Provided by: manpages-posix_2.16-1_all bug


       nm - write the name list of an object file (DEVELOPMENT)


       nm [-APv][-efox][ -g| -u][-t format] file...


       This utility shall be provided on systems that support both the User Portability Utilities
       option and the Software Development Utilities option. On other  systems  it  is  optional.
       Certain options are only available on XSI-conformant systems.

       The nm utility shall display symbolic information appearing in the object file, executable
       file, or object-file library named by file. If no symbolic information is available for  a
       valid  input  file,  the  nm  utility shall report that fact, but not consider it an error

       The default base used when numeric values are written is unspecified.   On  XSI-conformant
       systems, it shall be decimal.


       The  nm  utility  shall  conform  to  the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -A     Write the full pathname or library name of an object on each line.

       -e     Write only external (global) and static symbol information.

       -f     Produce full output. Write redundant symbols ( .text, .data,  and  .bss),  normally

       -g     Write only external (global) symbol information.

       -o     Write numeric values in octal (equivalent to -t o).

       -P     Write information in a portable output format, as specified in the STDOUT section.

       -t  format
              Write  each numeric value in the specified format. The format shall be dependent on
              the single character used as the format option-argument:

              The offset is written in decimal    (default).

              The offset is written in octal.

              The offset is written in hexadecimal.

       -u     Write only undefined symbols.

       -v     Sort output by value instead of alphabetically.

       -x     Write numeric values in hexadecimal (equivalent to -t x).


       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname of an object file, executable file, or object-file library.


       See the INPUT FILES section.


       The input file shall be an object file, an object-file library whose format is the same as
       those  produced  by the ar utility for link editing, or an executable file. The nm utility
       may accept additional implementation-defined object library formats for the input file.


       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of nm:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are  unset  or
              null.  (See  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2,
              Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables
              used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to  a  non-empty  string  value,  override  the  values  of  all the other
              internationalization variables.


              Determine the locale for character collation information for  the  symbol-name  and
              symbol-value collation sequences.

              Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
              characters (for  example,  single-byte  as  opposed  to  multi-byte  characters  in

              Determine  the  locale  that  should  be  used to affect the format and contents of
              diagnostic messages written to standard error.

              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .




       If symbolic information is present in the input files, then for  each  file  or  for  each
       member  of  an  archive,  the nm utility shall write the following information to standard
       output.   By  default,  the  format  is  unspecified,  but  the  output  shall  be  sorted
       alphabetically by symbol name:

        * Library or object name, if -A is specified

        * Symbol name

        * Symbol  type,  which  shall  either  be  one  of  the following single characters or an
          implementation-defined type represented by a single character:

              Global absolute symbol.

              Local absolute symbol.

              Global "bss" (that is, uninitialized data space) symbol.

              Local bss symbol.

              Global data symbol.

              Local data symbol.

              Global text symbol.

              Local text symbol.

              Undefined symbol.

        * Value of the symbol

        * The size associated with the symbol, if applicable

       This  information  may  be  supplemented  by  additional  information  specific   to   the

       If  the  -P  option  is  specified,  the previous information shall be displayed using the
       following portable format. The three versions differ depending on whether -t d,  -t o,  or
       -t x was specified, respectively:

              "%s%s %s %d %d\n", <library/object name>, <name>, <type>,
                  <value>, <size>

              "%s%s %s %o %o\n", <library/object name>, <name>, <type>,
                  <value>, <size>

              "%s%s %s %x %x\n", <library/object name>, <name>, <type>,
                  <value>, <size>
       where <library/object name> shall be formatted as follows:

        * If -A is not specified, <library/object name> shall be an empty string.

        * If -A is specified and the corresponding file operand does not name a library:

          "%s: ", <file>

        * If  -A  is  specified and the corresponding file operand names a library. In this case,
          <object file> shall name the object file in the library  containing  the  symbol  being

          "%s[%s]: ", <file>, <object file>

       If  -A  is  not  specified, then if more than one file operand is specified or if only one
       file operand is specified and it names a library, nm shall write a  line  identifying  the
       object  containing the following symbols before the lines containing those symbols, in the

        * If the corresponding file operand does not name a library:

          "%s:\n", <file>

        * If the corresponding file operand names a library; in this case, <object file> shall be
          the name of the file in the library containing the following symbols:

          "%s[%s]:\n", <file>, <object file>

       If -P is specified, but -t is not, the format shall be as if -t x had been specified.


       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.






       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.



       The following sections are informative.


       Mechanisms  for  dynamic  linking  make  this  utility  less meaningful when applied to an
       executable file because a dynamically linked executable may omit numerous library routines
       that would be found in a statically linked executable.




       Historical implementations of nm have used different bases for numeric output and supplied
       different default types of symbols that were reported. The -t format  option,  similar  to
       that  used  in  od  and strings, can be used to specify the numeric base; -g and -u can be
       used to restrict the amount of output or the types of symbols included in the output.

       The compromise of using -t format versus using -d,  -o,  and  other  similar  options  was
       necessary  because  of  differences  in  the meaning of -o between implementations. The -o
       option from BSD has been provided here as -A to avoid confusion with the -o from System  V
       (which has been provided here as -t and as -o on XSI-conformant systems).

       The   option   list   was   significantly   reduced   from  that  provided  by  historical

       The nm description is a subset of both the System V and BSD nm utilities with no specified
       default output.

       It  was  recognized  that mechanisms for dynamic linking make this utility less meaningful
       when applied to an executable file (because a dynamically linked executable file may  omit
       numerous library routines that would be found in a statically linked executable file), but
       the value of nm during software development was judged to outweigh other limitations.

       The default output format of nm is not specified  because  of  differences  in  historical
       implementations.  The  -P  option  was added to allow some type of portable output format.
       After a comparison of the different formats used in SunOS, BSD, SVR3,  and  SVR4,  it  was
       decided  to create one that did not match the current format of any of these four systems.
       The format devised is easy to parse by humans, easy to parse in shell  scripts,  and  does
       not  need  to vary depending on locale (because no English descriptions are included). All
       of the systems currently have the information available to use this format.

       The format given in nm STDOUT uses spaces between the fields, which may be any  number  of
       <blank>s  required to align the columns. The single-character types were selected to match
       historical practice, and the requirement that  implementation  additions  also  be  single
       characters made parsing the information easier for shell scripts.




       ar , c99


       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable  Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard  is  the  referee  document.  The
       original Standard can be obtained online at .