Provided by: sysvinit-utils_2.88dsf-13.10ubuntu11_i386 bug


       last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users


       last  [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [-adFiowx] [ -f file ] [ -t YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
       ] [name...]  [tty...]
       lastb [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [ -f file ] [-adFiowx] [name...]  [tty...]


       Last  searches  back  through  the  file  /var/log/wtmp  (or  the  file
       designated  by  the -f flag) and displays a list of all users logged in
       (and out) since that file was created.  Names of users and tty's can be
       given,  in  which  case  last will show only those entries matching the
       arguments.  Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0 is  the  same
       as last tty0.

       When  last  catches  a  SIGINT  signal (generated by the interrupt key,
       usually control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal  (generated  by  the  quit  key,
       usually  control-\), last will show how far it has searched through the
       file; in the case of the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.

       The pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.   Thus
       last  reboot  will  show  a  log  of all reboots since the log file was

       Lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the
       file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts.


       -f file
              Tells last to use a specific file instead of /var/log/wtmp.

       -num   This is a count telling last how many lines to show.

       -n num The same.

              Display  the  state of logins as of the specified time.  This is
              useful, e.g., to  determine  easily  who  was  logged  in  at  a
              particular time -- specify that time with -t and look for "still
              logged in".

       -R     Suppresses the display of the hostname field.

       -a     Display the hostname in the last column. Useful  in  combination
              with the next flag.

       -d     For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the
              remote host but its IP number as well.  This  option  translates
              the IP number back into a hostname.

       -F     Print full login and logout times and dates.

       -i     This  option is like -d in that it displays the IP number of the
              remote host, but it displays the IP number  in  numbers-and-dots

       -o     Read   an   old-type   wtmp   file   (written   by   linux-libc5

       -w     Display full user and domain names in the output.

       -x     Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.


       The files wtmp and btmp might  not  be  found.  The  system  only  logs
       information  in  these  files  if  they  are  present.  This is a local
       configuration issue. If you want the files to  be  used,  they  can  be
       created   with   a   simple   touch(1)   command  (for  example,  touch




       Miquel van Smoorenburg,


       shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)

                                 Jul 31, 2004                    LAST,LASTB(1)