Provided by: git-annex_3.20120406_amd64 bug


       git-annex - manage files with git, without checking their contents in


       git annex command [params ...]


       git-annex  allows  managing  files  with git, without checking the file contents into git.
       While that may seem paradoxical, it is useful when dealing with files larger than git  can
       currently  easily handle, whether due to limitations in memory, checksumming time, or disk

       Even without file content tracking, being able to manage files with git, move files around
       and  delete files with versioned directory trees, and use branches and distributed clones,
       are all very handy reasons to use git. And annexed files can  co-exist  in  the  same  git
       repository  with regularly versioned files, which is convenient for maintaining documents,
       Makefiles, etc that are associated with annexed files but that benefit from full  revision

       When a file is annexed, its content is moved into a key-value store, and a symlink is made
       that points to the content. These symlinks are checked into git and versioned like regular
       files. You can move them around, delete them, and so on. Pushing to another git repository
       will make git-annex there aware of the annexed file, and it can be used  to  retrieve  its
       content from the key-value store.


        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (not available)
          I was unable to access these remotes: server
          Try making some of these repositories available:
            5863d8c0-d9a9-11df-adb2-af51e6559a49  -- my home file server
            58d84e8a-d9ae-11df-a1aa-ab9aa8c00826  -- portable USB drive
            ca20064c-dbb5-11df-b2fe-002170d25c55  -- backup SATA drive
        # sudo mount /media/usb
        # git remote add usbdrive /media/usb
        # git annex get video/
        get video/ (from usbdrive...) ok

        # git annex add iso
        add iso/Debian_5.0.iso ok

        # git annex drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso
        drop iso/Debian_4.0.iso ok

        # git annex move iso --to=usbdrive
        move iso/Debian_5.0.iso (moving to usbdrive...) ok


       Like  many  git  commands,  git-annex  can  be  passed  a  path that is either a file or a
       directory. In the latter case it acts on all relevant files in the directory. When no path
       is  specified,  most  git-annex  commands  default  to acting on all relevant files in the
       current directory (and subdirectories).

       add [path ...]
              Adds files in the path to the annex. Files that are already checked  into  git,  or
              that  git  has been configured to ignore will be silently skipped.  (Use --force to
              add ignored files.) Dotfiles are skipped unless explicitly listed.

       get [path ...]
              Makes the content of annexed files available in this repository. This will  involve
              copying  them  from  another  repository, or downloading them, or transferring them
              from some kind of key-value store.

              Normally git-annex will choose which repository to copy the content from,  but  you
              can override this using the --from option.

       drop [path ...]
              Drops the content of annexed files from this repository.

              git-annex will refuse to drop content if it cannot verify it is safe to do so. This
              can be overridden with the --force switch.

              To drop content from a remote, specify --from.

       move [path ...]
              When used with the --from option, moves the  content  of  annexed  files  from  the
              specified repository to the current one.

              When used with the --to option, moves the content of annexed files from the current
              repository to the specified one.

       copy [path ...]
              When used with the --from option, copies the content  of  annexed  files  from  the
              specified repository to the current one.

              When  used  with  the  --to  option,  copies  the content of annexed files from the
              current repository to the specified one.

              To avoid contacting the remote to check if it has every file, specify --fast

       unlock [path ...]
              Normally, the content of annexed files is protected from being changed.   Unlocking
              a  annexed  file  allows  it  to  be  modified.  This replaces the symlink for each
              specified file with a copy of the file's content.  You can then modify it  and  git
              annex add (or git commit) to inject it back into the annex.

       edit [path ...]
              This is an alias for the unlock command. May be easier to remember, if you think of
              this as allowing you to edit an annexed file.

       lock [path ...]
              Use this to undo an unlock command if you don't want to modify the files,  or  have
              made modifications you want to discard.

       sync [remote ...]
              Use this command when you want to synchronize the local repository with one or more
              of its remotes. You can specifiy the remotes to sync with; the default is  to  sync
              with  all  remotes.  Or  specify  --fast  to  sync with the remotes with the lowest
              annex-cost value.

              The sync process involves first committing all local changes (git commit -a),  then
              fetching  and  merging  the  synced/master and the git-annex branch from the remote
              repositories and finally pushing the changes back to those branches on  the  remote
              repositories.  You can use standard git commands to do each of those steps by hand,
              or if you don't want to worry about the details, you can use sync.

              Note that syncing with a remote will not update  the  remote's  working  tree  with
              changes  made  to  the  local  repository. However, those changes are pushed to the
              remote, so can be merged into its working tree by running "git annex sync"  on  the

              Note  that  sync  does  not  transfer  any  file  contents  from  or  to the remote

       addurl [url ...]
              Downloads each url to its own file, which is added to the annex.

              To avoid immediately downloading the url, specify --fast.

              Normally  the  filename  is  based  on  the   full   url,   so   will   look   like
              "www.example.com_dir_subdir_bigfile".    For    a    shorter    filename,   specify
              --pathdepth=N. For example,  --pathdepth=1  will  use  "dir/subdir/bigfile",  while
              --pathdepth=3  will use "bigfile". It can also be negative; --pathdepth=-2 will use
              the last two parts of the url.

              Or, to directly specify what file the  url  is  added  to,  specify  --file.   This
              changes  the  behavior;  now  all  the  specified  urls  are  recorded as alternate
              locations from which the file can be downloaded. In this mode, addurl can  be  used
              both to add new files, or to add urls to existing files.


       init [description]

              Until  a  repository  (or  one of its remotes) has been initialized, git-annex will
              refuse to operate on it, to avoid accidentially using it in a repository  that  was
              not intended to have an annex.

              It's  useful,  but not mandatory, to initialize each new clone of a repository with
              its own description.

       describe repository description
              Changes the description of a repository.

              The repository to describe can be specified by git  remote  name  or  by  uuid.  To
              change the description of the current repository, use "here".

       initremote name [param=value ...]
              Sets  up  a  special  remote.  The  remote's  configuration  is  specified  by  the
              parameters. If a remote with the specified name has already  been  configured,  its
              configuration  is modified by any values specified. In either case, the remote will
              be added to .git/config.

              Example Amazon S3 remote:

               initremote mys3 type=S3 encryption=none datacenter=EU

       trust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is trusted to not unexpectedly  lose  content.  Use  with

              To trust the current repository, use "here".

       untrust [repository ...]
              Records that a repository is not trusted and could lose content at any time.

       semitrust [repository ...]
              Returns a repository to the default semi trusted state.

       dead [repository ...]
              Indicates   that  the  repository  has  been  irretrevably  lost.   (To  undo,  use


       fsck [path ...]

              With no parameters, this command checks the whole annex for consistency, and  warns
              about or fixes any problems found.

              With parameters, only the specified files are checked.

              To check a remote to fsck, specify --from.

              To  avoid  expensive  checksum calculations (and expensive transfers when fscking a
              remote), specify --fast

       unused Checks the annex for data that does not correspond to any files present in any  tag
              or branch, and prints a numbered list of the data.

              To only show unused temp and bad files, specify --fast.

              To check for annexed data on a remote, specify --from.

       dropunused [number ...]
              Drops the data corresponding to the numbers, as listed by the last git annex unused

              To drop the data from a remote, specify --from.

       merge  Automatically  merges  remote  tracking  branches  */git-annex  into  the git-annex
              branch.  While  git-annex  mostly  handles  keeping  the  git-annex  branch  merged
              automatically,  if  you  find  you  are  unable  to  push  the git-annex branch due
              non-fast-forward, this will fix it.

       fix [path ...]
              Fixes up symlinks that have become broken to again point to annexed content.   This
              is  useful  to  run  if  you  have  been  moving  the  symlinks around, but is done
              automatically when committing a change with git too.

              Upgrades the repository to current layout.



              Shows the version of git-annex, as well as repository version information.

       find [path ...]
              Outputs a list of annexed files in the specified path. With no path, finds files in
              the current directory and its subdirectories.

              By  default, only lists annexed files whose content is currently present.  This can
              be changed by specifying file matching options. To list all annexed files,  present
              or  not,  specify  --include  "*".  To  list all annexed files whose content is not
              present, specify --not --in=here

              To output filenames terminated with nulls, for use with xargs -0, specify --print0.
              Or,  a custom output formatting can be specified using --format. The default output
              format is the same as --format='${file}\n'

              These variables are available for use in formats:  file,  key,  backend,  bytesize,

       whereis [path ...]
              Displays  a list of repositories known to contain the content of the specified file
              or files.

       log [path ...]
              Displays the location log for the specified file or files, showing each  repository
              they were added to ("+") and removed from ("-").

              To  limit  how  far  back  to  seach for location log changes, the options --since,
              --after, --until, --before, and --max-count can  be  specified.   They  are  passed
              through to git log. For example, --since "1 month ago"

              To generate output suitable for the gource visualisation program, specify --gource.

       status Displays  some  statistics and other information, including how much data is in the
              annex and a list of all known repositories.

              To only show the data that can be gathered quickly, use --fast.

       map    Helps you keep track of your repositories, and the  connections  between  them,  by
              going out and looking at all the ones it can get to, and generating a Graphviz file
              displaying it all. If the dot command is available, it is used to display the  file
              to your screen (using x11 backend). (To disable this display, specify --fast)

              This  command only connects to hosts that the host it's run on can directly connect
              to. It does not try to tunnel through intermediate hosts.  So it might not show all
              connections between the repositories in the network.

              Also,  if  connecting  to  a  host  requires a password, you might have to enter it
              several times as the map is being built.

              Note that this subcommand can be used to  graph  any  git  repository;  it  is  not
              limited to git-annex repositories.


       migrate [path ...]

              Changes  the  specified  annexed files to use the default key-value backend (or the
              one specified with --backend). Only files whose content is currently available  are

              Note  that  the  content is also still available using the old key after migration.
              Use git annex unused to find and remove the old key.

              Normally, nothing will be done to files already using the new backend.  However, if
              a backend changes the information it uses to construct a key, this can also be used
              to migrate files to use the new key format.

       reinject src dest
              Moves the src file into the annex as the content of the dest  file.   This  can  be
              useful if you have obtained the content of a file from elsewhere and want to put it
              in the local annex.

              Automatically runs fsck on dest to check that the expected content was provided.


               git annex reinject /tmp/foo.iso foo.iso

       unannex [path ...]
              Use this to undo an accidental git annex add command. You can use git annex unannex
              to move content out of the annex at any point, even if you've already committed it.

              This  is  not  the  command  you should use if you intentionally annexed a file and
              don't want its contents any more. In that  case  you  should  use  git  annex  drop
              instead, and you can also git rm the file.

              In --fast mode, this command leaves content in the annex, simply making a hard link
              to it.

       uninit Use this to stop using git annex. It will unannex every file in the repository, and
              remove  all  of  git-annex's other data, leaving you with a git repository plus the
              previously annexed files.


       pre-commit [path ...]

              Fixes up symlinks that are staged as part of a commit,  to  ensure  they  point  to
              annexed content. Also handles injecting changes to unlocked files into the annex.

              This is meant to be called from git's pre-commit hook. git annex init automatically
              creates a pre-commit hook using this.

       fromkey key file
              This plumbing-level command can be used to manually  set  up  a  file  in  the  git
              repository to link to a specified key.

       dropkey [key ...]
              This plumbing-level command drops the annexed data for the specified keys from this

              This can be used to drop content for arbitrary keys, which do not need  to  have  a
              file in the git repository pointing at them.


               git annex dropkey SHA1-s10-7da006579dd64330eb2456001fd01948430572f2

       rekey [file key ...]
              This  plumbing-level  command is similar to migrate, but you specify both the file,
              and the new key to use for it.

              With --force, even files whose content is not currently available will be  rekeyed.
              Use with caution.



              Force  unsafe actions, such as dropping a file's content when no other source of it
              can be verified to still exist, or adding ignored files.  Use with care.

       --fast Enables less expensive, but also less thorough versions of some commands.  What  is
              avoided depends on the command.

       --auto Enables automatic mode. Commands that get, drop, or move file contents will only do
              so when needed to help satisfy the setting of annex.numcopies.

              Avoid the default verbose display of what is done; only show  errors  and  progress

              Enable verbose display.

       --json Rather  than  the  normal  output,  generate JSON. This is intended to be parsed by
              programs that use git-annex. Each line of output is a JSON object.

              Show debug messages.

              Specifies a repository  that  content  will  be  retrieved  from,  or  that  should
              otherwise be acted on.

              It should be specified using the name of a configured remote.

              Specifies a repository that content will be sent to.

              It should be specified using the name of a configured remote.

              Overrides  the  annex.numcopies  setting, forcing git-annex to ensure the specified
              number of copies exist.



              Overrides trust settings for a repository. May be specified more than once.

              The repository should be specified using the name of a configured  remote,  or  the
              UUID or description of a repository.

              Specifies  which  key-value  backend to use. This can be used when adding a file to
              the annex, or migrating a file. Once files are in the annex, their backend is known
              and this option is not necessary.

              Specifies  a  custom output format. The value is a format string, in which '${var}'
              is expanded  to  the  value  of  a  variable.  To  right-justify  a  variable  with
              whitespace,  use  '${var;width}' ; to left-justify a variable, use '${var;-width}';
              to escape unusual characters in a variable, use '${escaped_var}'

              Also, '\n' is a newline, '\000' is a NULL, etc.

       -c name=value
              Used to override git configuration settings. May be specified multiple times.


       These options can all be specified multiple times, and can  be  combined  to  limit  which
       files git-annex acts on.

       Arbitrarily complicated expressions can be built using these options.  For example:

        --exclude '*.mp3' --and --not -( --in=usbdrive --or --in=archive -)

       The  above  example  prevents  git-annex from working on mp3 files whose file contents are
       present at either of two repositories.

              Skips files matching the glob pattern. The glob is matched relative to the  current
              directory. For example:

               --exclude='*.mp3' --exclude='subdir/*'

              Skips  files  not  matching  the  glob  pattern.   (Same  as --not --exclude.)  For
              example, to include only mp3 and ogg files:

               --include='*.mp3' --or --include='*.ogg'

              Matches only files that  git-annex  believes  have  their  contents  present  in  a
              repository.  Note that it does not check the repository to verify that it still has
              the content.

              The repository should be specified using the name of a configured  remote,  or  the
              UUID or description of a repository. For the current repository, use --in=here

              Matches  only files that git-annex believes to have the specified number of copies,
              or more. Note that it does not check remotes to verify that the copies still exist.

              Matches only files whose content is stored using the specified key-value backend.

       --not  Inverts the next file matching option. For example, to only act on mp3s, use: --not

       --and  Requires  that  both  the  previous and the next file matching option matches.  The

       --or   Requires that either the previous, or the next file matching option matches.

       -(     Opens a group of file matching options.

       -)     Closes a group of file matching options.


       Like other git commands, git-annex is  configured  via  .git/config.   Here  are  all  the
       supported configuration settings.

              A unique UUID for this repository (automatically set).

              Number of copies of files to keep across all repositories. (default: 1)

              Space-separated  list  of names of the key-value backends to use.  The first listed
              is used to store new files by default.

              Amount of disk space to reserve. Disk space is checked when transferring content to
              avoid  running  out,  and additional free space can be reserved via this option, to
              make space for more important content (such as git commit logs). Can  be  specified
              with any commonly used units, for example, "0.5 gb" or "100 KiloBytes"

              The default reserve is 1 megabyte.

              git-annex  builds a queue of git commands, in order to combine similar commands for
              speed. By default the size of the queue is limited to 10240 commands; this  can  be
              used  to  change  the  size. If you have plenty of memory and are working with very
              large numbers of files, increasing the queue size can speed it up.

              The git annex unused command uses a bloom filter  to  determine  what  data  is  no
              longer used. The default bloom filter is sized to handle up to 500000 keys. If your
              repository is larger than that, you can adjust this to avoid git annex  unused  not
              noticing some unused data files. Increasing this will make git-annex unused consume
              more memory; run git annex status for memory usage numbers.

              Adjusts the accuracy of the bloom filter used by  git  annex  unused.  The  default
              accuracy  is  1000 -- 1 unused file out of 1000 will be missed by git annex unused.
              Increasing the accuracy will make git annex unused consume  more  memory;  run  git
              annex status for memory usage numbers.

              Automatically maintained, and used to automate upgrades between versions.

              By  default, git-annex caches ssh connections (if built using a new enough ssh). To
              disable this, set to false.

              By default, git-annex automatically commits data to the git-annex branch after each
              command  is  run.  To  disable  these commits, set to false. Then data will only be
              committed when running git annex merge (or by automatic merges) or git annex sync.

              When determining which repository to transfer annexed files from or to,  ones  with
              lower costs are preferred.  The default cost is 100 for local repositories, and 200
              for remote repositories.

              If set, the command is run, and the number it outputs is used as  the  cost.   This
              allows  varying  the cost based on eg, the current network. The cost-command can be
              any shell command line.

              A command to run when git-annex begins to use the remote. This can be used to,  for
              example, mount the directory containing the remote.

              The  command  may  be  run repeatedly when multiple git-annex processes are running

              A command to run when git-annex is done using the remote.

              The command will only be run once *all* running git-annex  processes  are  finished
              using the remote.

              If  set  to  true,  prevents  git-annex from using this remote by default. (You can
              still request it be used by the --from and --to options.)

              This  is,  for  example,  useful  if  the  remote  is  located  somewhere   without
              git-annex-shell.  (For  example,  if  it's on GitHub).  Or, it could be used if the
              network connection between two repositories is too slow to be used normally.

              Can be used to specify a different  url  than  the  regular  remote.<name>.url  for
              git-annex  to  use  when  talking  with  the remote. Similar to the pushUrl used by

              git-annex caches UUIDs of remote repositories here.

              Configures a local trust level for the remote. This overrides the value  configured
              by the trust and untrust commands. The value can be any of "trusted", "semitrusted"
              or "untrusted".

              Options to use when using ssh to talk to this remote.

              Options to use when using rsync to or from this remote. For example, to force ipv6,
              and limit the bandwidth to 100Kbyte/s, set it to "-6 --bwlimit 100"

              Options  to pass to bup split when storing content in this remote.  For example, to
              limit the bandwidth  to  100Kbye/s,  set  it  to  "--bwlimit  100k"  (There  is  no
              corresponding option for bup join.)

       annex.ssh-options, annex.rsync-options, annex.bup-split-options
              Default  ssh,  rsync,  wget/curl,  and bup options to use if a remote does not have
              specific options.

              Options to use when using wget or curl to download a file from the web.   (wget  is
              always  used in preference to curl if available).  For example, to force ipv4 only,
              set it to "-4"

              Used by rsync special remotes, this configures the location of the rsync repository
              to  use.  Normally this is automaticaly set up by git annex initremote, but you can
              change it if needed.

              Used by bup special remotes, this configures the location of the bup repository  to
              use.  Normally  this  is  automaticaly  set up by git annex initremote, but you can
              change it if needed.

              Used by directory special remotes, this configures the location  of  the  directory
              where  annexed  files are stored for this remote. Normally this is automaticaly set
              up by git annex initremote, but you can change it if needed.

              Used to identify Amazon S3 special remotes.  Normally this is automaticaly  set  up
              by git annex initremote.

CONFIGURATION VIA .gitattributes

       The  key-value  backend  used  when  adding a new file to the annex can be configured on a
       per-file-type basis via .gitattributes files. In the file, the annex.backend attribute can
       be  set  to  the  name of the backend to use. For example, this here's how to use the WORM
       backend by default, but the SHA1 backend for ogg files:

        * annex.backend=WORM
        *.ogg annex.backend=SHA1

       The  numcopies  setting  can  also  be  configured  on  a  per-file-type  basis  via   the
       annex.numcopies  attribute in .gitattributes files.  For example, this makes two copies be
       needed for wav files:

        *.wav annex.numcopies=2


       These files are used by git-annex, in your git repository:

       .git/annex/objects/ contains the annexed  file  contents  that  are  currently  available.
       Annexed files in your git repository symlink to that content.


       Most    of    git-annex's    documentation    is    available    on    its    web    site,

       If git-annex is installed from a package, a copy of its documentation should be  included,
       in, for example, /usr/share/doc/git-annex/


       Joey Hess <>