Provided by: fastforward_0.51-3_i386 bug


       newaliases - create a forwarding database from /etc/aliases




       newaliases reads a table of sendmail-style forwarding instructions from
       /etc/aliases  and  converts  them  into  a   forwarding   database   in
       /etc/aliases.cdb.  The forwarding database can be used by fastforward.

       For    safety,   newaliases   writes   the   forwarding   database   to
       /etc/aliases.tmp and then moves /etc/aliases.tmp  to  /etc/aliases.cdb.
       If  there  is a problem creating /etc/aliases.tmp, newaliases complains
       and leaves  /etc/aliases.cdb  alone.   Deliveries  can  continue  using
       /etc/aliases.cdb in the meantime.

       newaliases always creates /etc/aliases.cdb world-readable.

       newaliases  makes no attempt to protect against simultaneous updates of


       newaliases imitates sendmail's handling of /etc/aliases.  For example,

          root: alice, bill

       says that mail for root should be forwarded to alice and bill.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: newaliases does  not  support  file  deliveries.
       You  can  use  the  file  delivery  mechanism described in dot-qmail(5)


       The simplest type of forwarding instruction is a line of the form

          alias: recip

       Any message sent to alias will be forwarded to  the  recipient  address
       recip.  Addresses are compared to alias without regard to case.

       Forwarding  instructions  are cumulative.  If recip is itself an alias,
       messages to alias will be forwarded the same way as messages to  recip.
       For   example,   with   the   following   instructions,   messages   to or  will  be  delivered  to

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  With  sendmail,  entries  in  /etc/aliases can
       override  usernames.   With  qmail,  if  you  install  fastforward   in
       ~alias/.qmail-default, it will not see addresses that are controlled by
       other users.  See qmail-getpw(8).  To change this, see qmail-users(5).

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: Various versions of sendmail do various  strange
       things  with circular alias definitions.  See setforward(1) for details
       on fastforward's behavior.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: If there are several forwarding instructions for
       a  single  alias, sendmail will complain; fastforward will silently use
       the first instruction.


       alias can have the  form  user@host.dom  for  one  user  at  one  host,
       @host.dom for all users at one host, or user for one user at all hosts.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: sendmail supports only user; it does not support
       per-host aliases.  It accepts user@host.dom  if  host.dom  is  a  local
       host, but it then treats it the same way as user, applying to all local
       hosts and virtual domains.


       Addresses in /etc/aliases are parsed the same way as addresses  in  RFC
       822  message  headers.   Parenthesized comments and bracketed addresses
       are permitted:

          root: bob (Bob, the postmaster)
          joe: Joe Shmoe <>

       Addresses with special characters must be quoted:

          fred: "spaced out mailbox"

       Address groups are not permitted, since colons have a different use  in

       Any  recipient  address  without  a  fully qualified domain name is fed
       through  the  defaulthost,  defaultdomain,  and  plusdomain  mechanisms
       described in qmail-header(5).

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  sendmail's  handling of quotes and backslashes
       violates RFC 821 and RFC 822, and is not supported by newaliases.   The
       qmail-local delivery mechanism lets each user manage several addresses,
       so there is no need for a special syntax to get around forwarding.


       An instruction may list more than one recipient address:

          alias: recip1, recip2, recip3

       Any message sent to alias will be forwarded to all of the addresses.

       A forwarding instruction may be split across several lines.  Each  line
       past the first must either (1) begin with space or tab or (2) be empty:


       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  sendmail requires the colon to be on the first
       line of a multi-line forwarding instruction.  newaliases  doesn't  care
       whether the colon is present at all.

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  sendmail  does  not  permit blank lines in the
       middle of continuations.  This has the undesirable effect that a  blank
       line behaves differently from a line containing a single space.


       Any line in /etc/aliases that begins with # is ignored:

          # this is a comment

       A  comment may be split across several lines.  Each line past the first
       must either (1) begin with space or tab or (2) be empty.

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  sendmail  does  not  permit  continuations  of
       comment lines.


       If  a recipient address does not contain a domain name, and begins with
       a vertical bar, newaliases takes the rest of the address as  a  program
       to run:

          weather: "|weather-server"

       fastforward will run weather-server when a message arrives for weather.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: Internet addresses can legitimately start with a
       slash or vertical bar.  newaliases treats anything with an  unquoted  @
       as  an  address.  sendmail appears to have various problems coping with
       these addresses, and with commands that contain @ signs.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: newaliases does not allow a vertical bar  before
       double quotes.


       A  recipient  address  of  the form :include:file means ``every address
       listed  in  file.''   (Actually   fastforward   reads   file.bin;   see
       newinclude(1) for further details.)

       Note  that  file  is read by fastforward, not newaliases, so the system
       administrator does not have to run newaliases every time file  changes.
       file must be world-readable and accessible to fastforward.

       COMPATIBILITY   WARNING:   If   an  :include:  file  is  unreadable  or
       nonexistent, sendmail skips it;  fastforward  defers  delivery  of  the

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  sendmail  does  not  permit  spaces inside the
       literal text :include:.  newaliases does.

       COMPATIBILITY WARNING: Versions of sendmail before  V8  did  not  strip
       quotes from :include: filenames.


       If there is an alias for owner-list, any message forwarded through list
       will have its envelope sender set to owner-list,  so  that  bounces  go
       back to owner-list.

       COMPATIBILITY  WARNING:  When an alias includes the same recipient both
       inside and outside a mailing list, fastforward sends the message twice,
       once  with each envelope sender.  sendmail sends the message only once;
       its choice of envelope sender for that recipient depends on  the  phase
       of the moon.


       fastforward(1),  setforward(1),  newinclude(1),  printforward(1),  dot-