Provided by: perltidy_20101217-1_all bug


       perltidy - a perl script indenter and reformatter


           perltidy [ options ] file1 file2 file3 ...
                   (output goes to file1.tdy, file2.tdy, file3.tdy, ...)
           perltidy [ options ] file1 -o outfile
           perltidy [ options ] file1 -st >outfile
           perltidy [ options ] <infile >outfile


       Perltidy reads a perl script and writes an indented, reformatted script.

       Many users will find enough information in "EXAMPLES" to get started.  New users may
       benefit from the short tutorial which can be found at

       A convenient aid to systematically defining a set of style parameters can be found at

       Perltidy can produce output on either of two modes, depending on the existence of an -html
       flag.  Without this flag, the output is passed through a formatter.  The default
       formatting tries to follow the recommendations in perlstyle(1), but it can be controlled
       in detail with numerous input parameters, which are described in "FORMATTING OPTIONS".

       When the -html flag is given, the output is passed through an HTML formatter which is
       described in "HTML OPTIONS".



       This will produce a file containing the script reformatted using the
       default options, which approximate the style suggested in perlstyle(1).  Perltidy never
       changes the input file.

         perltidy *.pl

       Execute perltidy on all .pl files in the current directory with the default options.  The
       output will be in files with an appended .tdy extension.  For any file with an error,
       there will be a file with extension .ERR.

         perltidy -b

       Modify and in place, and backup the originals to and  If and/or already exist, they will be

         perltidy -gnu

       Execute perltidy on file with a style which approximates the GNU Coding
       Standards for C programs.  The output will be

         perltidy -i=3

       Execute perltidy on file, with 3 columns for each level of indentation (-i=3)
       instead of the default 4 columns.  There will not be any tabs in the reformatted script,
       except for any which already exist in comments, pod documents, quotes, and here documents.
       Output will be

         perltidy -i=3 -et=8

       Same as the previous example, except that leading whitespace will be entabbed with one tab
       character per 8 spaces.

         perltidy -ce -l=72

       Execute perltidy on file with all defaults except use "cuddled elses" (-ce)
       and a maximum line length of 72 columns (-l=72) instead of the default 80 columns.

         perltidy -g

       Execute perltidy on file and save a log file which shows the
       nesting of braces, parentheses, and square brackets at the start of every line.

         perltidy -html

       This will produce a file containing the script with html markup.  The
       output file will contain an embedded style sheet in the <HEAD> section which may be edited
       to change the appearance.

         perltidy -html -css=mystyle.css

       This will produce a file containing the script with html markup.  This
       output file will contain a link to a separate style sheet file mystyle.css.  If the file
       mystyle.css does not exist, it will be created.  If it exists, it will not be overwritten.

         perltidy -html -pre

       Write an html snippet with only the PRE section to  This is useful when
       code snippets are being formatted for inclusion in a larger web page.  No style sheet will
       be written in this case.

         perltidy -html -ss >mystyle.css

       Write a style sheet to mystyle.css and exit.

         perltidy -html -frm

       Write html with a frame holding a table of contents and the source code.  The output files
       will be (the frame), (the table of contents), and (the source code).


       The entire command line is scanned for options, and they are processed before any files
       are processed.  As a result, it does not matter whether flags are before or after any
       filenames.  However, the relative order of parameters is important, with later parameters
       overriding the values of earlier parameters.

       For each parameter, there is a long name and a short name.  The short names are convenient
       for keyboard input, while the long names are self-documenting and therefore useful in
       scripts.  It is customary to use two leading dashes for long names, but one may be used.

       Most parameters which serve as on/off flags can be negated with a leading "n" (for the
       short name) or a leading "no" or "no-" (for the long name).  For example, the flag to
       outdent long quotes is is -olq or --outdent-long-quotes.  The flag to skip this is -nolq
       or --nooutdent-long-quotes or --no-outdent-long-quotes.

       Options may not be bundled together.  In other words, options -q and -g may NOT be entered
       as -qg.

       Option names may be terminated early as long as they are uniquely identified.  For
       example, instead of --dump-token-types, it would be sufficient to enter --dump-tok, or
       even --dump-t, to uniquely identify this command.

   I/O control
       The following parameters concern the files which are read and written.

       -h,    --help
           Show summary of usage and exit.

       -o=filename,    --outfile=filename
           Name of the output file (only if a single input file is being processed).  If no
           output file is specified, and output is not redirected to the standard output (see
           -st), the output will go to filename.tdy. [Note: - does not redirect to standard
           output. Use -st instead.]

       -st,    --standard-output
           Perltidy must be able to operate on an arbitrarily large number of files in a single
           run, with each output being directed to a different output file.  Obviously this would
           conflict with outputting to the single standard output device, so a special flag, -st,
           is required to request outputting to the standard output.  For example,

             perltidy -st >

           This option may only be used if there is just a single input file.  The default is
           -nst or --nostandard-output.

       -se,    --standard-error-output
           If perltidy detects an error when processing file, its default behavior is
           to write error messages to file  Use -se to cause all error messages
           to be sent to the standard error output stream instead.  This directive may be negated
           with -nse.  Thus, you may place -se in a .perltidyrc and override it when desired with
           -nse on the command line.

       -oext=ext,    --output-file-extension=ext
           Change the extension of the output file to be ext instead of the default tdy (or html
           in case the --html option is used).  See "Specifying File Extensions".

       -opath=path,    --output-path=path
           When perltidy creates a filename for an output file, by default it merely appends an
           extension to the path and basename of the input file.  This parameter causes the path
           to be changed to path instead.

           The path should end in a valid path separator character, but perltidy will try to add
           one if it is missing.

           For example

            perltidy -opath=/tmp/

           will produce /tmp/  Otherwise, will appear in whatever
           directory contains

           If the path contains spaces, it should be placed in quotes.

           This parameter will be ignored if output is being directed to standard output, or if
           it is being specified explicitly with the -o=s parameter.

       -b,    --backup-and-modify-in-place
           Modify the input file or files in-place and save the original with the extension .bak.
           Any existing .bak file will be deleted.  See next item for changing the default backup

           A -b flag will be ignored if input is from standard input, or if the -html flag is

       -bext=ext,    --backup-file-extension=ext
           Change the extension of the backup file to be something other than the default .bak.
           See "Specifying File Extensions".

       -w,    --warning-output
           Setting -w causes any non-critical warning messages to be reported as errors.  These
           include messages about possible pod problems, possibly bad starting indentation level,
           and cautions about indirect object usage.  The default, -nw or --nowarning-output, is
           not to include these warnings.

       -q,    --quiet
           Deactivate error messages and syntax checking (for running under an editor).

           For example, if you use a vi-style editor, such as vim, you may execute perltidy as a
           filter from within the editor using something like

            :n1,n2!perltidy -q

           where "n1,n2" represents the selected text.  Without the -q flag, any error message
           may mess up your screen, so be prepared to use your "undo" key.

       -log,    --logfile
           Save the .LOG file, which has many useful diagnostics.  Perltidy always creates a .LOG
           file, but by default it is deleted unless a program bug is suspected.  Setting the
           -log flag forces the log file to be saved.

       -g=n, --logfile-gap=n
           Set maximum interval between input code lines in the logfile.  This purpose of this
           flag is to assist in debugging nesting errors.  The value of "n" is optional.  If you
           set the flag -g without the value of "n", it will be taken to be 1, meaning that every
           line will be written to the log file.  This can be helpful if you are looking for a
           brace, paren, or bracket nesting error.

           Setting -g also causes the logfile to be saved, so it is not necessary to also include

           If no -g flag is given, a value of 50 will be used, meaning that at least every 50th
           line will be recorded in the logfile.  This helps prevent excessively long log files.

           Setting a negative value of "n" is the same as not setting -g at all.

       -npro  --noprofile
           Ignore any .perltidyrc command file.  Normally, perltidy looks first in your current
           directory for a .perltidyrc file of parameters.  (The format is described below).  If
           it finds one, it applies those options to the initial default values, and then it
           applies any that have been defined on the command line.  If no .perltidyrc file is
           found, it looks for one in your home directory.

           If you set the -npro flag, perltidy will not look for this file.

       -pro=filename or  --profile=filename
           To simplify testing and switching .perltidyrc files, this command may be used to
           specify a configuration file which will override the default name of .perltidyrc.
           There must not be a space on either side of the '=' sign.  For example, the line

              perltidy -pro=testcfg

           would cause file testcfg to be used instead of the default .perltidyrc.

           A pathname begins with three dots, e.g. ".../.perltidyrc", indicates that the file
           should be searched for starting in the current directory and working upwards. This
           makes it easier to have multiple projects each with their own .perltidyrc in their
           root directories.

       -opt,   --show-options
           Write a list of all options used to the .LOG file.  Please see --dump-options for a
           simpler way to do this.

       -f,   --force-read-binary
           Force perltidy to process binary files.  To avoid producing excessive error messages,
           perltidy skips files identified by the system as non-text.  However, valid perl
           scripts containing binary data may sometimes be identified as non-text, and this flag
           forces perltidy to process them.


   Basic Options
           This flag disables all formatting and causes the input to be copied unchanged to the
           output except for possible changes in line ending characters and any pre- and post-
           filters.  This can be useful in conjunction with a hierarchical set of .perltidyrc
           files to avoid unwanted code tidying.  See also "Skipping Selected Sections of Code"
           for a way to avoid tidying specific sections of code.

       -l=n, --maximum-line-length=n
           The default maximum line length is n=80 characters.  Perltidy will try to find line
           break points to keep lines below this length. However, long quotes and side comments
           may cause lines to exceed this length.  Setting -l=0 is equivalent to setting -l=(a
           large number).

       -i=n,  --indent-columns=n
           Use n columns per indentation level (default n=4).

           Using tab characters will almost certainly lead to future portability and maintenance
           problems, so the default and recommendation is not to use them.  For those who prefer
           tabs, however, there are two different options.

           Except for possibly introducing tab indentation characters, as outlined below,
           perltidy does not introduce any tab characters into your file, and it removes any tabs
           from the code (unless requested not to do so with -fws).  If you have any tabs in your
           comments, quotes, or here-documents, they will remain.

           -et=n,   --entab-leading-whitespace
               This flag causes each n initial space characters to be replaced by one tab
               character.  Note that the integer n is completely independent of the integer
               specified for indentation parameter, -i=n.

           -t,   --tabs
               This flag causes one leading tab character to be inserted for each level of
               indentation.  Certain other features are incompatible with this option, and if
               these options are also given, then a warning message will be issued and this flag
               will be unset.  One example is the -lp option.

       -syn,   --check-syntax
           This flag causes perltidy to run "perl -c -T" to check syntax of input and output.
           (To change the flags passed to perl, see the next item, -pscf).  The results are
           written to the .LOG file, which will be saved if an error is detected in the output
           script.  The output script is not checked if the input script has a syntax error.
           Perltidy does its own checking, but this option employs perl to get a "second

           If perl reports errors in the input file, they will not be reported in the error
           output unless the --warning-output flag is given.

           The default is not to do this type of syntax checking (although perltidy will still do
           as much self-checking as possible).  The reason is that it causes all code in BEGIN
           blocks to be executed, for all modules being used, and this opens the door to security
           issues and infinite loops when running perltidy.

       -pscf=s, -perl-syntax-check-flags=s
           When perl is invoked to check syntax, the normal flags are "-c -T".  In addition, if
           the -x flag is given to perltidy, then perl will also be passed a -x flag.  It should
           not normally be necessary to change these flags, but it can be done with the -pscf=s
           flag.  For example, if the taint flag, "-T", is not wanted, the flag could be set to
           be just -pscf=-c.

           Perltidy will pass your string to perl with the exception that it will add a -c and -x
           if appropriate.  The .LOG file will show exactly what flags were passed to perl.

       -io,   --indent-only
           This flag is used to deactivate all formatting and line break changes within non-blank
           lines of code.  When it is in effect, the only change to the script will be to the
           indentation and blank lines.  And any flags controlling whitespace and newlines will
           be ignored.  You might want to use this if you are perfectly happy with your
           whitespace and line breaks, and merely want perltidy to handle the indentation.  (This
           also speeds up perltidy by well over a factor of two, so it might be useful when
           perltidy is merely being used to help find a brace error in a large script).

           Setting this flag is equivalent to setting --freeze-newlines and --freeze-whitespace.

           If you also want to keep your existing blank lines exactly as they are, you can add

       -ole=s,  --output-line-ending=s
           where s="win", "dos", "unix", or "mac".  This flag tells perltidy to output line
           endings for a specific system.  Normally, perltidy writes files with the line
           separator character of the host system.  The "win" and "dos" flags have an identical

       -ple,  --preserve-line-endings
           This flag tells perltidy to write its output files with the same line endings as the
           input file, if possible.  It should work for dos, unix, and mac line endings.  It will
           only work if perltidy input comes from a filename (rather than stdin, for example).
           If perltidy has trouble determining the input file line ending, it will revert to the
           default behavior of using the line ending of the host system.

       -it=n,   --iterations=n
           This flag causes perltidy to do n complete iterations.  The reason for this flag is
           that code beautification is a somewhat iterative process and in some cases the output
           from perltidy can be different if it is applied a second time.  For most purposes the
           default of n=1 should be satisfactory.  However n=2 can be useful when a major style
           change is being made, or when code is being beautified on check-in to a source code
           control system.  The run time will be approximately proportional to n, and it should
           seldom be necessary to use a value greater than n=2.  This flag has no effect when
           perltidy is used to generate html.

   Code Indentation Control
       -ci=n, --continuation-indentation=n
           Continuation indentation is extra indentation spaces applied when a long line is
           broken.  The default is n=2, illustrated here:

            my $level =   # -ci=2
              ( $max_index_to_go >= 0 ) ? $levels_to_go[0] : $last_output_level;

           The same example, with n=0, is a little harder to read:

            my $level =   # -ci=0
            ( $max_index_to_go >= 0 ) ? $levels_to_go[0] : $last_output_level;

           The value given to -ci is also used by some commands when a small space is required.
           Examples are commands for outdenting labels, -ola, and control keywords, -okw.

           When default values are not used, it is suggested that the value n given with -ci=n be
           no more than about one-half of the number of spaces assigned to a full indentation
           level on the -i=n command.

       -sil=n --starting-indentation-level=n
           By default, perltidy examines the input file and tries to determine the starting
           indentation level.  While it is often zero, it may not be zero for a code snippet
           being sent from an editing session.  If the default method does not work correctly, or
           you want to change the starting level, use -sil=n, to force the starting level to be

       List indentation using -lp, --line-up-parentheses
           By default, perltidy indents lists with 4 spaces, or whatever value is specified with
           -i=n.  Here is a small list formatted in this way:

               # perltidy (default)
               @month_of_year = (
                   'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                   'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

           Use the -lp flag to add extra indentation to cause the data to begin past the opening
           parentheses of a sub call or list, or opening square bracket of an anonymous array, or
           opening curly brace of an anonymous hash.  With this option, the above list would

               # perltidy -lp
               @month_of_year = (
                                  'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                                  'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

           If the available line length (see -l=n ) does not permit this much space, perltidy
           will use less.   For alternate placement of the closing paren, see the next section.

           This option has no effect on code BLOCKS, such as if/then/else blocks, which always
           use whatever is specified with -i=n.  Also, the existence of line breaks and/or block
           comments between the opening and closing parens may cause perltidy to temporarily
           revert to its default method.

           Note: The -lp option may not be used together with the -t tabs option.  It may,
           however, be used with the -et=n tab method.

           In addition, any parameter which significantly restricts the ability of perltidy to
           choose newlines will conflict with -lp and will cause -lp to be deactivated.  These
           include -io, -fnl, -nanl, and -ndnl.  The reason is that the -lp indentation style can
           require the careful coordination of an arbitrary number of break points in
           hierarchical lists, and these flags may prevent that.

       -cti=n, --closing-token-indentation
           The -cti=n flag controls the indentation of a line beginning with a ")", "]", or a
           non-block "}".  Such a line receives:

            -cti = 0 no extra indentation (default)
            -cti = 1 extra indentation such that the closing token
                   aligns with its opening token.
            -cti = 2 one extra indentation level if the line looks like:
                   );  or  ];  or  };
            -cti = 3 one extra indentation level always

           The flags -cti=1 and -cti=2 work well with the -lp flag (previous section).

               # perltidy -lp -cti=1
               @month_of_year = (
                                  'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                                  'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

               # perltidy -lp -cti=2
               @month_of_year = (
                                  'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun',
                                  'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec'

           These flags are merely hints to the formatter and they may not always be followed.  In
           particular, if -lp is not being used, the indentation for cti=1 is constrained to be
           no more than one indentation level.

           If desired, this control can be applied independently to each of the closing container
           token types.  In fact, -cti=n is merely an abbreviation for -cpi=n -csbi=n -cbi=n,
           where: -cpi or --closing-paren-indentation controls )'s, -csbi or
           --closing-square-bracket-indentation controls ]'s, -cbi or --closing-brace-indentation
           controls non-block }'s.

       -icp, --indent-closing-paren
           The -icp flag is equivalent to -cti=2, described in the previous section.  The -nicp
           flag is equivalent -cti=0.  They are included for backwards compatability.

       -icb, --indent-closing-brace
           The -icb option gives one extra level of indentation to a brace which terminates a
           code block .  For example,

                   if ($task) {
                       }    # -icb
                   else {

           The default is not to do this, indicated by -nicb.

       -olq, --outdent-long-quotes
           When -olq is set, lines which is a quoted string longer than the value maximum-line-
           length will have their indentation removed to make them more readable.  This is the
           default.  To prevent such out-denting, use -nolq or --nooutdent-long-lines.

       -oll, --outdent-long-lines
           This command is equivalent to --outdent-long-quotes and --outdent-long-comments, and
           it is included for compatibility with previous versions of perltidy.  The negation of
           this also works, -noll or --nooutdent-long-lines, and is equivalent to setting -nolq
           and -nolc.

       Outdenting Labels: -ola,  --outdent-labels
           This command will cause labels to be outdented by 2 spaces (or whatever -ci has been
           set to), if possible.  This is the default.  For example:

                   my $i;
                 LOOP: while ( $i = <FOTOS> ) {
                       next unless $i;

           Use -nola to not outdent labels.

       Outdenting Keywords
           -okw,  --outdent-keywords
               The command -okw will will cause certain leading control keywords to be outdented
               by 2 spaces (or whatever -ci has been set to), if possible.  By default, these
               keywords are "redo", "next", "last", "goto", and "return".  The intention is to
               make these control keywords easier to see.  To change this list of keywords being
               outdented, see the next section.

               For example, using "perltidy -okw" on the previous example gives:

                       my $i;
                     LOOP: while ( $i = <FOTOS> ) {
                         next unless $i;

               The default is not to do this.

           Specifying Outdented Keywords: -okwl=string,  --outdent-keyword-list=string
               This command can be used to change the keywords which are outdented with the -okw
               command.  The parameter string is a required list of perl keywords, which should
               be placed in quotes if there are more than one.  By itself, it does not cause any
               outdenting to occur, so the -okw command is still required.

               For example, the commands "-okwl="next last redo goto" -okw" will cause those four
               keywords to be outdented.  It is probably simplest to place any -okwl command in a
               .perltidyrc file.

   Whitespace Control
       Whitespace refers to the blank space between variables, operators, and other code tokens.

       -fws,  --freeze-whitespace
           This flag causes your original whitespace to remain unchanged, and causes the rest of
           the whitespace commands in this section, the Code Indentation section, and the Comment
           Control section to be ignored.

       Tightness of curly braces, parentheses, and square brackets.
           Here the term "tightness" will mean the closeness with which pairs of enclosing
           tokens, such as parentheses, contain the quantities within.  A numerical value of 0,
           1, or 2 defines the tightness, with 0 being least tight and 2 being most tight.
           Spaces within containers are always symmetric, so if there is a space after a "(" then
           there will be a space before the corresponding ")".

           The -pt=n or --paren-tightness=n parameter controls the space within parens.  The
           example below shows the effect of the three possible values, 0, 1, and 2:

            if ( ( my $len_tab = length( $tabstr ) ) > 0 ) {  # -pt=0
            if ( ( my $len_tab = length($tabstr) ) > 0 ) {    # -pt=1 (default)
            if ((my $len_tab = length($tabstr)) > 0) {        # -pt=2

           When n is 0, there is always a space to the right of a '(' and to the left of a ')'.
           For n=2 there is never a space.  For n=1, the default, there is a space unless the
           quantity within the parens is a single token, such as an identifier or quoted string.

           Likewise, the parameter -sbt=n or --square-bracket-tightness=n controls the space
           within square brackets, as illustrated below.

            $width = $col[ $j + $k ] - $col[ $j ];  # -sbt=0
            $width = $col[ $j + $k ] - $col[$j];    # -sbt=1 (default)
            $width = $col[$j + $k] - $col[$j];      # -sbt=2

           Curly braces which do not contain code blocks are controlled by the parameter -bt=n or

            $obj->{ $parsed_sql->{ 'table' }[0] };    # -bt=0
            $obj->{ $parsed_sql->{'table'}[0] };      # -bt=1 (default)
            $obj->{$parsed_sql->{'table'}[0]};        # -bt=2

           And finally, curly braces which contain blocks of code are controlled by the parameter
           -bbt=n or --block-brace-tightness=n as illustrated in the example below.

            %bf = map { $_ => -M $_ } grep { /\.deb$/ } dirents '.'; # -bbt=0 (default)
            %bf = map { $_ => -M $_ } grep {/\.deb$/} dirents '.';   # -bbt=1
            %bf = map {$_ => -M $_} grep {/\.deb$/} dirents '.';     # -bbt=2

       -sts,   --space-terminal-semicolon
           Some programmers prefer a space before all terminal semicolons.  The default is for no
           such space, and is indicated with -nsts or --nospace-terminal-semicolon.

                   $i = 1 ;     #  -sts
                   $i = 1;      #  -nsts   (default)

       -sfs,   --space-for-semicolon
           Semicolons within for loops may sometimes be hard to see, particularly when commas are
           also present.  This option places spaces on both sides of these special semicolons,
           and is the default.  Use -nsfs or --nospace-for-semicolon to deactivate it.

            for ( @a = @$ap, $u = shift @a ; @a ; $u = $v ) {  # -sfs (default)
            for ( @a = @$ap, $u = shift @a; @a; $u = $v ) {    # -nsfs

       -asc,  --add-semicolons
           Setting -asc allows perltidy to add any missing optional semicolon at the end of a
           line which is followed by a closing curly brace on the next line.  This is the
           default, and may be deactivated with -nasc or --noadd-semicolons.

       -dsm,  --delete-semicolons
           Setting -dsm allows perltidy to delete extra semicolons which are simply empty
           statements.  This is the default, and may be deactivated with -ndsm or
           --nodelete-semicolons.  (Such semicolons are not deleted, however, if they would
           promote a side comment to a block comment).

       -aws,  --add-whitespace
           Setting this option allows perltidy to add certain whitespace improve code
           readability.  This is the default. If you do not want any whitespace added, but are
           willing to have some whitespace deleted, use -naws.  (Use -fws to leave whitespace
           completely unchanged).

       -dws,  --delete-old-whitespace
           Setting this option allows perltidy to remove some old whitespace between characters,
           if necessary.  This is the default.  If you do not want any old whitespace removed,
           use -ndws or --nodelete-old-whitespace.

       Detailed whitespace controls around tokens
           For those who want more detailed control over the whitespace around tokens, there are
           four parameters which can directly modify the default whitespace rules built into
           perltidy for any token.  They are:

           -wls=s or --want-left-space=s,

           -nwls=s or --nowant-left-space=s,

           -wrs=s or --want-right-space=s,

           -nwrs=s or --nowant-right-space=s.

           These parameters are each followed by a quoted string, s, containing a list of token
           types.  No more than one of each of these parameters should be specified, because
           repeating a command-line parameter always overwrites the previous one before perltidy
           ever sees it.

           To illustrate how these are used, suppose it is desired that there be no space on
           either side of the token types = + - / *.  The following two parameters would specify
           this desire:

             -nwls="= + - / *"    -nwrs="= + - / *"

           (Note that the token types are in quotes, and that they are separated by spaces).
           With these modified whitespace rules, the following line of math:

             $root = -$b + sqrt( $b * $b - 4. * $a * $c ) / ( 2. * $a );

           becomes this:

             $root=-$b+sqrt( $b*$b-4.*$a*$c )/( 2.*$a );

           These parameters should be considered to be hints to perltidy rather than fixed rules,
           because perltidy must try to resolve conflicts that arise between them and all of the
           other rules that it uses.  One conflict that can arise is if, between two tokens, the
           left token wants a space and the right one doesn't.  In this case, the token not
           wanting a space takes priority.

           It is necessary to have a list of all token types in order to create this type of
           input.  Such a list can be obtained by the command --dump-token-types.  Also try the
           -D flag on a short snippet of code and look at the .DEBUG file to see the

           WARNING Be sure to put these tokens in quotes to avoid having them misinterpreted by
           your command shell.

       Space between specific keywords and opening paren
           When an opening paren follows a Perl keyword, no space is introduced after the
           keyword, unless it is (by default) one of these:

              my local our and or eq ne if else elsif until unless
              while for foreach return switch case given when

           These defaults can be modified with two commands:

           -sak=s  or --space-after-keyword=s  adds keywords.

           -nsak=s  or --nospace-after-keyword=s  removes keywords.

           where s is a list of keywords (in quotes if necessary).  For example,

             my ( $a, $b, $c ) = @_;    # default
             my( $a, $b, $c ) = @_;     # -nsak="my local our"

           To put a space after all keywords, see the next item.

       Space between all keywords and opening parens
           When an opening paren follows a function or keyword, no space is introduced after the
           keyword except for the keywords noted in the previous item.  To always put a space
           between a function or keyword and its opening paren, use the command:

           -skp  or --space-keyword-paren

           You will probably also want to use the flag -sfp (next item) too.

       Space between all function names and opening parens
           When an opening paren follows a function the default is not to introduce a space.  To
           cause a space to be introduced use:

           -sfp  or --space-function-paren

             myfunc( $a, $b, $c );    # default
             myfunc ( $a, $b, $c );   # -sfp

           You will probably also want to use the flag -skp (previous item) too.

       Trimming whitespace around "qw" quotes
           -tqw or --trim-qw provide the default behavior of trimming spaces around multi-line
           "qw" quotes and indenting them appropriately.

           -ntqw or --notrim-qw cause leading and trailing whitespace around multi-line "qw"
           quotes to be left unchanged.  This option will not normally be necessary, but was
           added for testing purposes, because in some versions of perl, trimming "qw" quotes
           changes the syntax tree.

   Comment Controls
       Perltidy has a number of ways to control the appearance of both block comments and side
       comments.  The term block comment here refers to a full-line comment, whereas side comment
       will refer to a comment which appears on a line to the right of some code.

       -ibc,  --indent-block-comments
           Block comments normally look best when they are indented to the same level as the code
           which follows them.  This is the default behavior, but you may use -nibc to keep block
           comments left-justified.  Here is an example:

                        # this comment is indented      (-ibc, default)
                        if ($task) { yyy(); }

           The alternative is -nibc:

            # this comment is not indented              (-nibc)
                        if ($task) { yyy(); }

           See also the next item, -isbc, as well as -sbc, for other ways to have some indented
           and some outdented block comments.

       -isbc,  --indent-spaced-block-comments
           If there is no leading space on the line, then the comment will not be indented, and
           otherwise it may be.

           If both -ibc and -isbc are set, then -isbc takes priority.

       -olc, --outdent-long-comments
           When -olc is set, lines which are full-line (block) comments longer than the value
           maximum-line-length will have their indentation removed.  This is the default; use
           -nolc to prevent outdenting.

       -msc=n,  --minimum-space-to-comment=n
           Side comments look best when lined up several spaces to the right of code.  Perltidy
           will try to keep comments at least n spaces to the right.  The default is n=4 spaces.

       -fpsc=n,  --fixed-position-side-comment=n
           This parameter tells perltidy to line up side comments in column number n whenever
           possible.  The default, n=0, is not do do this.

       -hsc, --hanging-side-comments
           By default, perltidy tries to identify and align "hanging side comments", which are
           something like this:

                   my $IGNORE = 0;    # This is a side comment
                                      # This is a hanging side comment
                                      # And so is this

           A comment is considered to be a hanging side comment if (1) it immediately follows a
           line with a side comment, or another hanging side comment, and (2) there is some
           leading whitespace on the line.  To deactivate this feature, use -nhsc or
           --nohanging-side-comments.  If block comments are preceded by a blank line, or have no
           leading whitespace, they will not be mistaken as hanging side comments.

       Closing Side Comments
           A closing side comment is a special comment which perltidy can automatically create
           and place after the closing brace of a code block.  They can be useful for code
           maintenance and debugging.  The command -csc (or --closing-side-comments) adds or
           updates closing side comments.  For example, here is a small code snippet

                   sub message {
                       if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                           print("Hello, World\n");
                       else {
                           print( $_[0], "\n" );

           And here is the result of processing with "perltidy -csc":

                   sub message {
                       if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                           print("Hello, World\n");
                       else {
                           print( $_[0], "\n" );
                   } ## end sub message

           A closing side comment was added for "sub message" in this case, but not for the "if"
           and "else" blocks, because they were below the 6 line cutoff limit for adding closing
           side comments.  This limit may be changed with the -csci command, described below.

           The command -dcsc (or --delete-closing-side-comments) reverses this process and
           removes these comments.

           Several commands are available to modify the behavior of these two basic commands,
           -csc and -dcsc:

           -csci=n, or --closing-side-comment-interval=n
               where "n" is the minimum number of lines that a block must have in order for a
               closing side comment to be added.  The default value is "n=6".  To illustrate:

                       # perltidy -csci=2 -csc
                       sub message {
                           if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                               print("Hello, World\n");
                           } ## end if ( !defined( $_[0] ))
                           else {
                               print( $_[0], "\n" );
                           } ## end else [ if ( !defined( $_[0] ))
                       } ## end sub message

               Now the "if" and "else" blocks are commented.  However, now this has become very

           -cscp=string, or --closing-side-comment-prefix=string
               where string is the prefix used before the name of the block type.  The default
               prefix, shown above, is "## end".  This string will be added to closing side
               comments, and it will also be used to recognize them in order to update, delete,
               and format them.  Any comment identified as a closing side comment will be placed
               just a single space to the right of its closing brace.

           -cscl=string, or --closing-side-comment-list-string
               where "string" is a list of block types to be tagged with closing side comments.
               By default, all code block types preceded by a keyword or label (such as "if",
               "sub", and so on) will be tagged.  The -cscl command changes the default list to
               be any selected block types; see "Specifying Block Types".  For example, the
               following command requests that only "sub"'s, labels, "BEGIN", and "END" blocks be
               affected by any -csc or -dcsc operation:

                  -cscl="sub : BEGIN END"

           -csct=n, or --closing-side-comment-maximum-text=n
               The text appended to certain block types, such as an "if" block, is whatever lies
               between the keyword introducing the block, such as "if", and the opening brace.
               Since this might be too much text for a side comment, there needs to be a limit,
               and that is the purpose of this parameter.  The default value is "n=20", meaning
               that no additional tokens will be appended to this text after its length reaches
               20 characters.  Omitted text is indicated with "...".  (Tokens, including sub
               names, are never truncated, however, so actual lengths may exceed this).  To
               illustrate, in the above example, the appended text of the first block is " (
               !defined( $_[0] )...".  The existing limit of "n=20" caused this text to be
               truncated, as indicated by the "...".  See the next flag for additional control of
               the abbreviated text.

           -cscb, or --closing-side-comments-balanced
               As discussed in the previous item, when the closing-side-comment-maximum-text
               limit is exceeded the comment text must be truncated.  Older versions of perltidy
               terminated with three dots, and this can still be achieved with -ncscb:

                 perltidy -csc -ncscb
                 } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ...

               However this causes a problem with editors editors which cannot recognize comments
               or are not configured to do so because they cannot "bounce" around in the text
               correctly.  The -cscb flag has been added to help them by appending appropriate
               balancing structure:

                 perltidy -csc -cscb
                 } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ... })

               The default is -cscb.

           -csce=n, or --closing-side-comment-else-flag=n
               The default, n=0, places the text of the opening "if" statement after any terminal

               If n=2 is used, then each "elsif" is also given the text of the opening "if"
               statement.  Also, an "else" will include the text of a preceding "elsif"
               statement.  Note that this may result some long closing side comments.

               If n=1 is used, the results will be the same as n=2 whenever the resulting line
               length is less than the maximum allowed.  =item -cscb, or

               When using closing-side-comments, and the closing-side-comment-maximum-text limit
               is exceeded, then the comment text must be abbreviated.  It is terminated with
               three dots if the -cscb flag is negated:

                 perltidy -csc -ncscb
                 } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ...

               This causes a problem with older editors which do not recognize comments because
               they cannot "bounce" around in the text correctly.  The -cscb flag tries to help
               them by appending appropriate terminal balancing structures:

                 perltidy -csc -cscb
                 } ## end foreach my $foo (sort { $b cmp $a ... })

               The default is -cscb.

           -cscw, or --closing-side-comment-warnings
               This parameter is intended to help make the initial transition to the use of
               closing side comments.  It causes two things to happen if a closing side comment
               replaces an existing, different closing side comment:  first, an error message
               will be issued, and second, the original side comment will be placed alone on a
               new specially marked comment line for later attention.

               The intent is to avoid clobbering existing hand-written side comments which happen
               to match the pattern of closing side comments. This flag should only be needed on
               the first run with -csc.

           Important Notes on Closing Side Comments:

           ·   Closing side comments are only placed on lines terminated with a closing brace.
               Certain closing styles, such as the use of cuddled elses (-ce), preclude the
               generation of some closing side comments.

           ·   Please note that adding or deleting of closing side comments takes place only
               through the commands -csc or -dcsc.  The other commands, if used, merely modify
               the behavior of these two commands.

           ·   It is recommended that the -cscw flag be used along with -csc on the first use of
               perltidy on a given file.  This will prevent loss of any existing side comment
               data which happens to have the csc prefix.

           ·   Once you use -csc, you should continue to use it so that any closing side comments
               remain correct as code changes.  Otherwise, these comments will become incorrect
               as the code is updated.

           ·   If you edit the closing side comments generated by perltidy, you must also change
               the prefix to be different from the closing side comment prefix.  Otherwise, your
               edits will be lost when you rerun perltidy with -csc.   For example, you could
               simply change "## end" to be "## End", since the test is case sensitive.  You may
               also want to use the -ssc flag to keep these modified closing side comments spaced
               the same as actual closing side comments.

           ·   Temporarily generating closing side comments is a useful technique for exploring
               and/or debugging a perl script, especially one written by someone else.  You can
               always remove them with -dcsc.

       Static Block Comments
           Static block comments are block comments with a special leading pattern, "##" by
           default, which will be treated slightly differently from other block comments.  They
           effectively behave as if they had glue along their left and top edges, because they
           stick to the left edge and previous line when there is no blank spaces in those
           places.  This option is particularly useful for controlling how commented code is

           -sbc, --static-block-comments
               When -sbc is used, a block comment with a special leading pattern, "##" by
               default, will be treated specially.

               Comments so identified  are treated as follows:

               ·   If there is no leading space on the line, then the comment will not be
                   indented, and otherwise it may be,

               ·   no new blank line will be inserted before such a comment, and

               ·   such a comment will never become a hanging side comment.

               For example, assuming @month_of_year is left-adjusted:

                   @month_of_year = (    # -sbc (default)
                       'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct',
                   ##  'Dec', 'Nov'
                       'Nov', 'Dec');

               Without this convention, the above code would become

                   @month_of_year = (   # -nsbc
                       'Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct',

                       ##  'Dec', 'Nov'
                       'Nov', 'Dec'

               which is not as clear.  The default is to use -sbc.  This may be deactivated with

           -sbcp=string, --static-block-comment-prefix=string
               This parameter defines the prefix used to identify static block comments when the
               -sbc parameter is set.  The default prefix is "##", corresponding to "-sbcp=##".
               The prefix is actually part of a perl pattern used to match lines and it must
               either begin with "#" or "^#".  In the first case a prefix ^\s* will be added to
               match any leading whitespace, while in the second case the pattern will match only
               comments with no leading whitespace.  For example, to identify all comments as
               static block comments, one would use "-sbcp=#".  To identify all left-adjusted
               comments as static block comments, use "-sbcp='^#'".

               Please note that -sbcp merely defines the pattern used to identify static block
               comments; it will not be used unless the switch -sbc is set.  Also, please be
               aware that since this string is used in a perl regular expression which identifies
               these comments, it must enable a valid regular expression to be formed.

               A pattern which can be useful is:


               This pattern requires a static block comment to have at least one character which
               is neither a # nor a space.  It allows a line containing only '#' characters to be
               rejected as a static block comment.  Such lines are often used at the start and
               end of header information in subroutines and should not be separated from the
               intervening comments, which typically begin with just a single '#'.

           -osbc, --outdent-static-block-comments
               The command -osbc will will cause static block comments to be outdented by 2
               spaces (or whatever -ci=n has been set to), if possible.

       Static Side Comments
           Static side comments are side comments with a special leading pattern.  This option
           can be useful for controlling how commented code is displayed when it is a side

           -ssc, --static-side-comments
               When -ssc is used, a side comment with a static leading pattern, which is "##" by
               default, will be be spaced only a single space from previous character, and it
               will not be vertically aligned with other side comments.

               The default is -nssc.

           -sscp=string, --static-side-comment-prefix=string
               This parameter defines the prefix used to identify static side comments when the
               -ssc parameter is set.  The default prefix is "##", corresponding to "-sscp=##".

               Please note that -sscp merely defines the pattern used to identify static side
               comments; it will not be used unless the switch -ssc is set.  Also, note that this
               string is used in a perl regular expression which identifies these comments, so it
               must enable a valid regular expression to be formed.

   Skipping Selected Sections of Code
       Selected lines of code may be passed verbatim to the output without any formatting.  This
       feature is enabled by default but can be disabled with the --noformat-skipping or -nfs
       flag.  It should be used sparingly to avoid littering code with markers, but it might be
       helpful for working around occasional problems.  For example it might be useful for
       keeping the indentation of old commented code unchanged, keeping indentation of long
       blocks of aligned comments unchanged, keeping certain list formatting unchanged, or
       working around a glitch in perltidy.

       -fs,  --format-skipping
           This flag, which is enabled by default, causes any code between special beginning and
           ending comment markers to be passed to the output without formatting.  The default
           beginning marker is #<<< and the default ending marker is #>>> but they may be changed
           (see next items below).  Additional text may appear on these special comment lines
           provided that it is separated from the marker by at least one space.  For example

            #<<<  do not let perltidy touch this
               my @list = (1,
                           1, 1,
                           1, 2, 1,
                           1, 3, 3, 1,
                           1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

           The comment markers may be placed at any location that a block comment may appear.  If
           they do not appear to be working, use the -log flag and examine the .LOG file.  Use
           -nfs to disable this feature.

       -fsb=string,  --format-skipping-begin=string
           The -fsb=string parameter may be used to change the beginning marker for format
           skipping.  The default is equivalent to -fsb='#<<<'.  The string that you enter must
           begin with a # and should be in quotes as necessary to get past the command shell of
           your system.  It is actually the leading text of a pattern that is constructed by
           appending a '\s', so you must also include backslashes for characters to be taken
           literally rather than as patterns.

           Some examples show how example strings become patterns:

            -fsb='#\{\{\{' becomes /^#\{\{\{\s/  which matches  #{{{ but not #{{{{
            -fsb='#\*\*'   becomes /^#\*\*\s/    which matches  #** but not #***
            -fsb='#\*{2,}' becomes /^#\*{2,}\s/  which matches  #** and #*****

       -fse=string,  --format-skipping-end=string
           The -fsb=string is the corresponding parameter used to change the ending marker for
           format skipping.  The default is equivalent to -fse='#<<<'.

   Line Break Control
       The parameters in this section control breaks after non-blank lines of code.  Blank lines
       are controlled separately by parameters in the section "Blank Line Control".

       -fnl,  --freeze-newlines
           If you do not want any changes to the line breaks within lines of code in your script,
           set -fnl, and they will remain fixed, and the rest of the commands in this section and
           sections "Controlling List Formatting", "Retaining or Ignoring Existing Line Breaks".
           You may want to use -noll with this.

           Note: If you also want to keep your blank lines exactly as they are, you can use the
           -fbl flag which is described in the section "Blank Line Control".

       -ce,   --cuddled-else
           Enable the "cuddled else" style, in which "else" and "elsif" are follow immediately
           after the curly brace closing the previous block.  The default is not to use cuddled
           elses, and is indicated with the flag -nce or --nocuddled-else.  Here is a comparison
           of the alternatives:

             if ($task) {
             } else {    # -ce

             if ($task) {
             else {    # -nce  (default)

       -bl,    --opening-brace-on-new-line
           Use the flag -bl to place the opening brace on a new line:

             if ( $input_file eq '-' )    # -bl

           This flag applies to all structural blocks, including named sub's (unless the -sbl
           flag is set -- see next item).

           The default style, -nbl, places an opening brace on the same line as the keyword
           introducing it.  For example,

             if ( $input_file eq '-' ) {   # -nbl (default)

       -sbl,    --opening-sub-brace-on-new-line
           The flag -sbl can be used to override the value of -bl for the opening braces of named
           sub's.  For example,

            perltidy -sbl

           produces this result:

            sub message
               if (!defined($_[0])) {
                   print("Hello, World\n");
               else {
                   print($_[0], "\n");

           This flag is negated with -nsbl.  If -sbl is not specified, the value of -bl is used.

       -asbl,    --opening-anonymous-sub-brace-on-new-line
           The flag -asbl is like the -sbl flag except that it applies to anonymous sub's instead
           of named subs. For example

            perltidy -asbl

           produces this result:

            $a = sub
                if ( !defined( $_[0] ) ) {
                    print("Hello, World\n");
                else {
                    print( $_[0], "\n" );

           This flag is negated with -nasbl, and the default is -nasbl.

       -bli,    --brace-left-and-indent
           The flag -bli is the same as -bl but in addition it causes one unit of continuation
           indentation ( see -ci ) to be placed before an opening and closing block braces.

           For example,

                   if ( $input_file eq '-' )    # -bli

           By default, this extra indentation occurs for blocks of type: if, elsif, else, unless,
           for, foreach, sub, while, until, and also with a preceding label.  The next item shows
           how to change this.

       -blil=s,    --brace-left-and-indent-list=s
           Use this parameter to change the types of block braces for which the -bli flag
           applies; see "Specifying Block Types".  For example, -blil='if elsif else' would apply
           it to only "if/elsif/else" blocks.

       -bar,    --opening-brace-always-on-right
           The default style, -nbl places the opening code block brace on a new line if it does
           not fit on the same line as the opening keyword, like this:

                   if ( $bigwasteofspace1 && $bigwasteofspace2
                     || $bigwasteofspace3 && $bigwasteofspace4 )

           To force the opening brace to always be on the right, use the -bar flag.  In this
           case, the above example becomes

                   if ( $bigwasteofspace1 && $bigwasteofspace2
                     || $bigwasteofspace3 && $bigwasteofspace4 ) {

           A conflict occurs if both -bl and -bar are specified.

       -otr,  --opening-token-right and related flags
           The -otr flag is a hint that perltidy should not place a break between a comma and an
           opening token.  For example:

               # default formatting
               push @{ $self->{$module}{$key} },
                   accno       => $ref->{accno},
                   description => $ref->{description}

               # perltidy -otr
               push @{ $self->{$module}{$key} }, {
                   accno       => $ref->{accno},
                   description => $ref->{description}

           The flag -otr is actually a synonym for three other flags which can be used to control
           parens, hash braces, and square brackets separately if desired:

             -opr  or --opening-paren-right
             -ohbr or --opening-hash-brace-right
             -osbr or --opening-square-bracket-right

       Vertical tightness of non-block curly braces, parentheses, and square brackets.
           These parameters control what shall be called vertical tightness.  Here are the main

           ·   Opening tokens (except for block braces) are controlled by -vt=n, or
               --vertical-tightness=n, where

                -vt=0 always break a line after opening token (default).
                -vt=1 do not break unless this would produce more than one
                        step in indentation in a line.
                -vt=2 never break a line after opening token

           ·   You must also use the -lp flag when you use the -vt flag; the reason is explained

           ·   Closing tokens (except for block braces) are controlled by -vtc=n, or
               --vertical-tightness-closing=n, where

                -vtc=0 always break a line before a closing token (default),
                -vtc=1 do not break before a closing token which is followed
                       by a semicolon or another closing token, and is not in
                       a list environment.
                -vtc=2 never break before a closing token.

               The rules for -vtc=1 are designed to maintain a reasonable balance between
               tightness and readability in complex lists.

           ·   Different controls may be applied to to different token types, and it is also
               possible to control block braces; see below.

           ·   Finally, please note that these vertical tightness flags are merely hints to the
               formatter, and it cannot always follow them.  Things which make it difficult or
               impossible include comments, blank lines, blocks of code within a list, and
               possibly the lack of the -lp parameter.  Also, these flags may be ignored for very
               small lists (2 or 3 lines in length).

           Here are some examples:

               # perltidy -lp -vt=0 -vtc=0
               %romanNumerals = (
                                  one   => 'I',
                                  two   => 'II',
                                  three => 'III',
                                  four  => 'IV',

               # perltidy -lp -vt=1 -vtc=0
               %romanNumerals = ( one   => 'I',
                                  two   => 'II',
                                  three => 'III',
                                  four  => 'IV',

               # perltidy -lp -vt=1 -vtc=1
               %romanNumerals = ( one   => 'I',
                                  two   => 'II',
                                  three => 'III',
                                  four  => 'IV', );

           The difference between -vt=1 and -vt=2 is shown here:

               # perltidy -lp -vt=1
                           mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                                      cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] )

               # perltidy -lp -vt=2
               $init->add( mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                                      cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] )

           With -vt=1, the line ending in "add(" does not combine with the next line because the
           next line is not balanced.  This can help with readability, but -vt=2 can be used to
           ignore this rule.

           The tightest, and least readable, code is produced with both "-vt=2" and "-vtc=2":

               # perltidy -lp -vt=2 -vtc=2
               $init->add( mysprintf( "(void)find_threadsv(%s);",
                                      cstring( $threadsv_names[ $op->targ ] ) ) );

           Notice how the code in all of these examples collapses vertically as -vt increases,
           but the indentation remains unchanged.  This is because perltidy implements the -vt
           parameter by first formatting as if -vt=0, and then simply overwriting one output line
           on top of the next, if possible, to achieve the desired vertical tightness.  The -lp
           indentation style has been designed to allow this vertical collapse to occur, which is
           why it is required for the -vt parameter.

           The -vt=n and -vtc=n parameters apply to each type of container token.  If desired,
           vertical tightness controls can be applied independently to each of the closing
           container token types.

           The parameters for controlling parentheses are -pvt=n or --paren-vertical-tightness=n,
           and -pcvt=n or --paren-vertical-tightness-closing=n.

           Likewise, the parameters for square brackets are -sbvt=n or
           --square-bracket-vertical-tightness=n, and -sbcvt=n or

           Finally, the parameters for controlling non-code block braces are -bvt=n or
           --brace-vertical-tightness=n, and -bcvt=n or --brace-vertical-tightness-closing=n.

           In fact, the parameter -vt=n is actually just an abbreviation for -pvt=n -bvt=n
           sbvt=n, and likewise -vtc=n is an abbreviation for -pvtc=n -bvtc=n sbvtc=n.

       -bbvt=n or --block-brace-vertical-tightness=n
           The -bbvt=n flag is just like the -vt=n flag but applies to opening code block braces.

            -bbvt=0 break after opening block brace (default).
            -bbvt=1 do not break unless this would produce more than one
                    step in indentation in a line.
            -bbvt=2 do not break after opening block brace.

           It is necessary to also use either -bl or -bli for this to work, because, as with
           other vertical tightness controls, it is implemented by simply overwriting a line
           ending with an opening block brace with the subsequent line.  For example:

               # perltidy -bli -bbvt=0
               if ( open( FILE, "< $File" ) )
                   while ( $File = <FILE> )
                       $In .= $File;

               # perltidy -bli -bbvt=1
               if ( open( FILE, "< $File" ) )
                 { while ( $File = <FILE> )
                     { $In .= $File;

           By default this applies to blocks associated with keywords if, elsif, else, unless,
           for, foreach, sub, while, until, and also with a preceding label.  This can be changed
           with the parameter -bbvtl=string, or --block-brace-vertical-tightness-list=string,
           where string is a space-separated list of block types.  For more information on the
           possible values of this string, see "Specifying Block Types"

           For example, if we want to just apply this style to "if", "elsif", and "else" blocks,
           we could use "perltidy -bli -bbvt=1 -bbvtl='if elsif else'".

           There is no vertical tightness control for closing block braces; with the exception of
           one-line blocks, they will normally remain on a separate line.

       -sot,  --stack-opening-tokens and related flags
           The -sot flag tells perltidy to "stack" opening tokens when possible to avoid lines
           with isolated opening tokens.

           For example:

               # default
               $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
                       binary       => 1,
                       sep_char     => $opt_c,
                       always_quote => 1,

               # -sot
               $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new( {
                       binary       => 1,
                       sep_char     => $opt_c,
                       always_quote => 1,

           For detailed control of individual closing tokens the following controls can be used:

             -sop  or --stack-opening-paren
             -sohb or --stack-opening-hash-brace
             -sosb or --stack-opening-square-bracket

           The flag -sot is a synonym for -sop -sohb -sosb.

       -sct,  --stack-closing-tokens and related flags
           The -sct flag tells perltidy to "stack" closing tokens when possible to avoid lines
           with isolated closing tokens.

           For example:

               # default
               $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
                       binary       => 1,
                       sep_char     => $opt_c,
                       always_quote => 1,

               # -sct
               $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
                       binary       => 1,
                       sep_char     => $opt_c,
                       always_quote => 1,
                   } );

           The -sct flag is somewhat similar to the -vtc flags, and in some cases it can give a
           similar result.  The difference is that the -vtc flags try to avoid lines with leading
           opening tokens by "hiding" them at the end of a previous line, whereas the -sct flag
           merely tries to reduce the number of lines with isolated closing tokens by stacking
           them but does not try to hide them.  For example:

               # -vtc=2
               $opt_c = Text::CSV_XS->new(
                       binary       => 1,
                       sep_char     => $opt_c,
                       always_quote => 1, } );

           For detailed control of the stacking of individual closing tokens the following
           controls can be used:

             -scp  or --stack-closing-paren
             -schb or --stack-closing-hash-brace
             -scsb or --stack-closing-square-bracket

           The flag -sct is a synonym for -scp -schb -scsb.

       -dnl,  --delete-old-newlines
           By default, perltidy first deletes all old line break locations, and then it looks for
           good break points to match the desired line length.  Use -ndnl or
           --nodelete-old-newlines to force perltidy to retain all old line break points.

       -anl,  --add-newlines
           By default, perltidy will add line breaks when necessary to create continuations of
           long lines and to improve the script appearance.  Use -nanl or --noadd-newlines to
           prevent any new line breaks.

           This flag does not prevent perltidy from eliminating existing line breaks; see
           --freeze-newlines to completely prevent changes to line break points.

       Controlling whether perltidy breaks before or after operators
           Four command line parameters provide some control over whether a line break should be
           before or after specific token types.  Two parameters give detailed control:

           -wba=s or --want-break-after=s, and

           -wbb=s or --want-break-before=s.

           These parameters are each followed by a quoted string, s, containing a list of token
           types (separated only by spaces).  No more than one of each of these parameters should
           be specified, because repeating a command-line parameter always overwrites the
           previous one before perltidy ever sees it.

           By default, perltidy breaks after these token types:
             % + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < >  | &
             = **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x=

           And perltidy breaks before these token types by default:
             . << >> -> && || //

           To illustrate, to cause a break after a concatenation operator, '.', rather than
           before it, the command line would be


           As another example, the following command would cause a break before math operators
           '+', '-', '/', and '*':

             -wbb="+ - / *"

           These commands should work well for most of the token types that perltidy uses (use
           --dump-token-types for a list).  Also try the -D flag on a short snippet of code and
           look at the .DEBUG file to see the tokenization.  However, for a few token types there
           may be conflicts with hardwired logic which cause unexpected results.  One example is
           curly braces, which should be controlled with the parameter bl provided for that

           WARNING Be sure to put these tokens in quotes to avoid having them misinterpreted by
           your command shell.

           Two additional parameters are available which, though they provide no further
           capability, can simplify input are:

           -baao or --break-after-all-operators,

           -bbao or --break-before-all-operators.

           The -baao sets the default to be to break after all of the following operators:

               % + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < > | &
               = **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x=
               . : ? && || and or err xor

           and the -bbao flag sets the default to break before all of these operators.  These can
           be used to define an initial break preference which can be fine-tuned with the -wba
           and -wbb flags.  For example, to break before all operators except an = one could use
           --bbao -wba='=' rather than listing every single perl operator except = on a -wbb

   Controlling List Formatting
       Perltidy attempts to place comma-separated arrays of values in tables which look good.
       Its default algorithms usually work well, and they have been improving with each release,
       but several parameters are available to control list formatting.

       -boc,  --break-at-old-comma-breakpoints
           This flag tells perltidy to try to break at all old commas.  This is not the default.
           Normally, perltidy makes a best guess at list formatting, and seldom uses old comma
           breakpoints.  Usually this works well, but consider:

               my @list = (1,
                           1, 1,
                           1, 2, 1,
                           1, 3, 3, 1,
                           1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

           The default formatting will flatten this down to one line:

               # perltidy (default)
               my @list = ( 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, );

           which hides the structure. Using -boc, plus additional flags to retain the original
           style, yields

               # perltidy -boc -lp -pt=2 -vt=1 -vtc=1
               my @list = (1,
                           1, 1,
                           1, 2, 1,
                           1, 3, 3, 1,
                           1, 4, 6, 4, 1,);

           A disadvantage of this flag is that all tables in the file must already be nicely
           formatted.  For another possibility see the -fs flag in "Skipping Selected Sections of

       -mft=n,  --maximum-fields-per-table=n
           If the computed number of fields for any table exceeds n, then it will be reduced to
           n.  The default value for n is a large number, 40.  While this value should probably
           be left unchanged as a general rule, it might be used on a small section of code to
           force a list to have a particular number of fields per line, and then either the -boc
           flag could be used to retain this formatting, or a single comment could be introduced
           somewhere to freeze the formatting in future applications of perltidy.

               # perltidy -mft=2
               @month_of_year = (
                   'Jan', 'Feb',
                   'Mar', 'Apr',
                   'May', 'Jun',
                   'Jul', 'Aug',
                   'Sep', 'Oct',
                   'Nov', 'Dec'

       -cab=n,  --comma-arrow-breakpoints=n
           A comma which follows a comma arrow, '=>', requires special consideration.  In a long
           list, it is common to break at all such commas.  This parameter can be used to control
           how perltidy breaks at these commas.  (However, it will have no effect if old comma
           breaks are being forced because -boc is used).  The possible values of n are:

            n=0 break at all commas after =>
            n=1 stable: break at all commas after => unless this would break
                an existing one-line container (default)
            n=2 break at all commas after =>, but try to form the maximum
                maximum one-line container lengths
            n=3 do not treat commas after => specially at all

           For example, given the following single line, perltidy by default will not add any
           line breaks because it would break the existing one-line container:

               bless { B => $B, Root => $Root } => $package;

           Using -cab=0 will force a break after each comma-arrow item:

               # perltidy -cab=0:
               bless {
                   B    => $B,
                   Root => $Root
               } => $package;

           If perltidy is subsequently run with this container broken, then by default it will
           break after each '=>' because the container is now broken.  To reform a one-line
           container, the parameter -cab=2 would be needed.

           The flag -cab=3 can be used to prevent these commas from being treated specially.  In
           this case, an item such as "01" => 31 is treated as a single item in a table.  The
           number of fields in this table will be determined by the same rules that are used for
           any other table.  Here is an example.

               # perltidy -cab=3
               my %last_day = (
                   "01" => 31, "02" => 29, "03" => 31, "04" => 30,
                   "05" => 31, "06" => 30, "07" => 31, "08" => 31,
                   "09" => 30, "10" => 31, "11" => 30, "12" => 31

   Retaining or Ignoring Existing Line Breaks
       Several additional parameters are available for controlling the extent to which line
       breaks in the input script influence the output script.  In most cases, the default
       parameter values are set so that, if a choice is possible, the output style follows the
       input style.  For example, if a short logical container is broken in the input script,
       then the default behavior is for it to remain broken in the output script.

       Most of the parameters in this section would only be required for a one-time conversion of
       a script from short container lengths to longer container lengths.  The opposite effect,
       of converting long container lengths to shorter lengths, can be obtained by temporarily
       using a short maximum line length.

       -bol,  --break-at-old-logical-breakpoints
           By default, if a logical expression is broken at a "&&", "||", "and", or "or", then
           the container will remain broken.  Also, breaks at internal keywords "if" and "unless"
           will normally be retained.  To prevent this, and thus form longer lines, use -nbol.

       -bok,  --break-at-old-keyword-breakpoints
           By default, perltidy will retain a breakpoint before keywords which may return lists,
           such as "sort" and <map>.  This allows chains of these operators to be displayed one
           per line.  Use -nbok to prevent retaining these breakpoints.

       -bot,  --break-at-old-ternary-breakpoints
           By default, if a conditional (ternary) operator is broken at a ":", then it will
           remain broken.  To prevent this, and thereby form longer lines, use -nbot.

       -iob,  --ignore-old-breakpoints
           Use this flag to tell perltidy to ignore existing line breaks to the maximum extent
           possible.  This will tend to produce the longest possible containers, regardless of
           type, which do not exceed the line length limit.

       -kis,  --keep-interior-semicolons
           Use the -kis flag to prevent breaking at a semicolon if there was no break there in
           the input file.  Normally perltidy places a newline after each semicolon which
           terminates a statement unless several statements are contained within a one-line brace
           block.  To illustrate, consider the following input lines:

               dbmclose(%verb_delim); undef %verb_delim;
               dbmclose(%expanded); undef %expanded;

           The default is to break after each statement, giving

               undef %verb_delim;
               undef %expanded;

           With perltidy -kis the multiple statements are retained:

               dbmclose(%verb_delim); undef %verb_delim;
               dbmclose(%expanded);   undef %expanded;

           The statements are still subject to the specified value of maximum-line-length and
           will be broken if this maximum is exceeed.

   Blank Line Control
       Blank lines can improve the readability of a script if they are carefully placed.
       Perltidy has several commands for controlling the insertion, retention, and removal of
       blank lines.

       -fbl,  --freeze-blank-lines
           Set -fbl if you want to the blank lines in your script to remain exactly as they are.
           The rest of the parameters in this section may then be ignored.  (Note: setting the
           -fbl flag is equivalent to setting -mbl=0 and -kbl=2).

       -bbc,  --blanks-before-comments
           A blank line will be introduced before a full-line comment.  This is the default.  Use
           -nbbc or  --noblanks-before-comments to prevent such blank lines from being

       -bbs,  --blanks-before-subs
           A blank line will be introduced before a sub definition, unless it is a one-liner or
           preceded by a comment.  A blank line will also be introduced before a package
           statement and a BEGIN and END block.  This is the default.  The intention is to help
           display the structure of a program by setting off certain key sections of code.  This
           is negated with -nbbs or --noblanks-before-subs.

       -bbb,  --blanks-before-blocks
           A blank line will be introduced before blocks of coding delimited by for, foreach,
           while, until, and if, unless, in the following circumstances:

           ·   The block is not preceded by a comment.

           ·   The block is not a one-line block.

           ·   The number of consecutive non-blank lines at the current indentation depth is at
               least -lbl (see next section).

           This is the default.  The intention of this option is to introduce some space within
           dense coding.  This is negated with -nbbb or  --noblanks-before-blocks.

       -lbl=n --long-block-line-count=n
           This controls how often perltidy is allowed to add blank lines before certain block
           types (see previous section).  The default is 8.  Entering a value of 0 is equivalent
           to entering a very large number.

       -mbl=n --maximum-consecutive-blank-lines=n
           This parameter specifies the maximum number of consecutive blank lines which will be
           output within code sections of a script.  The default is n=1.  If the input file has
           more than n consecutive blank lines, the number will be reduced to n.  If n=0 then no
           blank lines will be output (unless all old blank lines are retained with the -kbl=2
           flag of the next section).

           This flag obviously does not apply to pod sections, here-documents, and quotes.

       -kbl=n,  --keep-old-blank-lines=n
           The -kbl=n flag gives you control over how your existing blank lines are treated.

           The possible values of n are:

            n=0 ignore all old blank lines
            n=1 stable: keep old blanks, but limited by the value of the B<-mbl=n> flag
            n=2 keep all old blank lines, regardless of the value of the B<-mbl=n> flag

           The default is n=1.

       -sob,  --swallow-optional-blank-lines
           This is equivalent to kbl=0 and is included for compatability with previous versions.

       -nsob,  --noswallow-optional-blank-lines
           This is equivalent to kbl=1 and is included for compatability with previous versions.

       A style refers to a convenient collection of existing parameters.

       -gnu, --gnu-style
           -gnu gives an approximation to the GNU Coding Standards (which do not apply to perl)
           as they are sometimes implemented.  At present, this style overrides the default style
           with the following parameters:

               -lp -bl -noll -pt=2 -bt=2 -sbt=2 -icp

       -pbp, --perl-best-practices
           -pbp is an abbreviation for the parameters in the book Perl Best Practices by Damian

               -l=78 -i=4 -ci=4 -st -se -vt=2 -cti=0 -pt=1 -bt=1 -sbt=1 -bbt=1 -nsfs -nolq
               -wbb="% + - * / x != == >= <= =~ !~ < > | & =
                     **= += *= &= <<= &&= -= /= |= >>= ||= //= .= %= ^= x="

           Note that the -st and -se flags make perltidy act as a filter on one file only.  These
           can be overridden with -nst and -nse if necessary.

   Other Controls
       Deleting selected text
           Perltidy can selectively delete comments and/or pod documentation.  The command -dac
           or  --delete-all-comments will delete all comments and all pod documentation, leaving
           just code and any leading system control lines.

           The command -dp or --delete-pod will remove all pod documentation (but not comments).

           Two commands which remove comments (but not pod) are: -dbc or --delete-block-comments
           and -dsc or  --delete-side-comments.  (Hanging side comments will be deleted with
           block comments here.)

           The negatives of these commands also work, and are the defaults.  When block comments
           are deleted, any leading 'hash-bang' will be retained.  Also, if the -x flag is used,
           any system commands before a leading hash-bang will be retained (even if they are in
           the form of comments).

       Writing selected text to a file
           When perltidy writes a formatted text file, it has the ability to also send selected
           text to a file with a .TEE extension.  This text can include comments and pod

           The command -tac or  --tee-all-comments will write all comments and all pod

           The command -tp or --tee-pod will write all pod documentation (but not comments).

           The commands which write comments (but not pod) are: -tbc or --tee-block-comments and
           -tsc or  --tee-side-comments.  (Hanging side comments will be written with block
           comments here.)

           The negatives of these commands also work, and are the defaults.

       Using a .perltidyrc command file
           If you use perltidy frequently, you probably won't be happy until you create a
           .perltidyrc file to avoid typing commonly-used parameters.  Perltidy will first look
           in your current directory for a command file named .perltidyrc.  If it does not find
           one, it will continue looking for one in other standard locations.

           These other locations are system-dependent, and may be displayed with the command
           "perltidy -dpro".  Under Unix systems, it will first look for an environment variable
           PERLTIDY.  Then it will look for a .perltidyrc file in the home directory, and then
           for a system-wide file /usr/local/etc/perltidyrc, and then it will look for
           /etc/perltidyrc.  Note that these last two system-wide files do not have a leading
           dot.  Further system-dependent information will be found in the INSTALL file
           distributed with perltidy.

           Under Windows, perltidy will also search for a configuration file named perltidy.ini
           since Windows does not allow files with a leading period (.).  Use "perltidy -dpro" to
           see the possbile locations for your system.  An example might be C:\Documents and
           Settings\All Users\perltidy.ini.

           Another option is the use of the PERLTIDY environment variable.  The method for
           setting environment variables depends upon the version of Windows that you are using.
           Instructions for Windows 95 and later versions can be found here:


           Under Windows NT / 2000 / XP the PERLTIDY environment variable can be placed in either
           the user section or the system section.  The later makes the configuration file common
           to all users on the machine.  Be sure to enter the full path of the configuration file
           in the value of the environment variable.  Ex.  PERLTIDY=C:\Documents and

           The configuation file is free format, and simply a list of parameters, just as they
           would be entered on a command line.  Any number of lines may be used, with any number
           of parameters per line, although it may be easiest to read with one parameter per
           line.  Blank lines are ignored, and text after a '#' is ignored to the end of a line.

           Here is an example of a .perltidyrc file:

             # This is a simple of a .perltidyrc configuration file
             # This implements a highly spaced style
             -se    # errors to standard error output
             -w     # show all warnings
             -bl    # braces on new lines
             -pt=0  # parens not tight at all
             -bt=0  # braces not tight
             -sbt=0 # square brackets not tight

           The parameters in the .perltidyrc file are installed first, so any parameters given on
           the command line will have priority over them.

           To avoid confusion, perltidy ignores any command in the .perltidyrc file which would
           cause some kind of dump and an exit.  These are:

            -h -v -ddf -dln -dop -dsn -dtt -dwls -dwrs -ss

           There are several options may be helpful in debugging a .perltidyrc file:

           ·   A very helpful command is --dump-profile or -dpro.  It writes a list of all
               configuration filenames tested to standard output, and if a file is found, it
               dumps the content to standard output before exiting.  So, to find out where
               perltidy looks for its configuration files, and which one if any it selects, just

                 perltidy -dpro

           ·   It may be simplest to develop and test configuration files with alternative names,
               and invoke them with -pro=filename on the command line.  Then rename the desired
               file to .perltidyrc when finished.

           ·   The parameters in the .perltidyrc file can be switched off with the -npro option.

           ·   The commands --dump-options, --dump-defaults, --dump-long-names, and
               --dump-short-names, all described below, may all be helpful.

       Creating a new abbreviation
           A special notation is available for use in a .perltidyrc file for creating an
           abbreviation for a group of options.  This can be used to create a shorthand for one
           or more styles which are frequently, but not always, used.  The notation is to group
           the options within curly braces which are preceded by the name of the alias (without
           leading dashes), like this:

                   newword {

           where newword is the abbreviation, and opt1, etc, are existing parameters or other
           abbreviations.  The main syntax requirement is that the new abbreviation must begin on
           a new line.  Space before and after the curly braces is optional.  For a specific
           example, the following line

                   airy {-bl -pt=0 -bt=0 -sbt=0}

           could be placed in a .perltidyrc file, and then invoked at will with

                   perltidy -airy

           (Either "-airy" or "--airy" may be used).

       Skipping leading non-perl commands with -x or --look-for-hash-bang
           If your script has leading lines of system commands or other text which are not valid
           perl code, and which are separated from the start of the perl code by a "hash-bang"
           line, ( a line of the form "#!...perl" ), you must use the -x flag to tell perltidy
           not to parse and format any lines before the "hash-bang" line.  This option also
           invokes perl with a -x flag when checking the syntax.  This option was originally
           added to allow perltidy to parse interactive VMS scripts, but it should be used for
           any script which is normally invoked with "perl -x".

       Making a file unreadable
           The goal of perltidy is to improve the readability of files, but there are two
           commands which have the opposite effect, --mangle and --extrude.  They are actually
           merely aliases for combinations of other parameters.  Both of these strip all possible
           whitespace, but leave comments and pod documents, so that they are essentially
           reversible.  The difference between these is that --mangle puts the fewest possible
           line breaks in a script while --extrude puts the maximum possible.  Note that these
           options do not provided any meaningful obfuscation, because perltidy can be used to
           reformat the files.  They were originally developed to help test the tokenization
           logic of perltidy, but they have other uses.  One use for --mangle is the following:

             perltidy --mangle -st | perltidy -o

           This will form the maximum possible number of one-line blocks (see next section), and
           can sometimes help clean up a badly formatted script.

           A similar technique can be used with --extrude instead of --mangle to make the minimum
           number of one-line blocks.

           Another use for --mangle is to combine it with -dac to reduce the file size of a perl

       One-line blocks
           There are a few points to note regarding one-line blocks.  A one-line block is
           something like this,

                   if ($x > 0) { $y = 1 / $x }

           where the contents within the curly braces is short enough to fit on a single line.

           With few exceptions, perltidy retains existing one-line blocks, if it is possible
           within the line-length constraint, but it does not attempt to form new ones.  In other
           words, perltidy will try to follow the one-line block style of the input file.

           If an existing one-line block is longer than the maximum line length, however, it will
           be broken into multiple lines.  When this happens, perltidy checks for and adds any
           optional terminating semicolon (unless the -nasc option is used) if the block is a
           code block.

           The main exception is that perltidy will attempt to form new one-line blocks following
           the keywords "map", "eval", and "sort", because these code blocks are often small and
           most clearly displayed in a single line.

           One-line block rules can conflict with the cuddled-else option.  When the cuddled-else
           option is used, perltidy retains existing one-line blocks, even if they do not obey
           cuddled-else formatting.

           Occasionally, when one-line blocks get broken because they exceed the available line
           length, the formatting will violate the requested brace style.  If this happens,
           reformatting the script a second time should correct the problem.

           The following flags are available for debugging:

           --dump-defaults or -ddf will write the default option set to standard output and quit

           --dump-profile or -dpro  will write the name of the current configuration file and its
           contents to standard output and quit.

           --dump-options or -dop  will write current option set to standard output and quit.

           --dump-long-names or -dln  will write all command line long names (passed to
           Get_options) to standard output and quit.

           --dump-short-names  or -dsn will write all command line short names to standard output
           and quit.

           --dump-token-types or -dtt  will write a list of all token types to standard output
           and quit.

           --dump-want-left-space or -dwls  will write the hash %want_left_space to standard
           output and quit.  See the section on controlling whitespace around tokens.

           --dump-want-right-space or -dwrs  will write the hash %want_right_space to standard
           output and quit.  See the section on controlling whitespace around tokens.

           -DEBUG  will write a file with extension .DEBUG for each input file showing the
           tokenization of all lines of code.

       Working with MakeMaker, AutoLoader and SelfLoader
           The first $VERSION line of a file which might be eval'd by MakeMaker is passed through
           unchanged except for indentation.  Use --nopass-version-line, or -npvl, to deactivate
           this feature.

           If the AutoLoader module is used, perltidy will continue formatting code after seeing
           an __END__ line.  Use --nolook-for-autoloader, or -nlal, to deactivate this feature.

           Likewise, if the SelfLoader module is used, perltidy will continue formatting code
           after seeing a __DATA__ line.  Use --nolook-for-selfloader, or -nlsl, to deactivate
           this feature.

       Working around problems with older version of Perl
           Perltidy contains a number of rules which help avoid known subtleties and problems
           with older versions of perl, and these rules always take priority over whatever
           formatting flags have been set.  For example, perltidy will usually avoid starting a
           new line with a bareword, because this might cause problems if "use strict" is active.

           There is no way to override these rules.


       The -html master switch
           The flag -html causes perltidy to write an html file with extension .html.  So, for
           example, the following command

                   perltidy -html

           will produce a syntax-colored html file named which may be viewed
           with a browser.

           Please Note: In this case, perltidy does not do any formatting to the input file, and
           it does not write a formatted file with extension .tdy.  This means that two perltidy
           runs are required to create a fully reformatted, html copy of a script.

       The -pre flag for code snippets
           When the -pre flag is given, only the pre-formatted section, within the <PRE> and
           </PRE> tags, will be output.  This simplifies inclusion of the output in other files.
           The default is to output a complete web page.

       The -nnn flag for line numbering
           When the -nnn flag is given, the output lines will be numbered.

       The -toc, or --html-table-of-contents flag
           By default, a table of contents to packages and subroutines will be written at the
           start of html output.  Use -ntoc to prevent this.  This might be useful, for example,
           for a pod document which contains a number of unrelated code snippets.  This flag only
           influences the code table of contents; it has no effect on any table of contents
           produced by pod2html (see next item).

       The -pod, or --pod2html flag
           There are two options for formatting pod documentation.  The default is to pass the
           pod through the Pod::Html module (which forms the basis of the pod2html utility).  Any
           code sections are formatted by perltidy, and the results then merged.  Note: perltidy
           creates a temporary file when Pod::Html is used; see "FILES".  Also, Pod::Html creates
           temporary files for its cache.

           NOTE: Perltidy counts the number of "=cut" lines, and either moves the pod text to the
           top of the html file if there is one "=cut", or leaves the pod text in its original
           order (interleaved with code) otherwise.

           Most of the flags accepted by pod2html may be included in the perltidy command line,
           and they will be passed to pod2html.  In some cases, the flags have a prefix "pod" to
           emphasize that they are for the pod2html, and this prefix will be removed before they
           are passed to pod2html.  The flags which have the additional "pod" prefix are:

              --[no]podheader --[no]podindex --[no]podrecurse --[no]podquiet
              --[no]podverbose --podflush

           The flags which are unchanged from their use in pod2html are:

              --backlink=s --cachedir=s --htmlroot=s --libpods=s --title=s
              --podpath=s --podroot=s

           where 's' is an appropriate character string.  Not all of these flags are available in
           older versions of Pod::Html.  See your Pod::Html documentation for more information.

           The alternative, indicated with -npod, is not to use Pod::Html, but rather to format
           pod text in italics (or whatever the stylesheet indicates), without special html
           markup.  This is useful, for example, if pod is being used as an alternative way to
           write comments.

       The -frm, or --frames flag
           By default, a single html output file is produced.  This can be changed with the -frm
           option, which creates a frame holding a table of contents in the left panel and the
           source code in the right side. This simplifies code browsing.  Assume, for example,
           that the input file is  Then, for default file extension choices, these
           three files will be created:

        - the frame
    - the table of contents
    - the formatted source code

           Obviously this file naming scheme requires that output be directed to a real file (as
           opposed to, say, standard output).  If this is not the case, or if the file extension
           is unknown, the -frm option will be ignored.

       The -text=s, or --html-toc-extension flag
           Use this flag to specify the extra file extension of the table of contents file when
           html frames are used.  The default is "toc".  See "Specifying File Extensions".

       The -sext=s, or --html-src-extension flag
           Use this flag to specify the extra file extension of the content file when html frames
           are used.  The default is "src".  See "Specifying File Extensions".

       The -hent, or --html-entities flag
           This flag controls the use of Html::Entities for html formatting.  By default, the
           module Html::Entities is used to encode special symbols.  This may not be the right
           thing for some browser/language combinations.  Use --nohtml-entities or -nhent to
           prevent this.

       Style Sheets
           Style sheets make it very convenient to control and adjust the appearance of html
           pages.  The default behavior is to write a page of html with an embedded style sheet.

           An alternative to an embedded style sheet is to create a page with a link to an
           external style sheet.  This is indicated with the -css=filename,  where the external
           style sheet is filename.  The external style sheet filename will be created if and
           only if it does not exist.  This option is useful for controlling multiple pages from
           a single style sheet.

           To cause perltidy to write a style sheet to standard output and exit, use the -ss, or
           --stylesheet, flag.  This is useful if the style sheet could not be written for some
           reason, such as if the -pre flag was used.  Thus, for example,

             perltidy -html -ss >mystyle.css

           will write a style sheet with the default properties to file mystyle.css.

           The use of style sheets is encouraged, but a web page without a style sheets can be
           created with the flag -nss.  Use this option if you must to be sure that older
           browsers (roughly speaking, versions prior to 4.0 of Netscape Navigator and Internet
           Explorer) can display the syntax-coloring of the html files.

       Controlling HTML properties
           Note: It is usually more convenient to accept the default properties and then edit the
           stylesheet which is produced.  However, this section shows how to control the
           properties with flags to perltidy.

           Syntax colors may be changed from their default values by flags of the either the long
           form, -html-color-xxxxxx=n, or more conveniently the short form, -hcx=n, where xxxxxx
           is one of the following words, and x is the corresponding abbreviation:

                 Token Type             xxxxxx           x
                 ----------             --------         --
                 comment                comment          c
                 number                 numeric          n
                 identifier             identifier       i
                 bareword, function     bareword         w
                 keyword                keyword          k
                 quite, pattern         quote            q
                 here doc text          here-doc-text    h
                 here doc target        here-doc-target  hh
                 punctuation            punctuation      pu
                 parentheses            paren            p
                 structural braces      structure        s
                 semicolon              semicolon        sc
                 colon                  colon            co
                 comma                  comma            cm
                 label                  label            j
                 sub definition name    subroutine       m
                 pod text               pod-text         pd

           A default set of colors has been defined, but they may be changed by providing values
           to any of the following parameters, where n is either a 6 digit hex RGB color value or
           an ascii name for a color, such as 'red'.

           To illustrate, the following command will produce an html file with
           "aqua" keywords:

                   perltidy -html -hck=00ffff

           and this should be equivalent for most browsers:

                   perltidy -html -hck=aqua

           Perltidy merely writes any non-hex names that it sees in the html file.  The following
           16 color names are defined in the HTML 3.2 standard:

                   black   => 000000,
                   silver  => c0c0c0,
                   gray    => 808080,
                   white   => ffffff,
                   maroon  => 800000,
                   red     => ff0000,
                   purple  => 800080,
                   fuchsia => ff00ff,
                   green   => 008000,
                   lime    => 00ff00,
                   olive   => 808000,
                   yellow  => ffff00
                   navy    => 000080,
                   blue    => 0000ff,
                   teal    => 008080,
                   aqua    => 00ffff,

           Many more names are supported in specific browsers, but it is safest to use the hex
           codes for other colors.  Helpful color tables can be located with an internet search
           for "HTML color tables".

           Besides color, two other character attributes may be set: bold, and italics.  To set a
           token type to use bold, use the flag --html-bold-xxxxxx or -hbx, where xxxxxx or x are
           the long or short names from the above table.  Conversely, to set a token type to NOT
           use bold, use --nohtml-bold-xxxxxx or -nhbx.

           Likewise, to set a token type to use an italic font, use the flag --html-italic-xxxxxx
           or -hix, where again xxxxxx or x are the long or short names from the above table.
           And to set a token type to NOT use italics, use --nohtml-italic-xxxxxx or -nhix.

           For example, to use bold braces and lime color, non-bold, italics keywords the
           following command would be used:

                   perltidy -html -hbs -hck=00FF00 -nhbk -hik

           The background color can be specified with --html-color-background=n, or -hcbg=n for
           short, where n is a 6 character hex RGB value.  The default color of text is the value
           given to punctuation, which is black as a default.

           Here are some notes and hints:

           1. If you find a preferred set of these parameters, you may want to create a
           .perltidyrc file containing them.  See the perltidy man page for an explanation.

           2. Rather than specifying values for these parameters, it is probably easier to accept
           the defaults and then edit a style sheet.  The style sheet contains comments which
           should make this easy.

           3. The syntax-colored html files can be very large, so it may be best to split large
           files into smaller pieces to improve download times.


   Specifying Block Types
       Several parameters which refer to code block types may be customized by also specifying an
       associated list of block types.  The type of a block is the name of the keyword which
       introduces that block, such as if, else, or sub.  An exception is a labeled block, which
       has no keyword, and should be specified with just a colon.

       For example, the following parameter specifies "sub", labels, "BEGIN", and "END" blocks:

          -cscl="sub : BEGIN END"

       (the meaning of the -cscl parameter is described above.)  Note that quotes are required
       around the list of block types because of the spaces.

   Specifying File Extensions
       Several parameters allow default file extensions to be overridden.  For example, a backup
       file extension may be specified with -bext=ext, where ext is some new extension.  In order
       to provides the user some flexibility, the following convention is used in all cases to
       decide if a leading '.' should be used.  If the extension "ext" begins with "A-Z", "a-z",
       or "0-9", then it will be appended to the filename with an intermediate '.' (or perhaps an
       '_' on VMS systems).  Otherwise, it will be appended directly.

       For example, suppose the file is  For "-bext=old", a '.' is added to give  For "-bext=.old", no additional '.' is added, so again the backup file
       is  For "-bext=~", then no dot is added, and the backup file will be  .


       The following list shows all short parameter names which allow a prefix 'n' to produce the
       negated form:

        D    anl asc  aws  b    bbb bbc bbs  bl   bli  boc bok  bol  bot  ce
        csc  dac dbc  dcsc ddf  dln dnl dop  dp   dpro dsc dsm  dsn  dtt  dwls
        dwrs dws f    fll  frm  fs  hsc html ibc  icb  icp iob  isbc lal  log
        lp   lsl ohbr okw  ola  oll opr opt  osbr otr  ple ple  pod  pvl  q
        sbc  sbl schb scp  scsb sct se  sfp  sfs  skp  sob sohb sop  sosb sot
        ssc  st  sts  syn  t    tac tbc toc  tp   tqw  tsc w    x    bar  kis

       Equivalently, the prefix 'no' or 'no-' on the corresponding long names may be used.


       Parsing Limitations
           Perltidy should work properly on most perl scripts.  It does a lot of self-checking,
           but still, it is possible that an error could be introduced and go undetected.
           Therefore, it is essential to make careful backups and to test reformatted scripts.

           The main current limitation is that perltidy does not scan modules included with 'use'
           statements.  This makes it necessary to guess the context of any bare words introduced
           by such modules.  Perltidy has good guessing algorithms, but they are not infallible.
           When it must guess, it leaves a message in the log file.

           If you encounter a bug, please report it.

       What perltidy does not parse and format
           Perltidy indents but does not reformat comments and "qw" quotes.  Perltidy does not in
           any way modify the contents of here documents or quoted text, even if they contain
           source code.  (You could, however, reformat them separately).  Perltidy does not
           format 'format' sections in any way.  And, of course, it does not modify pod


       Temporary files
           Under the -html option with the default --pod2html flag, a temporary file is required
           to pass text to Pod::Html.  Unix systems will try to use the POSIX tmpnam() function.
           Otherwise the file perltidy.TMP will be temporarily created in the current working

       Special files when standard input is used
           When standard input is used, the log file, if saved, is perltidy.LOG, and any errors
           are written to perltidy.ERR unless the -se flag is set.  These are saved in the
           current working directory.

       Files overwritten
           The following file extensions are used by perltidy, and files with these extensions
           may be overwritten or deleted: .ERR, .LOG, .TEE, and/or .tdy, .html, and .bak,
           depending on the run type and settings.

       Files extensions limitations
           Perltidy does not operate on files for which the run could produce a file with a
           duplicated file extension.  These extensions include .LOG, .ERR, .TEE, and perhaps
           .tdy and .bak, depending on the run type.  The purpose of this rule is to prevent
           generating confusing filenames such as somefile.tdy.tdy.tdy.


       perlstyle(1), Perl::Tidy(3)


       This man page documents perltidy version 20101217.


       Michael Cartmell supplied code for adaptation to VMS and helped with v-strings.

       Yves Orton supplied code for adaptation to the various versions of Windows.

       Axel Rose supplied a patch for MacPerl.

       Hugh S. Myers designed and implemented the initial Perl::Tidy module interface.

       Many others have supplied key ideas, suggestions, and bug reports; see the CHANGES file.


         Steve Hancock
         email: perltidy at


       Copyright (c) 2000-2010 by Steve Hancock


       This package is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the "GNU General Public License".

       Please refer to the file "COPYING" for details.


       This package is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

       See the "GNU General Public License" for more details.