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       ocamlopt - The Objective Caml native-code compiler


       ocamlopt [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlopt.opt (same options)


       The  Objective Caml high-performance native-code compiler ocamlopt(1) compiles Caml source
       files to native code object files and  link  these  object  files  to  produce  standalone

       The  ocamlopt(1) command has a command-line interface very close to that of ocamlc(1).  It
       accepts the same types of arguments and processes them sequentially:

       Arguments ending in .mli are taken to be source files  for  compilation  unit  interfaces.
       Interfaces  specify the names exported by compilation units: they declare value names with
       their types, define public data types, declare abstract data types, and so  on.  From  the
       file x.mli, the ocamlopt(1) compiler produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.  The
       interface produced is identical to that produced by the bytecode compiler ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .ml are taken to be source files for compilation unit implementations.
       Implementations  provide  definitions for the names exported by the unit, and also contain
       expressions to be evaluated for their side-effects.  From the file,  the  ocamlopt(1)
       compiler  produces  two  files:  x.o, containing native object code, and x.cmx, containing
       extra information for linking and optimization of the clients of the  unit.  The  compiled
       implementation  should  always  be referred to under the name x.cmx (when given a .o file,
       ocamlopt(1) assumes that it contains code compiled from C, not from Caml).

       The implementation is checked against the interface file x.mli (if it exists) as described
       in the manual for ocamlc(1).

       Arguments  ending  in  .cmx  are taken to be compiled object code.  These files are linked
       together, along with the object files obtained by compiling .ml arguments  (if  any),  and
       the Caml Light standard library, to produce a native-code executable program. The order in
       which .cmx and .ml arguments are presented on the command line  is  relevant:  compilation
       units  are  initialized  in  that  order at run-time, and it is a link-time error to use a
       component of a unit before having initialized it. Hence, a  given  x.cmx  file  must  come
       before all .cmx files that refer to the unit x.

       Arguments  ending in .cmxa are taken to be libraries of object code.  Such a library packs
       in two files lib.cmxa and lib.a a set of object files (.cmx/.o files). Libraries are build
       with  ocamlopt -a (see the description of the -a option below). The object files contained
       in the library are linked as regular .cmx files (see above), in the order  specified  when
       the  library  was  built.  The  only  difference  is that if an object file contained in a
       library is not referenced anywhere in the program, then it is not linked in.

       Arguments ending in .c are passed to the C compiler, which generates  a  .o  object  file.
       This object file is linked with the program.

       Arguments  ending  in  .o  or  .a are assumed to be C object files and libraries. They are
       linked with the program.

       The output of the linking phase is a regular  Unix  executable  file.  It  does  not  need
       ocamlrun(1) to run.

       ocamlopt.opt  is  the  same compiler as ocamlopt, but compiled with itself instead of with
       the bytecode compiler ocamlc(1).  Thus, it behaves exactly  like  ocamlopt,  but  compiles
       faster.  ocamlopt.opt is not available in all installations of Objective Caml.


       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlopt(1).

       -a     Build  a library (.cmxa/.a file) with the object files (.cmx/.o files) given on the
              command line, instead of linking them into an executable  file.  The  name  of  the
              library must be set with the -o option.

              If  -cclib or -ccopt  options  are  passed  on  the command line, these options are
              stored  in  the  resulting  .cmxa  library.   Then,  linking  with   this   library
              automatically  adds  back the 0 options as if they had been provided on the command
              line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

       -annot Dump detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls, etc).
              The  information  for  file  is put into file src.annot.  In case of a type
              error, dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the error.  The
              src.annot  file can be used with the emacs commands given in emacs/caml-types.el to
              display types and other annotations interactively.

       -c     Compile only. Suppress the linking phase of the compilation. Source code files  are
              turned  into  compiled  files,  but  no executable file is produced. This option is
              useful to compile modules separately.

       -cc ccomp
              Use ccomp as the C linker called to  build  the  final  executable  and  as  the  C
              compiler for compiling .c source files.

       -cclib -llibname
              Pass  the  -llibname  option  to  the linker. This causes the given C library to be
              linked with the program.

       -ccopt option
              Pass the given option to the C compiler  and  linker.  For  instance,  -ccopt -Ldir
              causes the C linker to search for C libraries in directory dir.

              Optimize  the produced code for space rather than for time. This results in smaller
              but slightly slower programs. The default is to optimize for speed.

              Print  the  version  number  of  ocamlopt(1)  and  a  detailed   summary   of   its
              configuration, then exit.

       -for-pack module-path
              Generate  an  object  file (.cmx and .o files) that can later be included as a sub-
              module (with the given access path) of a compilation unit constructed  with  -pack.
              For  instance,  ocamlopt -for-pack P -c will generate a.cmx and a.o files that
              can later be used with ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx a.cmx.

       -g     Add debugging information while compiling and linking. This option is  required  in
              order  to  produce  stack  backtraces  when  the  program terminates on an uncaught
              exception (see ocamlrun(1)).

       -i     Cause the compiler to print all defined names (with their inferred types  or  their
              definitions)  when  compiling an implementation (.ml file). No compiled files (.cmo
              and .cmi files) are produced.  This can be useful to check the  types  inferred  by
              the  compiler. Also, since the output follows the syntax of interfaces, it can help
              in writing an explicit interface (.mli file) for a file: just redirect the standard
              output  of  the  compiler  to  a  .mli  file,  and  edit  that  file  to remove all
              declarations of unexported names.

       -I directory
              Add the given directory to the list of directories searched for compiled  interface
              files  (.cmi)  and  compiled  object  code  files  (.cmo).  By default, the current
              directory is searched first, then the standard library directory. Directories added
              with  -I  are searched after the current directory, in the order in which they were
              given on the command line, but before the standard library directory.

              If the given directory starts with +, it is taken relative to the standard  library
              directory.  For  instance,  -I +labltk adds the subdirectory labltk of the standard
              library to the search path.

       -inline n
              Set aggressiveness of inlining to n, where n  is  a  positive  integer.  Specifying
              -inline  0  prevents  all  functions from being inlined, except those whose body is
              smaller than the call site. Thus, inlining causes no expansion in  code  size.  The
              default  aggressiveness, -inline 1, allows slightly larger functions to be inlined,
              resulting in a slight expansion in code size. Higher values for the -inline  option
              cause  larger and larger functions to become candidate for inlining, but can result
              in a serious increase in code size.

       -intf filename
              Compile the file filename as an interface file, even if its extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
              Recognize file names ending with string as interface files (instead of the  default

              Labels  are  not ignored in types, labels may be used in applications, and labelled
              parameters can be given in any order.  This is the default.

              Force all modules contained in libraries to be linked  in.  If  this  flag  is  not
              given,  unreferenced  modules are not linked in. When building a library (-a flag),
              setting the -linkall flag forces all subsequent links of  programs  involving  that
              library to link all the modules contained in the library.

              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note that the special form assert false is always
              compiled because it is typed specially.  This  flag  has  no  effect  when  linking
              already-compiled files.

              When   linking   .cmxa  libraries,  ignore  -cclib and -ccopt  options  potentially
              contained in  the  libraries  (if  these  options  were  given  when  building  the
              libraries).  This can be useful if a library contains incorrect specifications of C
              libraries or C options; in this case, during linking, set -noautolink and pass  the
              correct C libraries and options on the command line.

              Allow  the  compiler to use some optimizations that are valid only for code that is
              never dynlinked.

              Ignore non-optional labels in types. Labels cannot be  used  in  applications,  and
              parameter order becomes strict.

       -o exec-file
              Specify the name of the output file produced by the linker. The default output name
              is a.out, in keeping with the Unix tradition. If the -a option  is  given,  specify
              the name of the library produced. If the -pack option is given, specify the name of
              the packed object file produced.  If the -output-obj option is given,  specify  the
              name  of the output file produced. If the -shared option is given, specify the name
              of plugin file produced.

              Cause the linker to produce a C object file instead of an executable file. This  is
              useful  to  wrap Caml code as a C library, callable from any C program. The name of
              the output object file is camlprog.o by default; it can be set with the -o  option.
              This  option  can  also  be  used to produce a compiled shared/dynamic library (.so

       -p     Generate extra code to write profile information when the program is executed.  The
              profile  information  can then be examined with the analysis program gprof(1).  The
              -p option must be given both at compile-time  and  at  link-time.   Linking  object
              files not compiled with -p is possible, but results in less precise profiling.

              See the gprof(1) man page for more information about the profiles.

              Full support for gprof(1) is only available for certain platforms (currently: Intel
              x86/Linux and Alpha/Digital Unix).  On other platforms, the -p option  will  result
              in a less precise profile (no call graph information, only a time profile).

       -pack  Build  an  object  file  (.cmx  and .o files) and its associated compiled interface
              (.cmi) that combines the .cmx object files given on the command line,  making  them
              appear  as  sub-modules  of the output .cmx file.  The name of the output .cmx file
              must     be     given     with     the     -o      option.       For      instance,
              ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx A.cmx B.cmx C.cmx  generates  compiled files P.cmx, P.o and
              P.cmi  describing  a  compilation  unit  having  three  sub-modules  A,  B  and  C,
              corresponding  to  the  contents of the object files A.cmx, B.cmx and C.cmx.  These
              contents can be referenced as P.A, P.B and P.C in the remainder of the program.

              The .cmx object files being combined must have been compiled with  the  appropriate
              -for-pack  option.   In  the  example  above, A.cmx, B.cmx and C.cmx must have been
              compiled with ocamlopt -for-pack P.

              Multiple levels of packing can be achieved by combining -pack with -for-pack.   See
              The  Objective  Caml  user's  manual,  chapter  "Native-code  compilation" for more

       -pp command
              Cause the compiler to call the given command as  a  preprocessor  for  each  source
              file.  The  output  of  command  is  redirected  to  an intermediate file, which is
              compiled. If there are no compilation errors,  the  intermediate  file  is  deleted

              Check  information  path  during  type-checking,  to  make  sure that all types are
              derived in a principal way. All programs  accepted  in  -principal  mode  are  also
              accepted in default mode with equivalent types, but different binary signatures.

              Allow  arbitrary  recursive types during type-checking.  By default, only recursive
              types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported. Note that once
              you  have  created  an  interface  using  this  flag, you must use it again for all

       -S     Keep the assembly code produced during the compilation. The assembly code  for  the
              source file is saved in the file x.s.

              Build  a  plugin  (usually  .cmxs)  that can be dynamically loaded with the Dynlink
              module. The name of the plugin must be set with the -o option. A plugin can include
              a  number  of  Caml modules and libraries, and extra native objects (.o, .a files).
              Building native plugins is only supported for some  operating  system.  Under  some
              systems  (currently,  only Linux AMD 64), all the Caml code linked in a plugin must
              have been compiled without the -nodynlink flag. Some constraints might  also  apply
              to  the  way  the extra native objects have been compiled (under Linux AMD 64, they
              must contain only position-independent code).

              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in  combination  with  the  system  threads
              library described in The Objective Caml user's manual.

              Turn   bound  checking  off  for  array  and  string  accesses  (the  v.(i)ands.[i]
              constructs). Programs compiled with  -unsafe  are  therefore  faster,  but  unsafe:
              anything  can  happen  if  the  program  accesses an array or string outside of its
              bounds. Additionally, turn off the check for zero divisor in integer  division  and
              modulus  operations.   With  -unsafe,  an integer division (or modulus) by zero can
              halt the program or continue with  an  unspecified  result  instead  of  raising  a
              Division_by_zero exception.

       -v     Print  the  version number of the compiler and the location of the standard library
              directory, then exit.

              Print all external commands before they are executed, in particular invocations  of
              the assembler, C compiler, and linker.

              Print the version number of the compiler in short form (e.g. "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
              Enable,  disable,  or  mark  as  errors  the  warnings  specified  by  the argument
              warning-list.  See ocamlc(1) for the syntax of warning-list.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark as errors the warnings specified in the argument warning-list.   The  compiler
              will  stop  with  an error when one of these warnings is emitted.  The warning-list
              has the same meaning as for the -w option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter)  turns
              the corresponding warnings into errors, a - sign (or a lowercase letter) turns them
              back into warnings, and a @ sign both enables and marks the corresponding warnings.

              Note: it is not recommended to use warning sets  (i.e.  letters)  as  arguments  to
              -warn-error  in  production  code,  because  this  can break your build when future
              versions of OCaml add some new warnings.

              The default setting is -warn-error +a (none  of  the  warnings  is  treated  as  an

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process file as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-) character.

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.


       The  IA32  code  generator  (Intel  Pentium, AMD Athlon) supports the following additional

              Use the IA32 instructions  to  compute  trigonometric  and  exponential  functions,
              instead of calling the corresponding library routines.  The functions affected are:
              atan, atan2, cos, log, log10, sin, sqrt and tan.  The resulting code  runs  faster,
              but  the  range  of  supported  arguments  and  the  precision of the result can be
              reduced.  In particular, trigonometric operations cos, sin, tan  have  their  range
              reduced to [-2^64, 2^64].


       The  AMD64  code  generator (64-bit versions of Intel Pentium and AMD Athlon) supports the
       following additional options:

       -fPIC  Generate position-independent machine code.  This is the default.

              Generate position-dependent machine code.


       The Sparc code generator supports the following additional options:

              Generate SPARC version 8 code.

              Generate SPARC version 9 code.

       The default is to generate code for SPARC version 7, which runs on all SPARC processors.


       The Objective Caml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation".