Provided by: ispell_3.3.02-5_amd64 bug


       ispell,  buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin - Interactive spelling


       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S]  [-d  file]  [-p  file]  [-w
              chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix [+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


       Ispell  is  fashioned  after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on Twenex systems.)
       The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In this case, ispell will display  each  word
       which  does  not appear in the dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you to change
       it.  If there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ  by  only  a  single
       letter,  a  missing  or  extra letter, a pair of transposed letters, or a missing space or
       hyphen), then they are also displayed on following  lines.   As  well  as  "near  misses",
       ispell  may  display  other  guesses at ways to make the word from a known root, with each
       guess preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and the  previous
       line  are  printed  at  the bottom of the screen.  If your terminal can display in reverse
       video, the word itself is  highlighted.   You  have  the  option  of  replacing  the  word
       completely,  or  choosing  one  of the suggested words.  Commands are single characters as
       follows (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept the word, capitalized as it  is  in  the  file,  and  update  private

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually, all lower-case) version
                     to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look up words in system dictionary  (controlled  by  the  WORDS  compilation

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring misspellings, and start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If  the  -M  switch  is  specified,  a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of the screen will
       summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may be used to suppress the mini-menu.
       (The minimenu is displayed by default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but
       these two switches will always override the default).

       If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of lines of context to
       be shown at the bottom of the screen (The default is to calculate the amount of context as
       a certain percentage of the screen size).  The amount of context is subject to  a  system-
       imposed limit.

       If the -V flag is given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI printable character set
       will always be displayed in the style of "cat  -v",  even  if  ispell  thinks  that  these
       characters  are  legal ISO Latin-1 on your system.  This is useful when working with older
       terminals.  Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if they have
       been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options and interactive mode (see below) also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The input file is in SGML/HTML format.  (This should really be -s,  but  for
                     historical reasons that flag was already taken.)

              -o     The  input  file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This could be used to
                     override DEFTEXFLAG.)

              -g     The input file is  in  Debian  control  file  format.   Ispell  will  ignore
                     everything outside the Description(s).

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of the input file.

              -x     Delete the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling errors.

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in the dictionary.

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary file.  For example, use -d british to choose
                     /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}   instead   of   your   default    ispell

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The  -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H), nroff/troff (-n),
       TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary text (-o) input mode.  mode.  (The default mode is  controlled
       by  the  DEFTEXFLAG  installation  option, but is normally nroff/troff mode for historical
       reasons.)  Unless overridden by one of the  mode-selection  switches,  TeX/LaTeX  mode  is
       automatically  selected  if  an  input  file  has  the  extension ".tex", and HTML mode is
       automatically selected if an input file has the extension ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited  by  <>  signs  are  skipped,  except  that  the  "ALT="
       construct  is recognized if it appears with no spaces around the equals sign, and the text
       inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found,  ispell  will  skip  to  the  next
       whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands contain arguments which should not be
       checked, such as labels and reference keys as are found in the \cite command,  since  they
       contain  arbitrary,  non-word  arguments.   Spell checking is also suppressed when in math
       mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The  -t  option  does  not  recognize  the  TeX
       comment  character "%", so comments are also spell-checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX
       syntax.  Arguments to infrequently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes
       checked  unnecessarily.   The bibliography will not be checked if ispell was compiled with
       IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography will be checked but the reference key will

       References  for  the tib (if available on your system), bibliography system, that is, text
       between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or ``.>'' will always be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak) file  for  each  input
       file.  The .bak file contains the pre-corrected text.  If there are file opening / writing
       errors, the .bak file may be left for recovery purposes even  with  the  -x  option.   The
       default for this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The  -B and -C options control how ispell handles run-together words, such as "notthe" for
       "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be considered as errors, and  ispell  will
       list  variations  with  an  inserted  blank  or hyphen as possible replacements.  If -C is
       specified, run-together words will be considered to be legal compounds, so  long  as  both
       components  are  in  the dictionary, and each component is at least as long as a language-
       dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).  This is useful for languages such as German
       and  Norwegian,  where  many  compound  words  are  formed  by  concatenation.  (Note that
       compounds formed from three or more root words will  still  be  considered  errors).   The
       default for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual installation the default
       may vary depending on which dictionary you choose.

       The -P and -m options control when ispell  automatically  generates  suggested  root/affix
       combinations for possible addition to your personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in
       the "guess" list which are preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such  guesses
       are  displayed  only  if  ispell  cannot generate any possibilities that match the current
       dictionary.  If -m is specified, such guesses are always displayed.  This can be useful if
       the  dictionary  has  a limited word list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you
       should be careful when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce  illegal
       words.  The default for this option is controlled by the dictionary file used.

       The  -S  option  suppresses  ispell's  normal  behavior  of  sorting  the list of possible
       replacement  words.   Some  people  may  prefer  this,  since  it  somewhat  enhances  the
       probability that the correct word will be low-numbered.

       The  -d  option  is  used  to  specify an alternate hashed dictionary file, other than the
       default.  If the filename does not contain a "/", the library directory  for  the  default
       dictionary  file  is  prefixed;  thus,  to  use  a  dictionary  in the local directory "-d
       ./xxx.hash" must be used.  This is useful to allow dictionaries for  alternate  languages.
       Unlike  previous  versions  of  ispell,  a dictionary of /dev/null is illegal, because the
       dictionary contains the affix table.  If you need an effectively empty dictionary,  create
       a one-entry list with an unlikely string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The  -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.  If the file name
       does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the shell variable WORDLIST may be set,
       which  renames the personal dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any
       WORDLIST setting.  If neither the -p switch  nor  the  WORDLIST  environment  variable  is
       given,  ispell  will  search  for  a personal dictionary in both the current directory and
       $HOME, creating one in $HOME if none is found.   The  preferred  name  is  constructed  by
       appending  ".ispell_"  to  the  base  name  of the hash file.  For example, if you use the
       English dictionary, your personal dictionary would be named  ".ispell_english".   However,
       if  the file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the personal dictionary regardless
       of the language hash file chosen.   This  feature  is  included  primarily  for  backwards

       If  the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for personal dictionaries in both the
       current directory and the home directory.  If dictionaries exist in both places, they will
       be merged.  If any words are added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the
       current directory if a dictionary already existed in that place; otherwise  they  will  be
       written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The  -w  option  may  be  used to specify characters other than alphabetics which may also
       appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T" to be picked up.  Underscores are
       useful in many technical documents.  There is an admittedly crude provision in this option
       for 8-bit international characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in the usual
       way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal character code; e.g., "\014" for a form
       feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in the character string, the (up to) three characters
       following  are  a  DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but aren't most pedagogical


       Numeric  digits  other than the three following "n" are simply numeric characters.  Use of
       "n" does not  conflict  with  anything  because  actual  alphabetics  have  no  meaning  -
       alphabetics  are  already accepted.  Ispell will typically be used with input from a file,
       meaning that preserving parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input  text  is  OK.
       If  you  specify  the -l option, and actually type text from the terminal, this may create
       problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       It is not possible to use -w with certain  characters.   In  particular,  the  flag-marker
       character  for the language (defined in the affix file, but usually "/") can never be made
       into a word character.

       The -W option may be used to change the length of words  that  ispell  always  accepts  as
       legal.   Normally,  ispell will accept all 1-character words as legal, which is equivalent
       to specifying "-W 1."  (The default for this switch is actually controlled by the  MINWORD
       installation  option,  so  it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to be
       checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want to  specify  "-W  0."
       On  the  other  hand, if your document specifies a lot of three-letter acronyms, you would
       specify "-W 3" to accept all words of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting of
       this  option,  ispell  will  only  generate  words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming too  long.   Obviously,  this
       option  can  be  very  dangerous, since short misspellings may be missed.  If you use this
       option a lot, you should probably make a last pass without  it  before  you  publish  your
       document, to protect yourself against errors.

       The  -T  option  is  used to specify a default formatter type for use in generating string
       characters.  This switch overrides the default type determined from the  file  name.   The
       type  argument  may  be  either one of the unique names defined in the language affix file
       (e.g., nroff) or a file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no  -T  option  appears
       and  no  type  can  be  determined  from  the file name, the default string character type
       declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain deformatters.  The name parameter
       gives  the  name  of a deformatter keyword set (see below), and the list parameter gives a
       list of one or more keywords that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus
       (+) sign, it is added to the existing keywords; otherwise it replaces the existing keyword
       list.  For example, -ktexskip1 +bibliographystyle  adds  "bibliographystyle"  to  the  TeX
       skip-1  list,  while  -khtmlignore pre,strong replaces the HTML ignore list with "pre" and
       "strong".  The lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take a single argument that should  not  be  spell-checked,
              such  as  "bibliographystyle".   The  default is "end", "vspace", "hspace", "cite",
              "ref",   "parbox",   "label",   "input",   "nocite",   "include",    "includeonly",
              "documentstyle",   "documentclass",  "usepackage",  "selectlanguage",  "pagestyle",
              "pagenumbering", "hyphenation", "pageref", and "psfig", plus "bibliography" in some
              installations.  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              TeX/LaTeX  commands  that take two arguments that should not be spell-checked, such
              as "setlength".  The default is "rule", "setcounter", "addtocounter",  "setlength",
              "addtolength", and "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML tags that delimit text that should not be spell-checked until the matching end
              tag is reached.  The default  is  "code",  "samp",  "kbd",  "pre",  "listing",  and
              "address".   These  keywords  are  case-insensitive.  (Note that the content inside
              HTML tags, such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

              Subfields that should be spell-checked even  inside  HTML  tags.   The  default  is
              "alt",  so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags will be spell-checked.  These keywords
              are case-insensitive.

       All of the above keyword lists can also be modified by environment variables  whose  names
       are  the  same as above, except in uppercase, e.g., TEXSKIP1.  The -k switch overrides (or
       adds to) the environment variables, and the environment variables override or add  to  the
       built-in defaults.

       The  -F  switch  specifies an external deformatter program.  This program should read data
       from its standard input and write to  its  standard  output.   The  program  must  produce
       exactly  one  character  of  output  for  each  character  of  input,  or ispell will lose
       synchronization and corrupt the output file.  Whitespace  characters  (especially  blanks,
       tabs,  and  newlines) and characters that should be spell-checked should be passed through
       unchanged.  Characters that should not be spell-checked should be converted into blanks or
       other non-word characters.  For example, an HTML deformatter might turn all HTML tags into
       blanks, and also blank out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

       The -F switch is the preferred way to deformat  files  for  ispell,  and  eventually  will
       become the only way.

       If ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it enters an interactive mode
       designed to let the user check the spelling of individual words.  The  program  repeatedly
       prompts  on  standard  output  with  "word:"  and responds with either "ok" (possibly with
       commentary), "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

       The -l or "list" option to ispell is used to produce a list of misspelled words  from  the
       standard input.

       The  -a  option  is intended to be used from other programs through a pipe.  In this mode,
       ispell prints a one-line version identification message, and then begins reading lines  of
       input.  For each input line, a single line is written to the standard output for each word
       checked for spelling on the line.  If the word was found in the main dictionary,  or  your
       personal  dictionary,  then  the  line contains only a '*'.  If the word was found through
       affix removal, then the line contains a '+', a space, and the root word.  If the word  was
       found  through  compound  formation  (concatenation  of  two  words,  controlled by the -C
       option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then the line contains an
       '&',  a  space,  the  misspelled  word,  a space, the number of near misses, the number of
       characters between the beginning of the line and the beginning of the misspelled  word,  a
       colon,  another  space,  and  a  list  of  the near misses separated by commas and spaces.
       Following the near misses (and identified only by the count of near misses), if  the  word
       could  be  formed  by  adding  (illegal)  affixes  to a known root, is a list of suggested
       derivations, again separated by commas and spaces.  If there are no near  misses  at  all,
       the  line  format  is  the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the near-miss
       count is always zero).  The suggested derivations following the near  misses  are  in  the

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g.,  "re+fry-y+ies"  to  get  "refries")  where  each optional pfx and sfx is a string.
       Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the  same  as  the  input  word  unless  such
       capitalization  is  illegal;  in  the  latter case each near miss is capitalized correctly
       according to the dictionary.

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are no near misses, then
       the  line  contains a '#', a space, the misspelled word, a space, and the character offset
       from the beginning of the line.  Each  sentence  of  text  input  is  terminated  with  an
       additional blank line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  & <original> <count> <offset>: <miss>, <miss>, ..., <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example, a dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey", "fry", and "refried"
       might produce the following response to the command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m  -d
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure out the spelling of
       a single word.

       The -A option works  just  like  -a,  except  that  if  a  line  begins  with  the  string
       "&Include_File&",  the rest of the line is taken as the name of a file to read for further
       words.  Input returns to the original file when the include file is exhausted.   Inclusion
       may  be  nested  up  to  five  deep.   The  key string may be changed with the environment
       variable INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words prefixed  with  any  of
       '*',  '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', '`', or '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells
       ispell to insert the word into the user's dictionary (similar to the I command).   A  line
       starting  with  '&'  tells  ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with '@' causes  ispell  to
       accept  this  word  in  the  future (similar to the A command).  A line starting with '+',
       followed immediately by tex or nroff will cause ispell to parse future input according the
       syntax  of  that  formatter.   A  line  consisting  solely  of  a '+' will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to nroff/troff mode  (but
       these  commands are obsolete).  However, the string character type is not changed; the '~'
       command must be used to do this.  A line starting with '~' causes ispell to  set  internal
       parameters  (in particular, the default string character type) based on the filename given
       in the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient, but the period must  be  included.
       Instead of a file name or suffix, a unique name, as listed in the language affix file, may
       be specified.)  However, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+'  command  must  be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#' will cause the personal dictionary
       to be saved.  A line prefixed with '!' will turn on terse mode (see  below),  and  a  line
       prefixed with '%' will return ispell to normal (non-terse) mode.  A line prefixed with '`'
       will turn on verbose-correction mode (see below);  this  mode  can  only  be  disabled  by
       turning on terse mode with '%'.

       Any  input  following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!', '%', or '`' is ignored, as
       is any input following the filename on a '~'  line.   To  allow  spell-checking  of  lines
       beginning  with  these  characters,  a  line  starting with '^' has that character removed
       before it is passed to the spell-checking  code.   It  is  recommended  that  programmatic
       interfaces  prefix  every  data  line with an uparrow to protect themselves against future
       changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or '-', all  of  which
       indicate  correct  words.   This  significantly  improves  running  speed when the driving
       program is going to ignore correct words anyway.

       In verbose-correction mode, ispell  includes  the  original  word  immediately  after  the
       indicator  character  in  output  lines beginning with '*', '+', and '-', which simplifies
       interaction for some programs.

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options,  and  only  on  BSD-
       derived  systems.   If specified, ispell will stop itself with a SIGTSTP signal after each
       line of input.  It will not read more input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This  may
       be useful for handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.  If -f is specified,
       ispell will write its results to the given file, rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification  on  the  standard
       output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will also print the options that it was
       compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-5], and -D options of ispell, are primarily intended for use by the munchlist
       shell  script.   The  -c switch causes a list of words to be read from the standard input.
       For each word, a list of possible root words and affixes will be written to  the  standard
       output.   Some  of  the root words will be illegal and must be filtered from the output by
       other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example, the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce  a  list  of  words.
       For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An  optional  expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1) is the same as -e
       alone.  A level of 2 causes the original root/affix combination to  be  prepended  to  the

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A  level  of  3  causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated word, with the
       original root/affix combination followed by the word it creates:

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of the  level-3  lines,
       giving  the  ratio  between  the  length of the root and the total length of all generated
       words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       A level of 5 causes multiple lines to be output, one for  each  generated  word.   If  the
       generated  word  did  not  use  any  affixes,  the line is just that word.  If one or more
       affixes were used, the original root and the affixes actually used are printed, joined  by
       a plus sign; then the generated word is printed:

              BOTH+R BOTHER

       Finally,  the  -D  flag  causes  the affix tables from the dictionary file to be dumped to
       standard output.

       Ispell is aware of the correct capitalizations of words in  the  dictionary  and  in  your
       personal dictionary.  As well as recognizing words that must be capitalized (e.g., George)
       and words that must be all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with  "unusual"
       capitalization  (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized incorrectly, the list
       of  possibilities  will  include  all  acceptable   capitalizations.    (More   than   one
       capitalization  may  be  acceptable;  for  example,  my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and

       Normally, this feature will not cause you surprises, but there  is  one  circumstance  you
       need  to  be  aware  of.   If  you use "I" to add a word to your dictionary that is at the
       beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first word of this paragraph if "normally" were not  in
       the  dictionary),  it  will be marked as "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous sentence) will  be
       considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will suggest the capitalized version.  You must
       then compare the actual spellings by eye, and then  type  "I"  to  add  the  uncapitalized
       variant  to  your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to add the
       original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any word that is in the dictionary in  all-lowercase  form  may  appear  either  in
              lowercase or capitalized (as at the beginning of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both cases and there is
              an uppercase character besides the first) must appear exactly as in the dictionary,
              except  as  permitted  by rule (1).  If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase, it
              must appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The buildhash program builds hashed dictionary files for later use  by  ispell.   The  raw
       word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file, and the the affix flags are defined by
       affix-file.  The hashed output is written to hash-file.  The  formats  of  the  two  input
       files  are  described  in  ispell(5).   The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual status
       messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce  the  size  of  dictionary  files,  primarily
       personal  dictionary  files.   It  is  also capable of combining dictionaries from various
       sources.  The given files are read (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced  to
       a  minimal set of roots and affixes that will match the same list of words, and written to
       standard output.

       Input for munchlist contains of raw words (e.g from your  personal  dictionary  files)  or
       root  and affix combinations (probably generated in earlier munchlist runs).  Each word or
       root/affix combination must be on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves temporary  files  around  under  standard  names  instead  of
       deleting  them,  so that the script can be debugged.  Warning: on a multiuser system, this
       can be a security hole.  To avoid possible destruction of important files, don't  run  the
       script as root, and set MUNCHDEBUGDIR to the name of a directory that only you can access.

       The -v (verbose) option causes progress messages to be reported to stderr so you won't get
       nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that  are  in  the  specified  hash-file  are
       removed from the word list.  This can be useful with personal dictionaries.

       The  -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for munching dictionaries in
       languages other than English.

       The -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were  built  with  an  older  affix
       file,  without  risk  of  accidentally  introducing unintended affix combinations into the

       The -T option allows dictionaries to be converted to a canonical string-character  format.
       The  suffix  specified is looked up in the affix file (-l switch) to determine the string-
       character format used for the input file; the output always  uses  the  canonical  string-
       character  format.   For  example,  a  dictionary collected from TeX source files might be
       converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script is an aid to writers of new language descriptions  in  choosing
       affixes.   The  given dictionary files (standard input if none are given) are examined for
       possible prefixes (-p switch) or  suffixes  (-s  switch,  the  default).   Each  commonly-
       occurring  affix  is presented along with a count of the number of times it appears and an
       estimate of the number of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary hash file if  it  were
       added  to  the  language  table.   Only  affixes  that  generate legal roots (found in the
       original input) are listed.

       If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following format:


       where strip is the string that should be stripped from  a  root  word  before  adding  the
       affix,  add  is  the  affix to be added, count is a count of the number of times that this
       strip/add combination appears, and bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that  might
       be  saved  in the raw dictionary file if this combination is added to the affix file.  The
       field separator in the output will be the tab character specified by the -t  switch;   the
       default is a slash ("/").

       If  the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the output is made visually
       cleaner (but harder to post-process) by changing it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before,  and  <tab>  represents  the  ASCII  tab

       The  method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer affixes which have
       common headers or trailers.  For example, the two words "moth" and "mother" will  generate
       not  only  the  obvious  substitution "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly
       even longer ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the  output  with
       such  affixes,  any  affix  pair  that  shares a common header (or, for prefixes, trailer)
       string longer than elim characters (default 1) will be suppressed.  You may  want  to  set
       "elim"  to a value greater than 1 if your language has string characters; usually the need
       for this parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your findaffix run.

       Normally, the affixes are sorted according to the estimate of bytes saved.  The -f  switch
       may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by frequency of appearance.

       To  save  output  file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times are eliminated; this
       limit may be changed with the -l switch.  The -M switch specifies a maximum  affix  length
       (default  8).   Affixes  longer  than this will not be reported.  (This saves on temporary
       disk space and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.   (A  stem  is  the
       word  after  the strip string has been removed, and before the add string has been added.)
       This reduces both the running time and the size of the output file.   This  limit  may  be
       changed with the -m switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank  field-separator  character  for  internal  use.
       Normally,  this character is a slash ("/"), but if the slash appears as a character in the
       input word list, a different character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be  expanded  before  being  fed  to  findaffix;  in  addition,
       characters  that  are  not  in  the  English  alphabet  (if  any)  should be translated to

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a proposed  prefix  (-p
       switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a given expanded-file.  Only one affix can
       be tried with each execution of tryaffix, although  multiple  arguments  can  be  used  to
       describe varying forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can add either
       D or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already present).  Each word in the  expanded
       dictionary  that  ends  (or  begins)  with  the  chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix
       (prefix) removed; the dictionary is then searched for root words that match  the  stripped
       word.   Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but if the -c (count)
       flag is given, only a statistical summary of the results is written.  The statistics given
       are  a  count  of  words the affix potentially applies to and an estimate of the number of
       dictionary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The estimate will be high if the
       flag  generates words that are currently generated by other affix flags (e.g., in English,
       bathers can be generated by either bath/X or bather/S).

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be  expanded  (using  the  -e  switch  of
       ispell)  and  sorted,  and  things  will usually work best if uppercase has been folded to
       lower with 'tr'.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary file  to  produce  trial
       roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are examples.  The addition parts of the
       argument are letters that would have been stripped off the root before adding  the  affix.
       For  example,  in  English the affix ing normally strips e for words ending in that letter
       (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All of the shell scripts contain documentation as commentary at the  beginning;  sometimes
       these comments contain useful information beyond the scope of this manual page.

       It  is  possible  to  install  ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII range text if

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of  words  in  dictionary
       format (roots plus flags) from the standard input, and produces a reduced list on standard
       output which combines common roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which  have
       differing   flags  will  have  their  flags  combined,  and  roots  which  have  differing
       capitalizations will be combined in a way which only  preserves  important  capitalization
       information.   The optional aff-file specifies a language file which defines the character
       sets used and the meanings of the various flags.  The -T switch  can  be  used  to  select
       among  alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be found in an
       altstringtype statement.  The -w switch is identical to the same switch in ispell.

       The ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles  long  lines  and  8-bit
       characters  correctly.   The  -s switch specifies that the sort(1) program used to prepare
       the input to ijoin uses signed comparisons on 8-bit characters; the  -u  switch  specifies
       that  sort(1)  uses  unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1) are
       duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except  that  ijoin  will  not
       handle newline as a field separator.  See the join(1) manual page for more information.


              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Formatter type or character encoding to use, if none is chosen by a flag option.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

              List of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of HTML keywords that delimit text that should not be spell-checked.

              List of HTML fields that should always be spell-checked, even inside a tag.


              Hashed  dictionary  (may  be  found in some other local directory, depending on the

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

              For the Lookup function.

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary


       egrep(1), look(1), join(1), sort(1), spell(1), sq(1), tib (if available on  your  system),
       ispell(5), english(5)


       On  some  machines  it  takes  too long for ispell to read in the hash table, depending on

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several seconds to generate all the  guesses
       at  corrections  for  a misspelled word; on slower machines this time is long enough to be

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger)  array,  so  a  PDP-11  or  286
       version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently with contractions.

       Although  small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written out, the order of
       capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak file.

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

       Munchlist does not  deal  very  gracefully  with  dictionaries  which  contain  "non-word"
       characters.   Such  characters  ought  to  be  deleted  from the dictionary with a warning

       Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts  of  temporary  file  space  for  large
       dictionaries.   They  do  respect  the  TMPDIR  environment variable, so this space can be
       redirected.  However, a lot of the temporary space needed is for  sorting,  so  TMPDIR  is
       only  a  partial help on systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined
       as accepting the undocumented -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist  takes  10  to  40
       times  the  original  dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger ratio is for dictionaries that
       already have heavy affix use, such as the one distributed with ispell).  Munchlist is also
       very slow; munching a normal-sized dictionary (15K roots, 45K expanded words) takes around
       an hour on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is spent in sort(1), and munchlist can
       run  much  faster  on  machines  that have a more modern sort that makes better use of the
       memory available to it.)  Findaffix is even worse; the smallest English dictionary  cannot
       be  processed  with  this  script  in a mere 50Kb of free space, and even after specifying
       switches to reduce the temporary space required, the script will run for over 24 hours  on
       a small workstation.


       Pace  Willisson  (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly version.  That version
       was written by R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later revised by W. E. Matson  (1974)  and  W.  B.
       Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A  complete  list  of  contributors is too large to list here, but is distributed with the
       ispell sources in the file "Contributors".


       The version of ispell described by  this  manual  page  is  International  Ispell  Version
       3.1.20, 10/10/95.

                                              local                                     ISPELL(1)