often), specify them using -jigdo-exclude. If you want to verify some of
       the files as they are written into the image, specify them using -jigdo-force-md5. If  any
       files  don't  match,  genisoimage  will  then  abort.   Both of these options take regular
       expressions as input. It is possible to restrict the  set  of  files  that  will  be  used
       further based on size — use the -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally, the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is given onto a mirror-style
       configuration. Specify how to map paths  using  -jigdo-map.   Using  Debian=/mirror/debian
       will  cause  all  paths  starting with /mirror/debian to be mapped to Debian:<file> in the
       output jigdo file.

EXAMPLES

       To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in  the  file  cd.iso,  where  the  directory
       cd_dir will become the root directory of the CD, call:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where all files
       have at least read permission and all files are owned by root, call:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly  to  a  CD  that  will  later  contain  a  simple  ISO9660
       filesystem with the tar archive call:

              % tar cf - . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
                   wodim dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create  a  HFS  hybrid  CD  with  the  Joliet  and Rock Ridge extensions of the source
       directory cd_dir:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid  CD  from  the  source  directory  cd_dir  that  contains  Netatalk
       Apple/Unix files:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and
       TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the Apple Extensions to ISO9660, from the  source  directories  cd_dir
       and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files
       are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given in the file magic:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
                      cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the  name  README,  but
       have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/Rock Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

              % ls -F
              README.hfs     README.joliet  README.Unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the
       three README files — but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

              % genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
                      -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
                      -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
                      -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.Unix \
                      README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
                      README=README.Unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and  the  other  two  README
       files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

       There  are  probably  all  sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide
       options ...

NOTES

       genisoimage may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow genisoimage  to
       read the previous session when creating a multisession image.

       If genisoimage is creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes and the directory
       nesting level of the source directory tree is too much for ISO9660,  genisoimage  will  do
       deep  directory  relocation.   This  results  in  a  directory called RR_MOVED in the root
       directory of the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       Many boot code options for different platforms are  mutualy  exclusive  because  the  boot
       blocks cannot coexist, ie. different platforms share the same data locations in the image.
       See http://lists.debian.org/debian-cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS

       Any files that have hard links to files not in  the  tree  being  copied  to  the  ISO9660
       filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

       Does  not  check  for  SUSP  record(s)  in  `.'  entry of the root directory to verify the
       existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.  This problem is present when reading  old  sessions
       while adding data in multisession mode.

       Does  not  properly read relocated directories in multisession mode when adding data.  Any
       relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not include the deep directory.

       Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multisession from TRANS.TBL.

       Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multisession mode.

       There may be other bugs.  Please, report them to the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS

       I have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the  modified  libhfs  routines  to
       work,  however  there  may  be situations that either I haven't thought of, or come across
       when these assumptions fail.  Therefore I can't guarantee that genisoimage  will  work  as
       expected (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       but some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters,  the  filesystem
       is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and AbC are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding
       `_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS  file/directory  names that share the first 31 characters have `_N' (a decimal number)
       substituted for the last few characters to generate unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or  directories  (see  above  for  the
       method  and  syntax  involved).  It  is  not  possible to use a new name for an Apple/Unix
       encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix encoded file called oldname is  to  added  to
       the CD, you cannot use the command line:

              genisoimage -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       genisoimage  will  be unable to decode oldname.  However, you can graft Apple/Unix encoded
       files or directories as long as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C, only  files  in  the
       last  session  will be in the HFS volume. i.e.  genisoimage cannot add existing files from
       previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with -part,  each  session  will  appear  as  separate
       volumes  when  mounted  on a Mac. In this case, it is worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give
       each session a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on the Desktop with
       the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes  may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the same data. In some
       cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the difference can be significant. As an  HFS  volume  gets
       bigger,  so  does  the  allocation  block  size  (the  smallest amount of space a file can
       occupy).  For a 650MB CD, the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB DVD it will  be  about
       70kB.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 — although the real limit will
       be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on  a  Unix  machine  by  using  the  hfsutils
       routines.  However,  no  changes  can  be  made to the volume as it is set as locked.  The
       option -hfs-unlock will create an output image that  is  unlocked  —  however  no  changes
       should  be  made to the contents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing)
       as it's not a "real" HFS volume.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used  in  the  TRANS.TBL
       file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although  genisoimage does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE
       set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for  the
       default TYPE may be ????.

       -mac-boot-file may not work at all...

       May  not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS media
       containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported — see HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use -sparc-boot or -generic-boot with -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

       genisoimage should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb,  although  this  has  not
       been fully tested.

SEE ALSO

       genisoimagerc(5), wodim(1), mkzftree(8), magic(5).

AUTHORS

       genisoimage  is  derived  from  mkisofs from the cdrtools 2.01.01a08 package from May 2006
       (with  few  updates  extracted  from  cdrtools  2.01.01a24  from  March  2007)  from   .IR
       http://cdrecord.berlios.de/  ,  but  is  now part of the cdrkit suite, maintained by Joerg
       Jaspert, Eduard Bloch, Steve McIntyre, Peter Samuelson, Christian Fromme,  Ben  Hutchings,
       and    other    contributors.     The   maintainers   can   be   contacted   at   debburn-
       devel@lists.alioth.debian.org,   or   see    the    cdrkit    project    web    site    at
       http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       Eric  Youngdale wrote the first versions (1993–1998) of mkisofs.  Jörg Schilling wrote the
       SCSI transport library and its interface, and has maintained mkisofs  since  1999.   James
       Pearson  wrote  the  HFS  hybrid code, using libhfs by Robert Leslie.  Pearson, Schilling,
       Jungshik Shin and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the character set conversion  code.   The
       cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since 2006.

       Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.
       Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
       Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
       Copyright 1999-2006 by Jörg Schilling
       Copyright 2007 by Jörg Schilling (originating few updates)
       Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
       Copyright 2003 by Jaakko Heinonen
       Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

       If  you  want  to  take  part  in  the development of genisoimage, you may join the cdrkit
       developer      mailing      list      by      following      the      instructions      on
       http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006.   The email address of the list is debburn-
       devel@lists.alioth.debian.org.  This is also the address for user support questions.  Note
       that cdrkit and cdrtools are not affiliated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries.

                                           13 Dec 2006                             GENISOIMAGE(1)