Provided by: ispell_3.3.02-5_i386 bug


       ispell,  buildhash,  munchlist,  findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
       Interactive spelling checking


       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file]
              [-p file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix [+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


       Ispell  is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on
       Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In  this
       case,  ispell  will  display  each  word  which  does not appear in the
       dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you  to  change  it.   If
       there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a
       single letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters,
       or  a  missing  space  or  hyphen),  then  they  are  also displayed on
       following lines.  As well as "near misses", ispell  may  display  other
       guesses  at  ways  to  make the word from a known root, with each guess
       preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word  and
       the  previous  line  are  printed at the bottom of the screen.  If your
       terminal can display in reverse video, the word itself is  highlighted.
       You  have  the option of replacing the word completely, or choosing one
       of the suggested words.  Commands  are  single  characters  as  follows
       (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept  the  word,  capitalized as it is in the file, and
                     update private dictionary.

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually,  all
                     lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look  up  words  in  system dictionary (controlled by the
                     WORDS compilation option).

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring  misspellings,  and
                     start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If  the  -M  switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of
       the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
       be  used  to  suppress  the  mini-menu.   (The minimenu is displayed by
       default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these  two
       switches will always override the default).

       If  the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of
       lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the screen  (The  default
       is  to  calculate  the amount of context as a certain percentage of the
       screen size).  The amount of context is  subject  to  a  system-imposed

       If  the  -V  flag  is  given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI
       printable character set will always be displayed in the style  of  "cat
       -v",  even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1
       on your system.  This is useful  when  working  with  older  terminals.
       Without  this  switch,  ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if
       they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A  options  and  interactive
       mode  (see  below)  also  accepts  the  following "common" flags on the
       command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The input file is  in  SGML/HTML  format.   (This  should
                     really  be  -s,  but for historical reasons that flag was
                     already taken.)

              -o     The input file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This
                     could be used to override DEFTEXFLAG.)

              -g     The  input file is in Debian control file format.  Ispell
                     will ignore everything outside the Description(s).

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the  name  of
                     the input file.

              -x     Delete the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in  the

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify  an  alternate dictionary file.  For example, use
                     -d british to  choose  /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}
                     instead of your default ispell dictionary.

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H),
       nroff/troff (-n), TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary  text  (-o)  input  mode.
       mode.   (The  default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG installation
       option, but is  normally  nroff/troff  mode  for  historical  reasons.)
       Unless overridden by one of the mode-selection switches, TeX/LaTeX mode
       is automatically selected if an input file has  the  extension  ".tex",
       and  HTML  mode  is  automatically  selected  if  an input file has the
       extension ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited by <> signs are skipped, except  that
       the  "ALT=" construct is recognized if it appears with no spaces around
       the equals sign, and the text inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\")  is  found,  ispell  will
       skip  to  the next whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands
       contain arguments which should not  be  checked,  such  as  labels  and
       reference  keys  as  are found in the \cite command, since they contain
       arbitrary, non-word arguments.  Spell checking is also suppressed  when
       in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell  will  find  "Ckapter"  but  not  "SCH".  The -t option does not
       recognize the TeX comment character "%", so comments  are  also  spell-
       checked.    It   also  assumes  correct  LaTeX  syntax.   Arguments  to
       infrequently used commands and some optional  arguments  are  sometimes
       checked  unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if ispell
       was compiled with IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography  will
       be checked but the reference key will not.

       References  for  the  tib  (if  available on your system), bibliography
       system, that is, text between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]''  or  ``.>''
       will always be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The  -b  and  -x  options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak)
       file for each input file.  The .bak  file  contains  the  pre-corrected
       text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
       left for recovery purposes even with the -x option.   The  default  for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The  -B  and  -C options control how ispell handles run-together words,
       such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be
       considered  as errors, and ispell will list variations with an inserted
       blank or hyphen as possible replacements.  If  -C  is  specified,  run-
       together  words  will  be  considered to be legal compounds, so long as
       both components are in the dictionary, and each component is  at  least
       as  long  as  a  language-dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).
       This is useful for languages such as German and Norwegian,  where  many
       compound  words  are  formed  by  concatenation.   (Note that compounds
       formed from three or more root words will still be considered  errors).
       The  default  for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual
       installation the default may vary depending  on  which  dictionary  you

       The  -P  and  -m  options  control  when ispell automatically generates
       suggested  root/affix  combinations  for  possible  addition  to   your
       personal  dictionary.  (These are the entries in the "guess" list which
       are preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses  are
       displayed  only  if ispell cannot generate any possibilities that match
       the current dictionary.  If -m is specified, such  guesses  are  always
       displayed.   This  can  be  useful if the dictionary has a limited word
       list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful
       when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce illegal
       words.  The default for this option is  controlled  by  the  dictionary
       file used.

       The  -S  option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting the list
       of possible replacement words.  Some people may prefer this,  since  it
       somewhat  enhances  the  probability that the correct word will be low-

       The -d option is used to specify an alternate hashed  dictionary  file,
       other  than  the  default.  If the filename does not contain a "/", the
       library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
       use  a  dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must be used.
       This is useful to allow dictionaries for alternate  languages.   Unlike
       previous  versions  of  ispell,  a  dictionary of /dev/null is illegal,
       because the dictionary contains  the  affix  table.   If  you  need  an
       effectively  empty dictionary, create a one-entry list with an unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
       If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
       shell  variable  WORDLIST  may  be  set,  which  renames  the  personal
       dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST
       setting.  If  neither  the  -p  switch  nor  the  WORDLIST  environment
       variable is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both
       the current directory and $HOME, creating  one  in  $HOME  if  none  is
       found.   The  preferred  name is constructed by appending ".ispell_" to
       the base name of the hash file.  For example, if you  use  the  English
       dictionary,  your personal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".
       However, if the file ".ispell_words" exists, it will  be  used  as  the
       personal  dictionary regardless of the language hash file chosen.  This
       feature is included primarily for backwards compatibility.

       If the -p option is  not  specified,  ispell  will  look  for  personal
       dictionaries  in both the current directory and the home directory.  If
       dictionaries exist in both places, they will be merged.  If  any  words
       are  added  to  the  personal  dictionary,  they will be written to the
       current directory if  a  dictionary  already  existed  in  that  place;
       otherwise they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The  -w option may be used to specify characters other than alphabetics
       which may also appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
       to  be  picked up.  Underscores are useful in many technical documents.
       There is an  admittedly  crude  provision  in  this  option  for  8-bit
       international  characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in
       the usual way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal  character
       code;  e.g.,  "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in
       the character string, the (up to)  three  characters  following  are  a
       DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly  silly  thing  to  do,  but
       aren't most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric  digits  other  than the three following "n" are simply numeric
       characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because  actual
       alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell
       will typically be used with input from a file, meaning that  preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
       specify the -l option, and actually type text from the  terminal,  this
       may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       It  is  not possible to use -w with certain characters.  In particular,
       the flag-marker character for the language (defined in the affix  file,
       but usually "/") can never be made into a word character.

       The  -W  option  may  be used to change the length of words that ispell
       always accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all  1-character
       words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
       for this switch is actually  controlled  by  the  MINWORD  installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
       be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
       to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
       of three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all  words
       of  three  letters  or less.  Regardless of the setting of this option,
       ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements  for words; this prevents the list from becoming too long.
       Obviously, this option can be very dangerous, since short  misspellings
       may  be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably make
       a last pass without it before you publish  your  document,  to  protect
       yourself against errors.

       The  -T  option  is used to specify a default formatter type for use in
       generating string characters.  This switch overrides the  default  type
       determined  from the file name.  The type argument may be either one of
       the unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or  a
       file  suffix  including  the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears
       and no type can be determined from the file name,  the  default  string
       character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The  -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain deformatters.
       The name parameter gives the name of a  deformatter  keyword  set  (see
       below),  and  the  list  parameter gives a list of one or more keywords
       that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus (+) sign,
       it  is  added  to  the  existing  keywords;  otherwise  it replaces the
       existing keyword list.  For example, -ktexskip1 +bibliographystyle adds
       "bibliographystyle"   to   the  TeX  skip-1  list,  while  -khtmlignore
       pre,strong replaces the HTML ignore list with "pre" and "strong".   The
       lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX  commands  that take a single argument that should not
              be spell-checked, such as "bibliographystyle".  The  default  is
              "end",  "vspace",  "hspace",  "cite",  "ref", "parbox", "label",
              "input", "nocite",  "include",  "includeonly",  "documentstyle",
              "documentclass",  "usepackage",  "selectlanguage",  "pagestyle",
              "pagenumbering", "hyphenation",  "pageref",  and  "psfig",  plus
              "bibliography"  in some installations.  These keywords are case-

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take two arguments that  should  not  be
              spell-checked,  such  as  "setlength".   The  default is "rule",
              "setcounter", "addtocounter",  "setlength",  "addtolength",  and
              "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML  tags  that  delimit  text that should not be spell-checked
              until the matching end tag is reached.  The default  is  "code",
              "samp",  "kbd", "pre", "listing", and "address".  These keywords
              are case-insensitive.  (Note that the content inside HTML  tags,
              such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

              Subfields  that  should  be spell-checked even inside HTML tags.
              The default is "alt", so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags  will
              be spell-checked.  These keywords are case-insensitive.

       All  of  the  above  keyword  lists can also be modified by environment
       variables whose names are the same as above, except in uppercase, e.g.,
       TEXSKIP1.   The  -k  switch  overrides  (or  adds  to)  the environment
       variables, and the environment variables override or add to the  built-
       in defaults.

       The  -F switch specifies an external deformatter program.  This program
       should read data from its standard input  and  write  to  its  standard
       output.   The  program must produce exactly one character of output for
       each character of  input,  or  ispell  will  lose  synchronization  and
       corrupt  the  output  file.   Whitespace characters (especially blanks,
       tabs, and newlines) and characters that should be spell-checked  should
       be  passed  through  unchanged.   Characters  that should not be spell-
       checked should be converted into blanks or other  non-word  characters.
       For  example, an HTML deformatter might turn all HTML tags into blanks,
       and also blank out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

       The -F switch is the preferred way to deformat files  for  ispell,  and
       eventually will become the only way.

       If  ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it enters
       an interactive mode designed to let the  user  check  the  spelling  of
       individual  words.   The  program repeatedly prompts on standard output
       with "word:" and responds with either "ok" (possibly with  commentary),
       "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

       The  -l  or  "list"  option  to  ispell  is  used  to produce a list of
       misspelled words from the standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used  from  other  programs  through  a
       pipe.   In  this  mode, ispell prints a one-line version identification
       message, and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input  line,
       a  single  line is written to the standard output for each word checked
       for spelling  on  the  line.   If  the  word  was  found  in  the  main
       dictionary,  or your personal dictionary, then the line contains only a
       '*'.  If the word was  found  through  affix  removal,  then  the  line
       contains  a  '+',  a  space,  and the root word.  If the word was found
       through compound formation (concatenation of two words,  controlled  by
       the -C option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If  the  word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then
       the line contains an '&', a space, the misspelled word,  a  space,  the
       number  of  near misses, the number of characters between the beginning
       of the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon,  another
       space,  and  a  list of the near misses separated by commas and spaces.
       Following the near misses (and identified only by  the  count  of  near
       misses),  if  the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes to a
       known root, is a list of  suggested  derivations,  again  separated  by
       commas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line format
       is the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the  near-miss
       count  is  always  zero).  The suggested derivations following the near
       misses are in the form:

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
       is  a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same as
       the input word unless such capitalization is  illegal;  in  the  latter
       case   each  near  miss  is  capitalized  correctly  according  to  the

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and  there  are
       no  near  misses, then the line contains a '#', a space, the misspelled
       word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
       Each  sentence  of  text  input  is terminated with an additional blank
       line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  &  <original>  <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,  <miss>,  ...,
                     <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example,  a  dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey",
       "fry", and "refried"  might  produce  the  following  response  to  the
       command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This  mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure
       out the spelling of a single word.

       The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
       string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
       file to read for further words.  Input returns  to  the  original  file
       when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
       deep.  The key string may be  changed  with  the  environment  variable
       INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When  in  the  -a  mode,  ispell will also accept lines of single words
       prefixed with any of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%',  '`',
       or  '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells ispell to insert the word into
       the user's dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with
       '&'  tells  ispell  to insert an all-lowercase version of the word into
       the user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with
       '@'  causes  ispell to accept this word in the future (similar to the A
       command).  A line starting with '+', followed  immediately  by  tex  or
       nroff  will  cause ispell to parse future input according the syntax of
       that formatter.  A line consisting solely of a '+' will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX  mode  (similar  to  the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to
       nroff/troff mode (but  these  commands  are  obsolete).   However,  the
       string  character  type is not changed; the '~' command must be used to
       do this.  A line starting  with  '~'  causes  ispell  to  set  internal
       parameters  (in particular, the default string character type) based on
       the filename given in  the  rest  of  the  line.   (A  file  suffix  is
       sufficient, but the period must be included.  Instead of a file name or
       suffix, a unique name, as listed in the language  affix  file,  may  be
       specified.)   However,  the  formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+'
       command must be used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#'
       will  cause  the personal dictionary to be saved.  A line prefixed with
       '!' will turn on terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed  with  '%'
       will  return  ispell  to normal (non-terse) mode.  A line prefixed with
       '`' will turn on verbose-correction mode (see  below);  this  mode  can
       only be disabled by turning on terse mode with '%'.

       Any  input  following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!', '%', or
       '`' is ignored, as is any input following the filename on a  '~'  line.
       To  allow  spell-checking  of  lines beginning with these characters, a
       line starting with '^' has that character removed before it  is  passed
       to  the  spell-checking  code.   It  is  recommended  that programmatic
       interfaces prefix every data line with an uparrow to protect themselves
       against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In  terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or
       '-', all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly  improves
       running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

       In  verbose-correction  mode,  ispell  includes   the   original   word
       immediately  after  the  indicator  character in output lines beginning
       with '*', '+', and '-', which simplifies interaction for some programs.

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options,
       and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
       with a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read  more
       input  until  it  receives  a  SIGCONT  signal.  This may be useful for
       handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options.
       If  -f  is  specified, ispell will write its results to the given file,
       rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
       on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
       also print the options that it was compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-5], and -D options of ispell, are primarily  intended  for
       use  by  the  munchlist  shell  script.  The -c switch causes a list of
       words to be read from the standard input.  For each  word,  a  list  of
       possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
       Some of the root words will be illegal and must be  filtered  from  the
       output  by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example,
       the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
       list of words.  For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An  optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1)
       is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the  original  root/affix
       combination to be prepended to the line:

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word, with the original root/affix combination followed by the word  it

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A  level  of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of
       the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root  and
       the total length of all generated words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       A level of 5 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word.  If the generated word did not use any affixes, the line is  just
       that word.  If one or more affixes were used, the original root and the
       affixes actually used are printed, joined by  a  plus  sign;  then  the
       generated word is printed:

              BOTH+R BOTHER

       Finally,  the  -D flag causes the affix tables from the dictionary file
       to be dumped to standard output.

       Ispell is  aware  of  the  correct  capitalizations  of  words  in  the
       dictionary  and  in  your  personal dictionary.  As well as recognizing
       words that must be capitalized (e.g., George) and words  that  must  be
       all-capitals  (e.g.,  NASA),  it  can  also handle words with "unusual"
       capitalization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If  a  word  is  capitalized
       incorrectly,  the  list  of  possibilities  will include all acceptable
       capitalizations.  (More than one capitalization may be acceptable;  for
       example, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally,  this  feature will not cause you surprises, but there is one
       circumstance you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word  to
       your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
       word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in  the  dictionary),  it
       will  be  marked  as  "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
       sentence)  will  be  considered  a  misspelling  by ispell, and it will
       suggest the capitalized version.  You  must  then  compare  the  actual
       spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using  "U"  to
       add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any  word  that  is  in the dictionary in all-lowercase form may
              appear either in lowercase or capitalized (as at  the  beginning
              of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
              cases and there is an uppercase  character  besides  the  first)
              must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
              rule (1).  If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase,  it  must
              appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program builds hashed dictionary files for later use by
       ispell.  The raw word list (with affix flags) is  given  in  dict-file,
       and  the  the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The hashed output
       is written to hash-file.  The  formats  of  the  two  input  files  are
       described  in  ispell(5).   The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual
       status messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce  the  size  of  dictionary
       files,  primarily  personal  dictionary  files.   It is also capable of
       combining dictionaries from various sources.  The given files are  read
       (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
       roots and affixes that will match the same list of words,  and  written
       to standard output.

       Input  for  munchlist  contains  of  raw  words (e.g from your personal
       dictionary files) or root and affix combinations (probably generated in
       earlier  munchlist  runs).  Each word or root/affix combination must be
       on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves  temporary  files  around  under  standard
       names  instead  of  deleting  them, so that the script can be debugged.
       Warning: on a multiuser system, this can be a security hole.  To  avoid
       possible  destruction of important files, don't run the script as root,
       and set MUNCHDEBUGDIR to the name of a  directory  that  only  you  can

       The  -v  (verbose)  option  causes  progress messages to be reported to
       stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the  specified
       hash-file  are  removed  from  the  word list.  This can be useful with
       personal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be  used  to  specify  an  alternate  affix-file  for
       munching dictionaries in languages other than English.

       The  -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built with
       an  older  affix  file,  without  risk  of   accidentally   introducing
       unintended affix combinations into the dictionary.

       The  -T  option  allows  dictionaries  to  be  converted to a canonical
       string-character format.  The suffix specified  is  looked  up  in  the
       affix  file  (-l  switch) to determine the string-character format used
       for the input file;  the  output  always  uses  the  canonical  string-
       character  format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source
       files might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script  is  an  aid  to  writers  of  new  language
       descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
       input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
       or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
       presented along with a count of the number of times it appears  and  an
       estimate  of  the  number  of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary
       hash file if it were added to the language table.   Only  affixes  that
       generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

       If  the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following


       where strip is the string that should be  stripped  from  a  root  word
       before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
       of the number of times that this  strip/add  combination  appears,  and
       bytes  is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in the
       raw dictionary file if this combination is added  to  the  affix  file.
       The  field  separator in the output will be the tab character specified
       by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option  is  given,  the  appearance  of  the
       output  is  made  visually  cleaner  (but  harder  to  post-process) by
       changing it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab>  represents
       the ASCII tab character.

       The  method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer
       affixes which have common headers or trailers.  For  example,  the  two
       words   "moth"   and  "mother"  will  generate  not  only  the  obvious
       substitution "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly  even
       longer ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the
       output with such affixes, any affix pair that shares  a  common  header
       (or, for prefixes, trailer) string longer than elim characters (default
       1) will be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a  value  greater
       than  1  if  your  language has string characters; usually the need for
       this parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of  your
       findaffix run.

       Normally,  the  affixes  are  sorted according to the estimate of bytes
       saved.  The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted  by
       frequency of appearance.

       To  save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times are
       eliminated; this limit may be changed  with  the  -l  switch.   The  -M
       switch  specifies  a  maximum affix length (default 8).  Affixes longer
       than this will not be reported.  (This saves on  temporary  disk  space
       and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes  which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.
       (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
       the add string has been added.)  This reduces both the running time and
       the size of the output file.  This limit may be  changed  with  the  -m
       switch.   The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
       of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
       internal use.  Normally, this character is a slash ("/"),  but  if  the
       slash  appears  as  a  character  in  the  input word list, a different
       character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed  to  findaffix;
       in  addition,  characters that are not in the English alphabet (if any)
       should be translated to lowercase.

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the  effectiveness  of  a
       proposed  prefix  (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a
       given expanded-file.  Only one affix can be tried with  each  execution
       of  tryaffix,  although  multiple  arguments  can  be  used to describe
       varying forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English  can
       add  either  D  or  ED  depending  on  whether  a trailing E is already
       present).  Each word in the expanded dictionary that ends  (or  begins)
       with  the  chosen  suffix (or prefix) has that suffix (prefix) removed;
       the dictionary is then searched for root words that match the  stripped
       word.  Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but
       if the -c (count) flag is given, only  a  statistical  summary  of  the
       results  is  written.   The  statistics  given are a count of words the
       affix  potentially  applies  to  and  an  estimate  of  the  number  of
       dictionary  bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The estimate
       will be high if the flag generates words that are  currently  generated
       by  other  affix  flags  (e.g., in English, bathers can be generated by
       either bath/X or bather/S).

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
       -e  switch  of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work best if
       uppercase has been folded to lower with 'tr'.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary  file
       to  produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are
       examples.  The addition parts of the argument are  letters  that  would
       have  been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For example,
       in English the affix ing normally strips e for  words  ending  in  that
       letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All  of  the  shell  scripts contain documentation as commentary at the
       beginning; sometimes these comments contain useful  information  beyond
       the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
       range text if desired.

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It  reads  a  list  of
       words  in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard input,
       and produces a reduced list on standard output  which  combines  common
       roots  found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have differing
       flags will have their flags combined, and roots  which  have  differing
       capitalizations  will  be  combined  in  a  way  which  only  preserves
       important capitalization information.  The optional aff-file  specifies
       a  language file which defines the character sets used and the meanings
       of the various flags.  The -T  switch  can  be  used  to  select  among
       alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be
       found in an altstringtype statement.  The -w switch is identical to the
       same switch in ispell.

       The  ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles long
       lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
       sort(1)  program  used  to  prepare  the  input  to  ijoin  uses signed
       comparisons on 8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies  that  sort(1)
       uses  unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1)
       are duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page,  except
       that  ijoin  will  not  handle  newline  as a field separator.  See the
       join(1) manual page for more information.


              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Formatter type or character encoding to use, if none  is  chosen
              by a flag option.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

              List of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List  of  HTML  keywords  that  delimit  text that should not be

              List of HTML fields that should always  be  spell-checked,  even
              inside a tag.


              Hashed  dictionary  (may be found in some other local directory,
              depending on the system).

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

              For the Lookup function.

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary


       egrep(1), look(1), join(1), sort(1), spell(1), sq(1), tib (if available
       on your system), ispell(5), english(5)


       On  some  machines  it  takes  too  long for ispell to read in the hash
       table, depending on size.

       When all options are  enabled,  ispell  may  take  several  seconds  to
       generate  all  the  guesses  at  corrections  for a misspelled word; on
       slower machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so  a
       PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
       with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
       out, the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When  the  -x  flag  is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
       "non-word"  characters.   Such  characters ought to be deleted from the
       dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts  of  temporary  file
       space  for  large dictionaries.  They do respect the TMPDIR environment
       variable, so this space can be  redirected.   However,  a  lot  of  the
       temporary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help
       on systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined as
       accepting  the  undocumented  -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist
       takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger
       ratio  is  for  dictionaries that already have heavy affix use, such as
       the one  distributed  with  ispell).   Munchlist  is  also  very  slow;
       munching  a  normal-sized  dictionary  (15K  roots, 45K expanded words)
       takes around an hour on a small workstation.  (Most  of  this  time  is
       spent  in  sort(1),  and munchlist can run much faster on machines that
       have a more modern sort that makes better use of the  memory  available
       to  it.)   Findaffix  is  even  worse;  the smallest English dictionary
       cannot be processed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space,  and
       even  after specifying switches to reduce the temporary space required,
       the script will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.


       Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax),  1983,  based  on  the  PDP-10  assembly
       version.   That  version  was written by R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later
       revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A complete list of contributors is too  large  to  list  here,  but  is
       distributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".


       The  version  of  ispell described by this manual page is International
       Ispell Version 3.1.20, 10/10/95.

                                     local                           ISPELL(1)