Provided by: mono-mcs_2.10.8.1-1ubuntu2_all bug

NAME

       mcs, gmcs, smcs - Mono C# Compiler (1.0, 2.0, Moonlight)

SYNOPSIS

       mcs [option] [source-files]

DESCRIPTION

       mcs  is  the  Mono  C# compiler, an implementation of the ECMA-334 language specification.
       You can pass one or more options to drive the compiler, and a set of source files.   Extra
       options or arguments can be provided in a response file.  Response files are referenced by
       prepending the @ symbol to the response file name.

       The mcs compiler is used to compile against the 1.x profile  and  implements  C#  1.0  and
       parts of C# 2.0 and C# 3.0 specification which do not depend on generics.

       The  gmcs  compiler is used to compile against the 2.0 profile and implements the complete
       C# 3.0 specification.

       The smcs compiler is used to compile  against  the  Silverlight/Moonlight  profile.   This
       profile  is  designed to be used for creating Silverlight/Moonlight applications that will
       run on a web browser.   The API exposed by this profile is a small subset of the  3.5  API
       (even  if it is commonly referred as the 2.1 API, this API is a small subset of 2.0 with a
       few extensions).

       See the section on packages for more information.

       The Mono C# compiler accepts the same command line options that the Microsoft C#  compiler
       does.   Those options can start with a slash or a dash (/checked is the same as -checked).
       Additionally some GNU-like options are supported, those begin with "--".  All MCS-specific
       flags  which  are  not  available in the Microsoft C# compiler are available only with the
       GNU-style options.

       C# source files must end with a ".cs" extension.  Compilation of C# source  code  requires
       all  the  files that make up a library, module or executable to be provided on the command
       line.  There is no support for partial compilation.  To achieve the  benefits  of  partial
       compilation,  you  should  compile programs into their own assemblies, and later reference
       them with the "-r" flag.

       The Mono C# compiler generates images (.exe files) that contain CIL byte code that can  be
       executed  by  any  system that implements a Common Language Infrastructure virtual machine
       such as the Microsoft .NET runtime engine on Windows or the Mono runtime  engine  on  Unix
       systems.  Executables are not bound to a specific CPU or operating system.

       The Mono C# compiler by default only references three assemblies: mscorlib.dll, System.dll
       and System.Xml.dll.   If you want to reference extra libraries you must  manually  specify
       them using the -pkg: command line option or the -r: command line option.  Alternatively if
       you want to get all of the System libraries, you can  use  the  -pkg:dotnet  command  line
       option.

OPTIONS

       --about
              Displays information about the Mono C# compiler

       --addmodule:MODULE1[,MODULE2]
              Includes  the  specified modules in the resulting assembly.  Modules are created by
              calling the compiler with the -target:module option

       -checked, -checked+
              Sets the default compilation mode to `checked'.  This makes all the math operations
              checked (the default is unchecked).

       -checked-
              Sets  the  default  compilation  mode  to  `unchecked'.   This  makes  all the math
              operations unchecked (this is the default).

       -clscheck-, -clscheck+
              Disables or enables the Common Language Specification (CLS) checks (it  is  enabled
              by default).

              The Common Language Specification (CLS) defines an interoperable subset of types as
              well as conventions that compilers (CLS producers) and developers  must  follow  to
              expose code to other programming languages (CLS consumers).

       -codepage:ID
              Specifies  the  code  page  used  to  process  the input files from the point it is
              specified on.  By default files will  be  processed  in  the  environment-dependent
              native  code  page.  The compiler will also automatically detect Unicode files that
              have an embedded byte mark at the beginning.

              Other popular encodings are 28591 (Latin1), 1252 (iso-8859-1) and 65001 (UTF-8).

              MCS supports a couple of shorthands: "utf8" can be used to specify utf-8 instead of
              using  the cryptic 65001 and "reset" restores the automatic handling of code pages.
              These shorthands are not available on the Microsoft compiler.

       -define:SYMLIST, -d:SYMLIST
              Defines the symbol listed by the semi-colon separated list  SYMLIST  SYMBOL.   This
              can  be  tested  in the source code by the pre-processor, or can be used by methods
              that have been tagged with the Conditional attribute.

       -debug, -debug+
              Generate debugging information.  To obtain stack traces with debugging information,
              you  need  to  invoke  the  mono  runtime  with the `--debug' flag.  This debugging
              information is stored inside the assembly as a resource.

       -debug-
              Do not generate debugging information.

       -delaysign+
              Only embed the strongname public key into the assembly. The actual signing must  be
              done  in a later stage using the SN tool. This is useful to protect the private key
              during development. Note that delay signing can only be done using a strongname key
              file  (not  a  key  container).  The  option  is equivalent to including [assembly:
              AssemblyDelaySign (true)] in your source code.  Compiler  option  takes  precedence
              over the attributes.

       -delaysign-
              Default.  Strongname  (sign)  the  assembly  using  the  strong  name  key file (or
              container). The option is  equivalent  to  including  [assembly:  AssemblyDelaySign
              (false)] in your source code. Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.

       -doc:FILE
              Extracts  the  C#/XML documentation from the source code and stores in in the given
              FILE.

       -errorreport
              This flag is ignored by Mono's C# compiler and is present only to allow MCS  to  be
              used as a CSC replacement for msbuild/xbuild.

       --fatal
              This is used for debugging the compiler.  This makes the error emission generate an
              exception that can be caught by a debugger.

       -filealign
              This flag is ignored by Mono's C# compiler and is present only to allow MCS  to  be
              used as a CSC replacement for msbuild/xbuild.

       -keyfile:KEYFILE
              Strongname  (sign)  the output assembly using the key pair present in the specified
              strong name key file (snk). A full key pair is required by default (or  when  using
              delaysign-). A file containing only the public key can be used with delaysign+. The
              option is equivalent to including [assembly: AssemblyKeyFile ("KEYFILE")]  in  your
              source code.  Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.

       -keycontainer:CONTAINER
              Strongname  (sign)  the output assembly using the key pair present in the specified
              container. Note that delaysign+ is ignored when using key containers. The option is
              equivalent  to  including  [assembly: AssemblyKeyName ("CONTAINER")] in your source
              code. Compiler option takes precedence over the attributes.

       -langversion:TEXT
              The option specifies the version of  the  language  to  use.  The  feature  set  is
              different  in  each  C#  version.  This switch can be used to force the compiler to
              allow only a subset of the features.  The possible values are:

              Default
                     Instruct compiler to use the latest  version.  Equivalent  is  to  omit  the
                     switch (this currently defaults to the C# 3.0 language specification).

              ISO-1  Restrict compiler to use only first ISO standardized features.  The usage of
                     features such as generics, static classes, anonymous methods  will  lead  to
                     error.

              ISO-2  Restrict  compiler  to  use only the second ISO standardized features.  This
                     allows the use of generics, static classes, iterators and anonymous  methods
                     for example.

              3      Restrict  the  compiler  to  use  only  the  features available in C# 3.0 (a
                     superset of ISO-1 and ISO-2).

              future Enables features from upcoming versions of the language.   As  of  May  2009
                     this includes support for C# 4 as released in Visual Studio 2010 beta 1.

              Notice  that  this  flag  only  controls  the  language  features  available to the
              programmer, it does not control the kind of assemblies produced.  Programs compiled
              with mcs will reference the 1.1 APIs, Programs compiled with gmcs reference the 2.0
              APIs.

       -lib:PATHLIST
              Each path specified in the comma-separated list will direct the  compiler  to  look
              for libraries in that specified path.

       -L PATH
              Directs  the  compiler to look for libraries in the specified path.  Multiple paths
              can be provided by using the option multiple times.

       -main:CLASS
              Tells the compiler which CLASS contains  the  entry  point.  Useful  when  you  are
              compiling several classes with a Main method.

       -nostdlib, -nostdlib+
              Use  this  flag  if  you want to compile the core library.  This makes the compiler
              load its internal types from the assembly being compiled.

       -noconfig, -noconfig+
              Disables the default compiler configuration to be loaded.  The compiler by  default
              has references to the system assemblies.

       -nowarn:WARNLIST
              Makes the compiler ignore warnings specified in the comma-separated list WARNLIST>

       -optimize, -optimize+, -optimize-
              Controls  whether  to perform optimizations on the code.   -optimize and -optimize+
              will turn on optimizations, -optimize- will turn it off.  The default in mcs is  to
              optimize+.

       -out:FNAME, -o FNAME
              Names the output file to be generated.

       --parse
              Used for benchmarking.  The compiler will only parse its input files.

       -pkg:package1[,packageN]
              Reference assemblies for the given packages.

              The  compiler will invoke pkg-config --libs on the set of packages specified on the
              command line to obtain libraries and directories to compile the code.

              This is typically used with third party components, like this:

                        $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp demo.cs

              -pkg:dotnet
                     This  will  instruct  the  compiler  to  reference  the  System.*  libraries
                     available  on a typical dotnet framework installation, notice that this does
                     not include all of the Mono libraries, only the System.* ones.   This  is  a
                     convenient shortcut for those porting code.

              -pkg:olive
                     Use  this  to  reference  the  "Olive"  libraries  (the 3.0 and 3.5 extended
                     libraries).

              -pkg:silver
                     References the assemblies for creating  Moonlight/Silverlight  applications.
                     This is automatically used when using the smcs compiler, but it is here when
                     developers want to use it with the gmcs compiler.

              -pkg:silverdesktop
                     Use this option to create Moonlight/Silverlight applications that target the
                     desktop.    This  option  allows  developers to consume the Silverlight APIs
                     with the full 2.0 profile API available to them, unlike smcs it  gives  full
                     access  to  all  the  APIs that are part of Mono.  The only downside is that
                     applications created  with  silverdesktop  will  not  run  on  the  browser.
                     Typically  these  applications  will be launched with the mopen command line
                     tool.

              For more details see the PACKAGE section in this document

       -platform:ARCH
              Used to specify the target platform. The possible values are: anycpu, x86,  x64  or
              itanium. As of June 2009, the Mono runtime only have support to emit anycpu and x86
              assemblies.

       -resource:RESOURCE[,ID]
              Embeds to the given resource file.  The optional ID can be used to give a different
              name to the resource.  If not specified, the resource name will be the file name.

       -linkresource:RESOURCE[,ID]
              Links to the specified RESOURCE.  The optional ID can be used to give a name to the
              linked resource.

       -r:ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2], -reference ASSEMBLY1[,ASSEMBLY2]
              Reference the named assemblies.  Use this to use classes from the named assembly in
              your  program.   The assembly will be loaded from either the system directory where
              all the assemblies live, or from the path explicitly given with the -L option.

              You can also use a semicolon to separate the assemblies instead of a comma.

       -reference:ALIAS=ASSEMBLY
              Extern alias reference support for C#.

              If you have different assemblies that provide the  same  types,  the  extern  alias
              support  allows  you  to  provide  names  that  your software can use to tell those
              appart.    The types from ASSEMBLY will be exposed as ALIAS, then on the C#  source
              code, you need to do:

                   extern alias ALIAS;
              To bring it into your namespace.   For example, to cope with two graphics libraries
              that define "Graphics.Point", one in "OpenGL.dll" and one in "Postscript.dll",  you
              would invoke the compiler like this:

                   mcs -r:Postscript=Postscript.dll -r:OpenGL=OpenGL.dll

              And in your source code, you would write:

                   extern alias Postscript;
                   extern alias OpenGL;

                   class X {
                        // This is a Graphics.Point from Postscrip.dll
                        Postscript.Point p = new Postscript.Point ();

                        // This is a Graphics.Point from OpenGL.dll
                        OpenGL.Point p = new OpenGL.Point ();
                   }

       -recurse:PATTERN, --recurse PATTERN
              Does  recursive  compilation  using  the specified pattern.  In Unix the shell will
              perform globbing, so you might want to use it like this:

                 $ mcs -recurse:'*.cs'

       -sdk:VERSION
              Used to specify the version of Base Class Library assemblies. The  possible  values
              are:  2  (default),  4.  The  version  number  means  which .NET version should the
              produced assembly be compatible with.

       --shell
              Starts up the compiler in interactive mode, providing a C# shell for statements and
              expressions.   A shortcut is to use the csharp command directly.

       --stacktrace
              Generates a stack trace at the time the error is reported, useful for debugging the
              compiler.

       -target:KIND, -t:KIND
              Used  to  specify  the  desired  target.   The  possible  values  are:  exe  (plain
              executable),  winexe  (Windows.Forms executable), library (component libraries) and
              module (partial library).

       --timestamp
              Another debugging flag.  Used to  display  the  times  at  various  points  in  the
              compilation process.

       -unsafe, -unsafe+
              Enables compilation of unsafe code.

       -v     Debugging. Turns on verbose yacc parsing.

       --version
              Shows the compiler version.

       -warnaserror, -warnaserror+
              All compilers warnings will be reported as errors.

       -warnaserror:W1,[Wn], -warnaserror+:W1,[Wn]
              Treats one or more compiler warnings as errors.

       -warnaserror-:W1,[Wn]
              Sets  one  or  more  compiler  warnings to be always threated as warnings.  Becomes
              useful when used together with -warnaserror.

       -warn:LEVEL
              Sets the warning level.  0 is the lowest warning level, and 4 is the highest.   The
              default is 4.

       -win32res:FILE
              Specifies a Win32 resource file (.res) to be bundled into the resulting assembly.

       -win32icon:FILE
              Attaches the icon specified in FILE on the output into the resulting assembly.

       --     Use  this  to stop option parsing, and allow option-looking parameters to be passed
              on the command line.

PACKAGES AND LIBRARIES

       When referencing an assembly, if the name of the assembly is a path, the compiler will try
       to  load  the assembly specified in the path.   If it does not, then the compiler will try
       loading the assembly from the current directory, the compiler base directory  and  if  the
       assembly  is not found in any of those places in the directories specified as arguments to
       the -lib: command argument.

       Depending on the invocation for the C# compiler (mcs,  gmcs,  or  smcs)  you  will  get  a
       default set of libraries and versions of those libraries that are referenced.

       The compiler uses the library path to locate libraries, and is able to reference libraries
       from a particular package if that directory is used.  To simplify the use of packages, the
       C#  compiler  includes  the  -pkg:  command  line  option  that  is  used to load specific
       collections of libraries.

       Libraries visible to the compiler are stored relative to  the  installation  prefix  under
       PREFIX/lib/mono/  called  the  PACKAGEBASE  and the defaults for mcs, gmcs and smcs are as
       follows:

       mcs    References the PACKAGEBASE/1.0 directory

       gmcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.0 directory

       smcs   References the PACKAGEBASE/2.1 directory

       Those are the only runtime profiles that exist.  Although other  directories  exist  (like
       3.0 and 3.5) those are not really runtime profiles, they are merely placeholders for extra
       libraries that build on the 2.0 foundation.

       Software providers will distribute software that is installed relative to the  PACKAGEBASE
       directory.   This  is  integrated  into  the  gacutil  tool  that not only installs public
       assemblies into  the  Global  Assembly  Cache  (GAC)  but  also  installs  them  into  the
       PACKAGEBASE/PKG directory (where PKG is the name passed to the -package flag to gacutil).

       As  a  developer, if you want to consume the Gtk# libraries, you would invoke the compiler
       like this:

            $ mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp-2.0 main.cs

       The -pkg: option instructs the compiler to fetch the definitions  for  gtk-sharp-2.0  from
       pkg-config, this is equivalent to passing to the C# compiler the output of:

            $ pkg-config --libs gtk-sharp-2.0

       Usually this merely references the libraries from PACKAGEBASE/PKG.

       Although  there are directory names for 3.0 and 3.5, that does not mean that there are 3.0
       and 3.5 compiler editions or profiles.   Those are  merely  new  libraries  that  must  be
       manually  referenced  either  with  the  proper  -pkg:  invocation,  or by referencing the
       libraries directly.

SPECIAL DEFINES

       The TRACE and DEBUG defines have a special meaning to the compiler.

       By default calls to methods and properties in the System.Diagnostics.Trace class  are  not
       generated  unless  the  TRACE symbol is defined (either through a "#define TRACE") in your
       source code, or by using the --define TRACE in the command line.

       By default calls to methods and properties in the System.Diagnostics.Debug class  are  not
       generated  unless  the  DEBUG symbol is defined (either through a "#define DEBUG") in your
       source code, or by using the --define DEBUG in the command line.

       Note that the effect of defining TRACE and DEBUG is a global setting,  even  if  they  are
       only defined in a single file.

DEBUGGING SUPPORT

       When  using  the  "-debug"  flag,  MCS  will  generate a file with the extension .mdb that
       contains the debugging information for the generated assembly.  This file is  consumed  by
       the Mono debugger (mdb).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       MCS_COLORS
              If  this  variable is set, it contains a string in the form "foreground,background"
              that specifies which color to use to display errors on some terminals.

              The background is optional and defaults to your terminal current background.    The
              possible  colors  for  foreground  are:  black, red, brightred, green, brightgreen,
              yellow, brightyellow, blue, brightblue, magenta, brightmagenta,  cyan,  brightcyan,
              grey, white and brightwhite.

              The  possible  colors for background are: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta,
              cyan, grey and white.

              For example, you could set these variable from your shell:
                   export MCS_COLORS
                   MCS_COLORS=errors=brightwhite,red

              You can disable the built-in color scheme by setting this variable to "disable".

NOTES

       During compilation the MCS compiler defines the __MonoCS__ symbol, this  can  be  used  by
       pre-processor  instructions  to compile Mono C# compiler specific code.   Please note that
       this symbol is only to test for the compiler, and is not useful to distinguish compilation
       or deployment platforms.

AUTHORS

       The  Mono  C#  Compiler  was written by Miguel de Icaza, Ravi Pratap, Martin Baulig, Marek
       Safar and Raja Harinath.  The development was funded by Ximian, Novell and Marek Safar.

LICENSE

       The Mono Compiler Suite is released under the terms of the GNU GPL or the MIT X11.  Please
       read  the accompanying `COPYING' file for details.  Alternative licensing for the compiler
       is available from Novell.

SEE ALSO

       csharp(1), mdb(1), mono(1), mopen(1), mint(1), pkg-config(1),sn(1)

BUGS

       To report bugs in the compiler, you must  file  them  on  our  bug  tracking  system,  at:
       http://www.mono-project.com/Bugs

MAILING LIST

       The Mono Mailing lists are listed at http://www.mono-project.com/Mailing_Lists

MORE INFORMATION

       The  Mono  C#  compiler  was developed by Novell, Inc (http://www.novell.com, http) and is
       based     on     the     ECMA     C#      language      standard      available      here:
       http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-334.htm

       The home page for the Mono C# compiler is at http://www.mono-project.com/CSharp_Compiler

                                          6 January 2001                                   mcs(1)