Provided by: lintian_2.5.6_all bug

NAME

       lintian - Static analysis tool for Debian packages

SYNOPSIS

       lintian [action] [options] [packages] ...

DESCRIPTION

       Lintian dissects Debian packages and reports bugs and policy
       violations.  It contains automated checks for many aspects of Debian
       policy as well as some checks for common errors.

       It uses an archive directory, called laboratory, in which it stores
       information about the packages it examines.  It can keep this
       information between multiple invocations in order to avoid repeating
       expensive data-collection operations.

       There are three ways to specify binary, udeb or source packages for
       Lintian to process: by file name (the .deb file for a binary package or
       the .dsc file for a source package), by naming a .changes file, or by
       using a lab query (see "LAB QUERY" below).

       If you specify a .changes file, Lintian will process all packages
       listed in that file.  This is convenient when checking a new package
       before uploading it.

OPTIONS

       Actions of the lintian command: (Only one action can be specified per
       invocation)

       -c, --check
           Run all checks over the specified packages.  This is the default
           action.

       -C chk1,chk2,..., --check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run only the specified checks.  You can either specify the name of
           the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       -F, --ftp-master-rejects
           Run only the checks that issue tags that result in automatic
           rejects from the Debian upload queue.  The list of such tags is
           refreshed with each Lintian release, so may be slightly out of date
           if it has changed recently.

           This is implemented via a profile and thus this option cannot be
           used together with --profile.

       -r, --remove
           Removed the specified packages from the lintian lab.  This is only
           useful with static labs.

       -R, --remove-lab
           Remove the laboratory directory.  This is only useful with static
           labs.

       -S, --setup-lab
           Set up or update a static lintian laboratory.

       -T tag1,tag2,..., --tags tag1,tag2,...
           Run only the checks that issue the requested tags.  The tests for
           other tags within the check scripts will be run but the tags will
           not be issued.

           With this options all tags listed will be displayed regardless of
           the display settings.

       --tags-from-file filename
           Same functionality as --tags, but read the list of tags from a
           file.  Blank lines and lines beginning with # are ignored.  All
           other lines are taken to be tag names or comma-separated lists of
           tag names to (potentially) issue.

           With this options all tags listed will be displayed regardless of
           the display settings.

       -u, --unpack
           Unpacks the package will all collections.  See the "COLLECTION"
           section below.

           Note in this option will also run all collections.  See the
           "COLLECTION" section below.

       -X chk1,chk2,..., --dont-check-part chk1,chk2,...
           Run all but the the specified checks.  You can either specify the
           name of the check script or the abbreviation.  For details, see the
           "CHECKS" section below.

       General options:

       -d, --debug
           Display debugging messages. (Implies -v and overrules any -q).

           Can be used multiple times to increase the debug information.

           This option cannot be specified in the config file.  If used on the
           command line it will override the verbose and the quiet options in
           the config file.

       -h, --help
           Display usage information and exit.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress all informational messages including override comments
           (normally shown with --show-overrides).

           This option is silently ignored if --debug is given.  Otherwise, if
           both --verbose and --quiet is used, the last of these two options
           take effect.

           This option overrides the verbose and the quiet variable in the
           configuration file.  In the configuration file, this option is
           enabled by using quiet variable.  The verbose and quiet variables
           may not both appear in the config file.

       -v, --verbose
           Display verbose messages.

           If --debug is used this option is always enabled.  Otherwise, if
           both --verbose and --quiet is used (and --debug is not used), the
           last of these two options take effect.

           This option overrides the quiet variable in the configuration file.
           In the configuration file, this option is enabled by using verbose
           variable.  The verbose and quiet variables may not both appear in
           the config file.

       -V, --version
           Display lintian version number and exit.

       --print-version
           Print unadorned version number and exit.

       Behaviour options for lintian.

       --allow-root
           Override lintian's warning when it is run with superuser
           privileges.

       --color (never|always|auto|html)
           Whether to colorize tags in lintian output based on their severity.
           The default is "never", which never uses color.  "always" will
           always use color, "auto" will use color only if the output is going
           to a terminal, and "html" will use HTML <span> tags with a color
           style attribute (instead of ANSI color escape sequences).

           This option overrides the color variable in the configuration file.

       --display-source X
           Only display tags from the source X (e.g. the Policy Manual or the
           Developer Reference).  This option can be used multiple times to
           add additional sources.  Example sources are "policy" or "devref"
           being the Policy Manual and the Developer Reference (respectively).

           The entire list of sources can be found in
           $LINTIAN_ROOT/data/output/manual-references

       -E, --display-experimental
           Display experimental ("X:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.

           If a tag is marked experimental, this means that the code that
           generates this message is not as well tested as the rest of
           Lintian, and might still give surprising results.  Feel free to
           ignore Experimental messages that do not seem to make sense, though
           of course bug reports are always welcomed (particularly if they
           include fixes).

           This option overrides the display-experimental variable in the
           configuration file.

       --fail-on-warnings
           By default, lintian exits with 0 status if only warnings were
           found.  If this flag is given, exit with a status of 1 if either
           warnings or errors are found.

           This option overrides the fail-on-warnings variable in the
           configuration file.

       -i, --info
           Print explanatory information about each problem discovered in
           addition to the lintian error tags. To print a long tag description
           without running lintian, see lintian-info(1).

           This option overrides info variable in the configuration file.

       -I, --display-info
           Display informational ("I:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.  (This is equivalent to -L ">=wishlist").

           This option overrides the display-info variable in the
           configuration file.

           Note: display-level and display-info may not both appear in the
           configuration file.

       --keep-lab
           By default, temporary labs will be removed after lintian is
           finished.  Specifying this options will leave the lab behind, which
           might be useful for debugging purposes.  You can find out where the
           temporary lab is located by running lintian with the --verbose
           option.

           For static (non-temporary) labs this option causes Lintian to skip
           the automatic clean up of some collections.

       -L [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C], --display-level
       [+|-|=][>=|>|<|<=][S|C|S/C]
           Fine-grained selection of tags to be displayed. It is possible to
           add, remove or set the levels to display, specifying a severity (S:
           serious, important, normal, minor, wishlist, pedantic), a certainty
           (C: certain, possible, wild-guess), or both (S/C).  The default
           settings are equivalent to -L ">=important" -L "+>=normal/possible"
           -L +minor/certain).

           This option overrides the display-level variable in the
           configuration file.  The value of the display-level in
           configuration file should be space separated entries in the same
           format as passed via command-line.

           Note: display-level may not be used with display-info or pedantic
           in the configuration file.

       -m, --md5sums, --checksums
           This has become redundant in lintian 2.5.1 and may be removed in a
           later release.

           This option used to control whether Lintian would verify checksums
           in changes files.  As of 2.5.1, Lintian always does this.

       -o, --no-override
           Don't use the overrides file.

           This option overrides the overrides variable in the configuration
           file.

       --pedantic
           Display pedantic ("P:") tags as well.  They are normally
           suppressed.

           Pedantic tags are Lintian at its most pickiest and include checks
           for particular Debian packaging styles and checks that many people
           disagree with.  Expect false positives and Lintian tags that you
           don't consider useful if you use this option.  Adding overrides for
           pedantic tags is probably not worth the effort.

           This option overrides the pedantic variable in the configuration
           file.

           Note: pedantic and display-info may not both appear in the
           configuration file.

       --profile vendor[/prof]
           Use the profile from vendor (or the profile with that name).  If
           the profile name does not contain a slash, the default profile for
           than vendor is chosen.

           If not specified, lintian loads the best profile for the current
           vendor.

           Please Refer to the Lintian User Manual for the full documentation
           of profiles.

       --show-overrides
           Output tags that have been overridden.  The related override
           comments will also be printed (unless --quiet is used).  Please
           refer to the Lintian User Manual for the documentation on how
           lintian relates comments to a given override.

           This option overrides the show-overrides variable in the
           configuration file.

       --suppress-tags tag1,tag2,...
           Suppress the listed tags.  They will not be reported if they occur
           and will not affect the exit status of Lintian.

       --suppress-tags-from-file file
           Suppress all tags listed in the given file.  Blank lines and lines
           beginning with # are ignored.  All other lines are taken to be tag
           names or comma-separated lists of tag names to suppress.  The
           suppressed tags will not be reported if they occur and will not
           affect the exit status of Lintian.

       -U info1,info2,..., --unpack-info info1,info2,...
           Collect information info1, info2, etc. even if these are not
           required by the checks.  Collections requested by this option are
           also not auto-removed (in this run).

           This option is mostly useful for debugging or special purpose
           setups.

           It is allowed to give this option more than once.  The following
           two lines of arguments are semantically equivalent:

            -U info1 -U info2
            -U info1,info2

       Configuration options:

       --arch arch
           Deprecated, does nothing and may be removed in a later release.

       --area area
           Deprecated, does nothing and may be removed in a later release.

       --archivedir archivedir
           Deprecated, does nothing and may be removed in a later release.

       --cfg configfile
           Read the configuration from configfile rather than the default
           locations.  This option overrides the LINTIAN_CFG environment
           variable.

       --no-cfg
           Do not read any configuration file.  This option overrides the
           --cfg above.

       --dist distdir
           Deprecated, does nothing and may be removed in a later release.

       --section area
           Deprecated, does nothing and may be removed in a later release.

       --lab labdir
           Use labdir as the permanent laboratory.  This is where Lintian
           keeps information about the packages it checks.  This option
           overrides the LINTIAN_LAB environment variable and the
           configuration file entry of the same name.

       --root rootdir
           Look for lintian's support files (such as check scripts and
           collection scripts) in rootdir.  This overrides the LINTIAN_ROOT
           environment variable.  The default location is /usr/share/lintian.

       Package selection options:

       -a, --all
           Check all packages in the laboratory.

           Note: If --binary, --udeb or --source is specified, then only
           packages of that type is considered.

       -b, --binary
           The lab-queries listed on the command line are by default binary
           packages.

           With --all this means check all binary packages in the lab.

       -p X, --packages-file X
           Process all packages which are listed in file X.  Each package has
           to be listed in a single line using the following format:

           type package version file

           where type is either `b', `u', or `s' (binary, udeb, or source
           package), package is the package name, version is the package's
           version, and file is the package file name (absolute path
           specification).

           Please note this has been deprecated in favour
           --packages-from-file, which does not require a weird/special
           syntax.

       --packages-from-file X
           Process the packages listed in X.  If the line starts with
           "!query:", then the rest of that line is processed as a lab query
           (see "LAB QUERY").

           Otherwise the line is read as the path to a file to process (all
           whitespace is included!).

           If X is "-", Lintian will read the packages from STDIN.

       -s, --source
           The lab-queries listed on the command line are by default source
           packages.

           With --all this means check all source packages in the lab.

           The following packages listed on the command line are source
           packages.

       --udeb
           The lab-queries listed on the command line are by default udeb
           packages.

           With --all this means check all udeb packages in the lab.

CHECKS

       binaries (bin)
           This script checks binaries and object files for bugs.

       changelog-file (chg)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regards to changelog files.

           Each binary package with a /usr/share/doc/<foo> directory must have
           a Debian changelog file in changelog.Debian.gz unless the Debian
           changelog and the upstream one is the same file; in this case, it
           must be in changelog.gz.

           If there is an upstream changelog file, it must be named
           "changelog.gz".

           Both changelog files should be compressed using "gzip -9".  Even if
           they start out small, they will become large with time.

       changes-file (chng)
           This script checks for various problems with .changes files

       conffiles (cnf)
           This script checks if the conffiles control file of a binary
           package is correct.

       control-file (dctl)
           This script checks debian/control files in source packages

       control-files (ctl)
           Check for unknown control files in the binary package.

       copyright-file (cpy)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy with
           regard to copyright files.

           Each binary package must either have a
           /usr/share/doc/<foo>/copyright file or must have a symlink
           /usr/share/doc/<foo> -> <bar>, where <bar> comes from the same
           source package and pkg foo declares a "Depends" relation on bar.

       cruft (deb)
           This looks for cruft in Debian packaging or upstream source

       deb-format (dfmt)
           This script checks the format of the deb ar archive itself.

       debconf (dc)
           This looks for common mistakes in packages using debconf.

       debhelper (dh)
           This looks for common mistakes in debhelper source packages.

       debian-readme (drm)
           This script checks the README.Debian file for various problems.

       debian-source-dir (dsd)
           This script looks for mistakes in debian/source/* files.

       description (des)
           Check if the Description control field of a binary package conforms
           to the rules in the Policy Manual (section 3.4).

       duplicate-files (dupf)
           This script checks for duplicate files using checksums

       fields (fld)
           This script checks the syntax of the fields in package control
           files, as described in the Policy Manual.

       filename-length (flen)
           This script checks for long package file names

       files (fil)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to policy WRT to
           files and directories.

       group-checks (gchck)
           This script checks for some issues that may appear in packages
           built from the same source.  This includes intra-source circular
           dependencies and intra-source priority checks.

       huge-usr-share (hus)
           This script checks whether an architecture-dependent package has
           large amounts of data in /usr/share.

       infofiles (info)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to info document
           policy.

       init.d (ini)
           Check if a binary package conforms to policy with respect to
           scripts in /etc/init.d.

       java (java)
           This script checks if the packages comply with various aspects of
           the debian Java policy.

       manpages (man)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to manual page
           policy.

       md5sums (md5)
           This script checks if md5sum control files are valid, if they are
           provided by a binary package.

       menu-format (mnf)
           This script validates the format of menu files.

       menus (men)
           Check if a binary package conforms to policy with respect to menu
           and doc-base files.

       nmu (nmu)
           This script checks if a source package is consistent about its NMU-
           ness.

       ocaml (ocaml)
           This looks for common mistakes in OCaml binary packages.

       patch-systems (pat)
           This script checks for various possible problems when using patch
           systems

       po-debconf (pd)
           This looks for common mistakes in packages using po-debconf(7).

       rules (rul)
           Check targets and actions in debian/rules.

       scripts (scr)
           This script checks the #! lines of scripts in a package.

       shared-libs (shl)
           This script checks if a binary package conforms to shared library
           policy.

       source-copyright (scpy)
           This script checks if a source package conforms to policy with
           regard to copyright files.

           Each source package should have a debian/copyright file.

       standards-version (std)
           This script checks if a source package contains a valid Standards-
           Version field.

       symlinks (sym)
           This script checks for broken symlinks.

       version-substvars (v-s)
           This script checks for correct use of the various *Version
           substvars, e.g. deprecated substvars, or usage that can cause un-
           binNMUability

       watch-file (watch)
           Check debian/watch files in source packages.

COLLECTION

       ar-info
           This script runs the "ar t" command over all .a files of package.

       bin-pkg-control
           This script extracts the contents of control.tar into the control/
           and creates control-index as well.

       changelog-file
           This script copies the changelog file and NEWS.Debian file (if any)
           of a package into the lintian directory.

       copyright-file
           This script copies the copyright file of a package into the lintian
           directory.

       debfiles
           This script collects files shipped in the source of the package.

       debian-readme
           This script copies the README.Debian file of a package into the
           lintian directory.

       diffstat
           This script extracts the Debian diff of a source package, and runs
           diffstat on it, leaving the result in the diffstat output file

       doc-base-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/share/doc-base into the
           lintian doc-base/ directory.

       file-info
           This script runs the file(1) command over all files of any kind of
           package.

       index
           This script create an index file of the contents of a package.

       init.d
           This script copies the etc/init.d directory into the lintian
           directory.

       java-info
           This script extracts information from manifests of JAR files

       md5sums
           This script runs the md5sums(1) over all files in a binary package.

       menu-files
           This script copies the contents of /usr/lib/menu into the lintian
           menu/ directory.

       objdump-info
           This script runs objdump(1) over all binaries and object files of a
           binary package.

       override-file
           This script copies the override file of a package into the lintian
           directory.

       scripts
           This script scans a binary package for scripts that start with #!
           and lists their filenames together with the interpreter named by
           their first line.

            The format is: scriptpath filename

           Note that the filename might contain spaces, but the scriptpath
           will not, because linux only looks at the first word when executing
           a script.

       strings
           This script runs the strings(1) command over all files of a binary
           package.

       unpacked
           This script unpacks the package under the unpacked/ directory

           This collection is auto-removed by default in static labs.

FILES

       Lintian looks for its configuration file in the following locations:

       The file name given with the --cfg option

       $LINTIAN_CFG
       $LINTIAN_ROOT/lintianrc
       $HOME/.lintianrc
       /etc/lintianrc

       Lintian uses the following directories:

       /tmp
           If no lab location is specified via the LINTIAN_LAB environment
           variable, configuration, or the --lab command-line option, lintian
           defaults to creating a temporary lab directory in /tmp.  To change
           the directory used, set the TMPDIR environment variable to a
           suitable directory.  TMPDIR can be set in the configuration file.

       /usr/share/lintian/checks
           Scripts that check aspects of a package.

       /usr/share/lintian/collection
           Scripts that collect information about a package and store it for
           use by the check scripts.

       /usr/share/lintian/data
           Supporting data used by Lintian checks and for output formatting.

       /usr/share/lintian/lib
           Utility scripts used by the other lintian scripts.

       /usr/share/lintian/unpack
           Scripts that manage the laboratory.

       The /usr/share/lintian directory can be overridden with the
       LINTIAN_ROOT environment variable or the --root option.

       For binary packages, Lintian looks for overrides in a file named
       usr/share/lintian/overrides/<package> inside the binary package, where
       <package> is the name of the binary package.  For source packages,
       Lintian looks for overrides in debian/source/lintian-overrides and then
       in debian/source.lintian-overrides if the first file is not found.  The
       first path is preferred.  See the Lintian User's Manual for the syntax
       of overrides.

CONFIGURATION FILE

       The configuration file can be used to specify default values for some
       options.  The general format is:

        option = value

       All whitespace adjacent to the "=" sign as well as leading and trailing
       whitespace is ignored.  However whitespace within the value is
       respected, as demonstrated by this example:

        # Parsed as "opt1" with value "val1"
           opt1    =   val1
        # Parsed as "opt2" with value "val2.1  val2.2     val2.3"
        opt2 = val2.1  val2.2     val2.3

       Unless otherwise specified, no option may appear more than once.
       Lintian will ignore empty lines or lines starting with the #-character.

       Generally options will be the long form of the command-line option
       without the leading dashes.  There some exceptions (such as --profile),
       where Lintian uses the same name as the environment variable.

       Lintian only allows a subset of the options specified in the
       configuration file; please refer to the individual options in
       "OPTIONS".

       In the configuration file, all options listed must have a value, even
       if they do not accept a value on command line (e.g. --pedantic).  The
       values "yes", "y", "1", or "true" will enable such a option and "no",
       "n", "0" or "false" will disable it.  Prior to the 2.5.2 release, these
       values were case sensitive.

       For other options, they generally take the same values as they do on
       the command line.  Though some options allow a slightly different
       format (e.g. --display-level).  These exceptions are explained for the
       relevant options in "OPTIONS".

       Beyond command line options, it is also allowed to specify the
       environment variable "TMPDIR" in the configuration file.

       A sample configuration file could look like:

        # Sample configuration file for lintian
        #
        # Set the default profile (--profile)
        LINTIAN_PROFILE = debian

        # Set the default TMPDIR for lintian to /var/tmp/lintian
        # - useful if /tmp is tmpfs with "limited" size.
        TMPDIR = /var/tmp/lintian/

        # Show info (I:) tags by default (--display-info)
        #  NB: this cannot be used with display-level
        display-info=yes

        # Ignore all overrides (--no-override)
        #  NB: called "overrides" in the config file
        #      and has inverted value!
        overrides = no

        # Automatically determine if color should be used
        color = auto

EXIT STATUS

       0   No policy violations or major errors detected.  (There may have
           been warnings, though.)

       1   Policy violations or major errors detected.

       2   Lintian run-time error. An error message is sent to stderr.

LAB QUERY

       A lab query can be used to refer to a (set of) package(s) in the
       Lintian Laboratory.  The general format of a query is:

        [type:]package[/version[/arch]]

       Where:

       type
           This is the type of the package and (if present) must be one of
           "ALL", "GROUP", "binary", "udeb", "source" or "changes".  This is
           case sensitive.

           If omitted this defaults to "ALL" unless another default has been
           specified (see --binary, --udeb or --source).  The pseudo type
           "ALL" acts as a wildcard for any real package type.

           The special type "GROUP" can be used to match all packages related
           to a given source package.  For more info, please see "Group query"
           below.

       package
           This is the name of the package.  This is mandatory and must match
           exactly.

       version
           This is the version of the package, if left out (or if it is "_")
           then any version will do.  Otherwise the version must match
           exactly.

       arch
           This is the architecture of the package, if left out (or it is "_")
           then any architecture will do.  Otherwise the architecture must
           match exactly.

           Note: This is completely ignored when matching against source
           packages or when type is "GROUP".

           Note: For changes packages, this must match the contents of the
           architecture field in the changes.  This field may contain a space
           (e.g. "source all") and therefore may also need proper shell
           escape.

   Group query
       A group query can be used to (re-)process all packages in a given
       group.  The package and version part will be used to look up one or
       more source packages.  The binaries, udebs and changes files for each
       matching source package will also be activated.

EXAMPLES

       $ lintian foo.deb
           Check binary package foo given by foo.deb.

       $ lintian foo.dsc
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc.

       $ lintian foo.dsc -L +minor/possible
           Check source package foo given by foo.dsc, including minor/possible
           tags.

       $ lintian -i foo.changes
           Check the changes file and, if listed, the source and binary
           package of the upload. The output will contain detailed information
           about the reported tags.

       $ lintian -c --binary foo
           Check the binary package foo in the Lintian laboratory.

       $ lintian -C cpy --source foo
           Run the copyright checks on source package foo.  The package foo
           must be in the Lintian laboratory.

       $ lintian -u foo -U unpacked
           Unpack all packages named foo in the Lintian laboratory.

       $ lintian -r foo
           Remove all packages named foo from the Lintian laboratory.

BUGS

       Lintian does not have any locking mechanisms yet.  (Running several
       checks simultaneously is likely to fail.)

       If you discover any other bugs in lintian, please contact the authors.

SEE ALSO

       lintian-info(1), Lintian User Manual
       (file:/usr/share/doc/lintian/lintian.html/index.html)

       Packaging tools: debhelper(7), dh_make(8), dpkg-buildpackage(1).

AUTHORS

       Niels Thykier <niels@thykier.net>

       Richard Braakman <dark@xs4all.nl>

       Christian Schwarz <schwarz@monet.m.isar.de>

       Please use the email address <lintian-maint@debian.org> for Lintian
       related comments.