Provided by: ghostscript_9.05~dfsg-0ubuntu4_amd64 bug


       gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)


       gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)


       The  gs  (gswin32c,  gswin32,  gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe
       Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document Format (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in
       sequence  and  executes  them  as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further
       input from the standard input stream  (normally  the  keyboard),  interpreting  each  line
       separately. The interpreter exits gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command (either
       in a file or from the keyboard), at end-of-file,  or  at  an  interrupt  signal  (such  as
       Control-C at the keyboard).

       The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are described below. Please
       see the usage documentation for complete information. Switches may appear anywhere in  the
       command  line  and  apply to all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -?
       switch produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the  devices  known  to
       that  executable,  and  the  search  path for fonts; on Unix it also shows the location of
       detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript may be built to use many different output devices.  To see which devices  your
       executable  includes,  run  "gs  -h".  Unless you specify a particular device, Ghostscript
       normally opens the first one of those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the
       list is the one you want to use, just issue the command


       You  can  also  check  the  set  of  available  devices  from  within  Ghostscript: invoke
       Ghostscript and type

            devicenames ==

       but the first device on the resulting list may not be the  default  device  you  determine
       with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch


       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

            gs -sDEVICE=epson

       The  "-sDEVICE="  switch  must  precede the first mention of a file to print, and only the
       switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally, you can specify a default device in  the  environment  variable  GS_DEVICE.   The
       order  of  precedence  for these alternatives from highest to lowest (Ghostscript uses the
       device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some devices can support different resolutions (densities).  To specify the resolution  on
       such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

            gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For  example,  on  a  9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get the lowest-density (fastest)
       mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose  where
       Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary file.  To send the
       output to a file "", use the switch


       You might want to print each page separately.  To do this, send the output to a series  of
       files  ",, ..." using the "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename


       Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered  in  sequence.
       "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".

       On  Unix  and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe.  For example, to pipe
       output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs it to  a  printer),  use
       the option


       Note  that  the  '%'  characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid mangling by the
       command interpreter.

       You can also send output to standard output:


       In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages
       to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch


       for instance


       Most  ISO  and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation for a full list,
       or the definitions in the initialization file "".

       Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript  and  PDF  files.   For
       example,  if  you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript
       provides a special "device" that just prints out this information.

       For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

            gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       prints out

            %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
            %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445


       -- filename arg1 ...
              Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining  arguments
              (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"
              in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before  running  the
              file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.

              Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition.  The token must be exactly
              one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

              Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.  This is different from
              -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
                   /name 35 def
              whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
                   /name (35) def

       -P     Makes  Ghostscript  to  look  first in the current directory for library files.  By
              default, Ghostscript no longer looks in the current directory, unless,  of  course,
              the  first explicitly supplied directory is "." in -I.  See also the INITIALIZATION
              FILES section below, and bundled Use.htm for detailed discussion  on  search  paths
              and how Ghostcript finds files.

       -q     Quiet  startup:  suppress  normal  startup  messages, and also do the equivalent of

              Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.  This  is  for  the
              benefit  of  devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow) width and height
              to be specified.

              Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is
              for  the  benefit  of  devices  such  as  printers  that  support  multiple X and Y
              resolutions.  If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

              Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for  library

       -      This  is  not  really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that standard input is
              coming from a file  or  a  pipe  and  not  interactively  from  the  command  line.
              Ghostscript  reads  from  standard input until it reaches end-of-file, executing it
              like any other file, and then continues with processing the command line.  When the
              command  line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going into
              its interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file "" makes "systemdict" read-only, so the
       values  of  names  defined  with -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be changed (although, of course,
       they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)


              Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the first time they
              are  encountered.   (Normally  Ghostscript loads all the character outlines when it
              loads a font.)  This may allow loading more fonts  into  RAM,  at  the  expense  of
              slower rendering.

              Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

              Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

              Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This may be useful when

              Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may be  desirable  for
              applications where another program is driving Ghostscript.

              Disables  the  use  of  fonts  supplied  by the underlying platform (for instance X
              Windows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different  from
              the scalable fonts.

              Disables  the "deletefile" and "renamefile" operators and the ability to open files
              in any  mode  other  than  read-only.   This  strongly  recommended  for  spoolers,
              conversion  scripts  or  other  sensitive  environments  where  a  badly written or
              malicious PostScript program code must be prevented from changing important files.

              Leaves "systemdict" writable.  This  is  necessary  when  running  special  utility
              programs  such  as  font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal PostScript access

              Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

              Selects an alternate output file (or  pipe)  for  the  initial  output  device,  as
              described above.


       The  locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the executable when it
       is built.  On Unix these are typically based in /usr/local, but this may be  different  on
       your  system.   Under  DOS  they  are  typically  based  in  C:\GS,  but may be elsewhere,
       especially if you install Ghostscript with GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find  the  location  of
       Ghostscript documentation on your system, from which you can get more details. On a Debian
       system they are in /usr.

              Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions

              More font definitions from the gsfonts package

              Ghostscript demonstration files

              Diverse document files


       When looking for the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related to  fonts,  or  the
       file  for  the  "run"  operator, Ghostscript first tries to open the file with the name as
       given, using the current working directory if no directory is specified.  If  this  fails,
       and  the  file  name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive (for instance, doesn't
       contain "/" on Unix systems or "\" on MS Windows systems), Ghostscript  tries  directories
       in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line (see below), if any;

       2.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if any;

       3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the Ghostscript makefile when
           the executable was built.  When  gs  is  built  on  Unix,  GS_LIB_DEFAULT  is  usually
           "/usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts"   where  "#.##"
           represents the Ghostscript version  number.  They  are  "/usr/share/gs-gpl/#.##  on  a
           Debian system".

       Each  of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either a single directory
       or a list of directories separated by ":".


              String of options to be processed before the command line options

              Used to specify an output device

              Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made


       Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display device, looks for  the  following  resources
       under the program name "Ghostscript":

              The border width in pixels (default = 1).

              The name of the border color (default = black).

              The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

              The  number  of  x  pixels  per  inch  (default  is computed from WidthOfScreen and

              The number of y pixels per  inch  (default  is  computed  from  HeightOfScreen  and

              Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display window (default =

       See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.  To set these  resources  on
       Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:

            Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
            Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
            Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

            % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources


       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.


       See and the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.


       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 9.05.


       Artifex  Software,  Inc.  are  the  primary  maintainers of Ghostscript.  Russell J. Lang,
       gsview at, is the author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.