Provided by: bin86_0.16.17-3.1ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       ld86 - Linker for as86(1)

SYNOPSIS

       ld86  [-03MNdimrstyz[-]] [-llib_extension] [-o outfile] [-Ccrtfile] [-Llibdir] [-Olibfile]
       [-Ttextaddr] [-Hheapsize] [-Ddataaddr] infile...

DESCRIPTION

       This linker understands only the object files produced by the as86 assembler, it can  link
       them into either an impure or a separate I&D executable.

       The  linking  defaults  are  everything  off  or none except for -0 and the output file is
       a.out.  There is not a standard library location defined in the linker.

OPTIONS

       -0     produce header with 16-bit magic

       -3     produce header with 32-bit magic

       -d     delete the header from the output file, used for MSDOS COM files. As a side  effect
              this also includes -s as there's nowhere to put a symbol table.

       -Cx    add file libdir-from-search/crtx.o to list of files linked

       -D     data base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -H     the top of heap (initial stack) address (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -Lx    add dir name x to the head of the list of library dirs searched

       -M     print symbols linked on stdout

       -N     Create  a native Linux OMAGIC output file. If the contents are i386 code the binary
              can be either linked by GCC or executed by linux. If the -z option is also included
              the linker can generate a QMAGIC executable.

       -Ox    add library or object file libdir-from-search/x to list of files linked

       -T     text base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -i     separate I&D output

       -lx    add library libdir-from-search/libx.a to list of files linked

       -m     print modules linked on stdout

       -o     output file name follows

       -s     strip symbols

       -r     Generate a relocatable object from one source object, if the linker is given the -N
              option also the output format will be the hosts native format if possible.

       -t     trace modules being looked at on stdout

       -y     Alter the symbol tables to add label 'extensions' so that labels with more  than  8
              characters can be stored in elks executables.

       -z     produce "unmapped zero page" or "QMAGIC" executables

       All the options not taking an argument may be turned off by following the option letter by
       a '-', as for cc1.

PREDEFINED LABELS

       The linker predefines several labels that can be imported into user programs.

       __etext
              Standard C variable for the end of the text segment.

       __edata
              Standard C variable for the end of the initilised data.

       __end  Standard C variable for the end of the bss area.

       __segoff
              The offset within the executable file between the start of the text segment and the
              start  of  the  data  segment in 16 byte 'paragraphs'. Note this is zero for impure
              (tiny model) executables and is adjusted for executables that don't start at offset
              0 within the segment.

       __segXDL
              The  lowest  address  with data in segment 'X'. (eg __seg0DL is for segment zero or
              the text segment, __seg3DL is for the data segment) The value 'X' is a hex digit.

       __segXDH
              The top of segment 'X's data area.

       __segXCL
              The bottom of segment 'X's 'common data' or unitilised data area. Each segment  has
              both an initilised and unitilised data area.

       __segXCH
              The top of segment 'X's common area.

       __segXSO
              This  is  the  adjusted  offset  from  segment  0  of  the  start of segment 'X' in
              'paragraphs'.

HISTORY

       The 6809 version does not support -i.

       The previous versions of the linker could produce an 8086 executable with  segments  of  a
       size >64k, now only i386 executables may have segments this large.

BUGS

       The  linker  cannot deal with reverse seeks caused by org instructions in the object file.
       Unlike previous versions the current one traps the error rather than trying to fill up the
       hard disk.

       The  linker  produces a broken a.out object file if given one input and the -r option this
       is so it is compatible with pre-dev86 versions.

                                            Apr, 1997                                     ld86(1)