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       perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary


       The biggest trap of all is forgetting to "use warnings" or use the -w switch; see
       perllexwarn and perlrun. The second biggest trap is not making your entire program
       runnable under "use strict".  The third biggest trap is not reading the list of changes in
       this version of Perl; see perldelta.

   Awk Traps
       Accustomed awk users should take special note of the following:

       ·   A Perl program executes only once, not once for each input line.  You can do an
           implicit loop with "-n" or "-p".

       ·   The English module, loaded via

               use English;

           allows you to refer to special variables (like $/) with names (like $RS), as though
           they were in awk; see perlvar for details.

       ·   Semicolons are required after all simple statements in Perl (except at the end of a
           block).  Newline is not a statement delimiter.

       ·   Curly brackets are required on "if"s and "while"s.

       ·   Variables begin with "$", "@" or "%" in Perl.

       ·   Arrays index from 0.  Likewise string positions in substr() and index().

       ·   You have to decide whether your array has numeric or string indices.

       ·   Hash values do not spring into existence upon mere reference.

       ·   You have to decide whether you want to use string or numeric comparisons.

       ·   Reading an input line does not split it for you.  You get to split it to an array
           yourself.  And the split() operator has different arguments than awk's.

       ·   The current input line is normally in $_, not $0.  It generally does not have the
           newline stripped.  ($0 is the name of the program executed.)  See perlvar.

       ·   $<digit> does not refer to fields--it refers to substrings matched by the last match

       ·   The print() statement does not add field and record separators unless you set $, and
           "$\".  You can set $OFS and $ORS if you're using the English module.

       ·   You must open your files before you print to them.

       ·   The range operator is "..", not comma.  The comma operator works as in C.

       ·   The match operator is "=~", not "~".  ("~" is the one's complement operator, as in C.)

       ·   The exponentiation operator is "**", not "^".  "^" is the XOR operator, as in C.  (You
           know, one could get the feeling that awk is basically incompatible with C.)

       ·   The concatenation operator is ".", not the null string.  (Using the null string would
           render "/pat/ /pat/" unparsable, because the third slash would be interpreted as a
           division operator--the tokenizer is in fact slightly context sensitive for operators
           like "/", "?", and ">".  And in fact, "." itself can be the beginning of a number.)

       ·   The "next", "exit", and "continue" keywords work differently.

       ·   The following variables work differently:

                 Awk       Perl
                 ARGC      scalar @ARGV (compare with $#ARGV)
                 ARGV[0]   $0
                 FILENAME  $ARGV
                 FNR       $. - something
                 FS        (whatever you like)
                 NF        $#Fld, or some such
                 NR        $.
                 OFMT      $#
                 OFS       $,
                 ORS       $\
                 RLENGTH   length($&)
                 RS        $/
                 RSTART    length($`)
                 SUBSEP    $;

       ·   You cannot set $RS to a pattern, only a string.

       ·   When in doubt, run the awk construct through a2p and see what it gives you.

   C/C++ Traps
       Cerebral C and C++ programmers should take note of the following:

       ·   Curly brackets are required on "if"'s and "while"'s.

       ·   You must use "elsif" rather than "else if".

       ·   The "break" and "continue" keywords from C become in Perl "last" and "next",
           respectively.  Unlike in C, these do not work within a "do { } while" construct.  See
           "Loop Control" in perlsyn.

       ·   The switch statement is called "given/when" and only available in perl 5.10 or newer.
           See "Switch statements" in perlsyn.

       ·   Variables begin with "$", "@" or "%" in Perl.

       ·   Comments begin with "#", not "/*" or "//".  Perl may interpret C/C++ comments as
           division operators, unterminated regular expressions or the defined-or operator.

       ·   You can't take the address of anything, although a similar operator in Perl is the
           backslash, which creates a reference.

       ·   "ARGV" must be capitalized.  $ARGV[0] is C's "argv[1]", and "argv[0]" ends up in $0.

       ·   System calls such as link(), unlink(), rename(), etc. return nonzero for success, not
           0. (system(), however, returns zero for success.)

       ·   Signal handlers deal with signal names, not numbers.  Use "kill -l" to find their
           names on your system.

   Sed Traps
       Seasoned sed programmers should take note of the following:

       ·   A Perl program executes only once, not once for each input line.  You can do an
           implicit loop with "-n" or "-p".

       ·   Backreferences in substitutions use "$" rather than "\".

       ·   The pattern matching metacharacters "(", ")", and "|" do not have backslashes in

       ·   The range operator is "...", rather than comma.

   Shell Traps
       Sharp shell programmers should take note of the following:

       ·   The backtick operator does variable interpolation without regard to the presence of
           single quotes in the command.

       ·   The backtick operator does no translation of the return value, unlike csh.

       ·   Shells (especially csh) do several levels of substitution on each command line.  Perl
           does substitution in only certain constructs such as double quotes, backticks, angle
           brackets, and search patterns.

       ·   Shells interpret scripts a little bit at a time.  Perl compiles the entire program
           before executing it (except for "BEGIN" blocks, which execute at compile time).

       ·   The arguments are available via @ARGV, not $1, $2, etc.

       ·   The environment is not automatically made available as separate scalar variables.

       ·   The shell's "test" uses "=", "!=", "<" etc for string comparisons and "-eq", "-ne",
           "-lt" etc for numeric comparisons. This is the reverse of Perl, which uses "eq", "ne",
           "lt" for string comparisons, and "==", "!=" "<" etc for numeric comparisons.

   Perl Traps
       Practicing Perl Programmers should take note of the following:

       ·   Remember that many operations behave differently in a list context than they do in a
           scalar one.  See perldata for details.

       ·   Avoid barewords if you can, especially all lowercase ones.  You can't tell by just
           looking at it whether a bareword is a function or a string.  By using quotes on
           strings and parentheses on function calls, you won't ever get them confused.

       ·   You cannot discern from mere inspection which builtins are unary operators (like
           chop() and chdir()) and which are list operators (like print() and unlink()).  (Unless
           prototyped, user-defined subroutines can only be list operators, never unary ones.)
           See perlop and perlsub.

       ·   People have a hard time remembering that some functions default to $_, or @ARGV, or
           whatever, but that others which you might expect to do not.

       ·   The <FH> construct is not the name of the filehandle, it is a readline operation on
           that handle.  The data read is assigned to $_ only if the file read is the sole
           condition in a while loop:

               while (<FH>)      { }
               while (defined($_ = <FH>)) { }..
               <FH>;  # data discarded!

       ·   Remember not to use "=" when you need "=~"; these two constructs are quite different:

               $x =  /foo/;
               $x =~ /foo/;

       ·   The "do {}" construct isn't a real loop that you can use loop control on.

       ·   Use "my()" for local variables whenever you can get away with it (but see perlform for
           where you can't).  Using "local()" actually gives a local value to a global variable,
           which leaves you open to unforeseen side-effects of dynamic scoping.

       ·   If you localize an exported variable in a module, its exported value will not change.
           The local name becomes an alias to a new value but the external name is still an alias
           for the original.

   Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
       Practicing Perl4 Programmers should take note of the following Perl4-to-Perl5 specific

       They're crudely ordered according to the following list:

       Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
           Anything that's been fixed as a perl4 bug, removed as a perl4 feature or deprecated as
           a perl4 feature with the intent to encourage usage of some other perl5 feature.

       Parsing Traps
           Traps that appear to stem from the new parser.

       Numerical Traps
           Traps having to do with numerical or mathematical operators.

       General data type traps
           Traps involving perl standard data types.

       Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
           Traps related to context within lists, scalar statements/declarations.

       Precedence Traps
           Traps related to the precedence of parsing, evaluation, and execution of code.

       General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
           Traps related to the use of pattern matching.

       Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
           Traps related to the use of signals and signal handlers, general subroutines, and
           sorting, along with sorting subroutines.

       OS Traps
           OS-specific traps.

       DBM Traps
           Traps specific to the use of "dbmopen()", and specific dbm implementations.

       Unclassified Traps
           Everything else.

       If you find an example of a conversion trap that is not listed here, please submit it to
       <> for inclusion.  Also note that at least some of these can be caught
       with the "use warnings" pragma or the -w switch.

   Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
       Anything that has been discontinued, deprecated, or fixed as a bug from perl4.

       ·   Symbols starting with "_" no longer forced into main

           Symbols starting with "_" are no longer forced into package main, except for $_ itself
           (and @_, etc.).

               package test;
               $_legacy = 1;

               package main;
               print "\$_legacy is ",$_legacy,"\n";

               # perl4 prints: $_legacy is 1
               # perl5 prints: $_legacy is

       ·   Double-colon valid package separator in variable name

           Double-colon is now a valid package separator in a variable name.  Thus these behave
           differently in perl4 vs. perl5, because the packages don't exist.

               print "$a::$b::$c ";
               print "$var::abc::xyz\n";

               # perl4 prints: 1::2::3 4::abc::xyz
               # perl5 prints: 3

           Given that "::" is now the preferred package delimiter, it is debatable whether this
           should be classed as a bug or not.  (The older package delimiter, ' ,is used here)

               $x = 10;
               print "x=${'x}\n";

               # perl4 prints: x=10
               # perl5 prints: Can't find string terminator "'" anywhere before EOF

           You can avoid this problem, and remain compatible with perl4, if you always explicitly
           include the package name:

               $x = 10;
               print "x=${main'x}\n";

           Also see precedence traps, for parsing $:.

       ·   2nd and 3rd args to "splice()" are now in scalar context

           The second and third arguments of "splice()" are now evaluated in scalar context (as
           the Camel says) rather than list context.

               sub sub1{return(0,2) }          # return a 2-element list
               sub sub2{ return(1,2,3)}        # return a 3-element list
               @a1 = ("a","b","c","d","e");
               @a2 = splice(@a1,&sub1,&sub2);
               print join(' ',@a2),"\n";

               # perl4 prints: a b
               # perl5 prints: c d e

       ·   Can't do "goto" into a block that is optimized away

           You can't do a "goto" into a block that is optimized away.  Darn.

               goto marker1;

                   print "Here I is!\n";

               # perl4 prints: Here I is!
               # perl5 errors: Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop

       ·   Can't use whitespace as variable name or quote delimiter

           It is no longer syntactically legal to use whitespace as the name of a variable, or as
           a delimiter for any kind of quote construct.  Double darn.

               $a = ("foo bar");
               $b = q baz ;
               print "a is $a, b is $b\n";

               # perl4 prints: a is foo bar, b is baz
               # perl5 errors: Bareword found where operator expected

       ·   "while/if BLOCK BLOCK" gone

           The archaic while/if BLOCK BLOCK syntax is no longer supported.

               if { 1 } {
                   print "True!";
               else {
                   print "False!";

               # perl4 prints: True!
               # perl5 errors: syntax error at line 1, near "if {"

       ·   "**" binds tighter than unary minus

           The "**" operator now binds more tightly than unary minus.  It was documented to work
           this way before, but didn't.

               print -4**2,"\n";

               # perl4 prints: 16
               # perl5 prints: -16

       ·   "foreach" changed when iterating over a list

           The meaning of "foreach{}" has changed slightly when it is iterating over a list which
           is not an array.  This used to assign the list to a temporary array, but no longer
           does so (for efficiency).  This means that you'll now be iterating over the actual
           values, not over copies of the values.  Modifications to the loop variable can change
           the original values.

               @list = ('ab','abc','bcd','def');
               foreach $var (grep(/ab/,@list)){
                   $var = 1;
               print (join(':',@list));

               # perl4 prints: ab:abc:bcd:def
               # perl5 prints: 1:1:bcd:def

           To retain Perl4 semantics you need to assign your list explicitly to a temporary array
           and then iterate over that.  For example, you might need to change

               foreach $var (grep(/ab/,@list)){


               foreach $var (@tmp = grep(/ab/,@list)){

           Otherwise changing $var will clobber the values of @list.  (This most often happens
           when you use $_ for the loop variable, and call subroutines in the loop that don't
           properly localize $_.)

       ·   "split" with no args behavior changed

           "split" with no arguments now behaves like "split ' '" (which doesn't return an
           initial null field if $_ starts with whitespace), it used to behave like "split /\s+/"
           (which does).

               $_ = ' hi mom';
               print join(':', split);

               # perl4 prints: :hi:mom
               # perl5 prints: hi:mom

       ·   -e behavior fixed

           Perl 4 would ignore any text which was attached to an -e switch, always taking the
           code snippet from the following arg.  Additionally, it would silently accept an -e
           switch without a following arg.  Both of these behaviors have been fixed.

               perl -e'print "attached to -e"' 'print "separate arg"'

               # perl4 prints: separate arg
               # perl5 prints: attached to -e

               perl -e

               # perl4 prints:
               # perl5 dies: No code specified for -e.

       ·   "push" returns number of elements in resulting list

           In Perl 4 the return value of "push" was undocumented, but it was actually the last
           value being pushed onto the target list.  In Perl 5 the return value of "push" is
           documented, but has changed, it is the number of elements in the resulting list.

               @x = ('existing');
               print push(@x, 'first new', 'second new');

               # perl4 prints: second new
               # perl5 prints: 3

       ·   Some error messages differ

           Some error messages will be different.

       ·   "split()" honors subroutine args

           In Perl 4, if in list context the delimiters to the first argument of "split()" were
           "??", the result would be placed in @_ as well as being returned.   Perl 5 has more
           respect for your subroutine arguments.

       ·   Bugs removed

           Some bugs may have been inadvertently removed.  :-)

   Parsing Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps from having to do with parsing.

       ·   Space between . and = triggers syntax error

           Note the space between . and =

               $string . = "more string";
               print $string;

               # perl4 prints: more string
               # perl5 prints: syntax error at - line 1, near ". ="

       ·   Better parsing in perl 5

           Better parsing in perl 5

               sub foo {}
               print("hello, world\n");

               # perl4 prints: hello, world
               # perl5 prints: syntax error

       ·   Function parsing

           "if it looks like a function, it is a function" rule.

               ($foo == 1) ? "is one\n" : "is zero\n";

               # perl4 prints: is zero
               # perl5 warns: "Useless use of a constant in void context" if using -w

       ·   String interpolation of $#array differs

           String interpolation of the $#array construct differs when braces are to used around
           the name.

               @a = (1..3);
               print "${#a}";

               # perl4 prints: 2
               # perl5 fails with syntax error

               @a = (1..3);
               print "$#{a}";

               # perl4 prints: {a}
               # perl5 prints: 2

       ·   Perl guesses on "map", "grep" followed by "{" if it starts BLOCK or hash ref

           When perl sees "map {" (or "grep {"), it has to guess whether the "{" starts a BLOCK
           or a hash reference. If it guesses wrong, it will report a syntax error near the "}"
           and the missing (or unexpected) comma.

           Use unary "+" before "{" on a hash reference, and unary "+" applied to the first thing
           in a BLOCK (after "{"), for perl to guess right all the time. (See "map" in perlfunc.)

   Numerical Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with numerical operators, operands, or output from same.

       ·    Formatted output and significant digits

            Formatted output and significant digits.  In general, Perl 5 tries to be more
            precise.  For example, on a Solaris Sparc:

                print 7.373504 - 0, "\n";
                printf "%20.18f\n", 7.373504 - 0;

                # Perl4 prints:

                # Perl5 prints:

            Notice how the first result looks better in Perl 5.

            Your results may vary, since your floating point formatting routines and even
            floating point format may be slightly different.

       ·    Auto-increment operator over signed int limit deleted

            This specific item has been deleted.  It demonstrated how the auto-increment operator
            would not catch when a number went over the signed int limit.  Fixed in version
            5.003_04.  But always be wary when using large integers.  If in doubt:

               use Math::BigInt;

       ·    Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests doesn't work

            Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests does not work in perl5 when
            the test evaluates to false (0).  Logical tests now return a null, instead of 0

                $p = ($test == 1);
                print $p,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: 0
                # perl5 prints:

            Also see "//, etc."" in "General Regular Expression Traps using s for another example
            of this new feature...

       ·    Bitwise string ops

            When bitwise operators which can operate upon either numbers or strings ("& | ^ ~")
            are given only strings as arguments, perl4 would treat the operands as bitstrings so
            long as the program contained a call to the "vec()" function. perl5 treats the string
            operands as bitstrings.  (See "Bitwise String Operators" in perlop for more details.)

                $fred = "10";
                $barney = "12";
                $betty = $fred & $barney;
                print "$betty\n";
                # Uncomment the next line to change perl4's behavior
                # ($dummy) = vec("dummy", 0, 0);

                # Perl4 prints:

                # Perl5 prints:

                # If vec() is used anywhere in the program, both print:

   General data type traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps involving most data-types, and their usage within certain expressions
       and/or context.

       ·    Negative array subscripts now count from the end of array

            Negative array subscripts now count from the end of the array.

                @a = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
                print "The third element of the array is $a[3] also expressed as $a[-2] \n";

                # perl4 prints: The third element of the array is 4 also expressed as
                # perl5 prints: The third element of the array is 4 also expressed as 4

       ·    Setting $#array lower now discards array elements

            Setting $#array lower now discards array elements, and makes them impossible to

                @a = (a,b,c,d,e);
                print "Before: ",join('',@a);
                $#a =1;
                print ", After: ",join('',@a);
                $#a =3;
                print ", Recovered: ",join('',@a),"\n";

                # perl4 prints: Before: abcde, After: ab, Recovered: abcd
                # perl5 prints: Before: abcde, After: ab, Recovered: ab

       ·    Hashes get defined before use

            Hashes get defined before use

                die "scalar \$s defined" if defined($s);
                die "array \@a defined" if defined(@a);
                die "hash \%h defined" if defined(%h);

                # perl4 prints:
                # perl5 dies: hash %h defined

            Perl will now generate a warning when it sees defined(@a) and defined(%h).

       ·    Glob assignment from localized variable to variable

            glob assignment from variable to variable will fail if the assigned variable is
            localized subsequent to the assignment

                @a = ("This is Perl 4");
                *b = *a;
                print @b,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: This is Perl 4
                # perl5 prints:

       ·    Assigning "undef" to glob

            Assigning "undef" to a glob has no effect in Perl 5.   In Perl 4 it undefines the
            associated scalar (but may have other side effects including SEGVs). Perl 5 will also
            warn if "undef" is assigned to a typeglob. (Note that assigning "undef" to a typeglob
            is different than calling the "undef" function on a typeglob ("undef *foo"), which
            has quite a few effects.

                $foo = "bar";
                *foo = undef;
                print $foo;

                # perl4 prints:
                # perl4 warns: "Use of uninitialized variable" if using -w
                # perl5 prints: bar
                # perl5 warns: "Undefined value assigned to typeglob" if using -w

       ·    Changes in unary negation (of strings)

            Changes in unary negation (of strings) This change effects both the return value and
            what it does to auto(magic)increment.

                $x = "aaa";
                print ++$x," : ";
                print -$x," : ";
                print ++$x,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: aab : -0 : 1
                # perl5 prints: aab : -aab : aac

       ·    Modifying of constants prohibited

            perl 4 lets you modify constants:

                $foo = "x";
                for ($x = 0; $x < 3; $x++) {
                sub mod {
                    print "before: $_[0]";
                    $_[0] = "m";
                    print "  after: $_[0]\n";

                # perl4:
                # before: x  after: m
                # before: a  after: m
                # before: m  after: m
                # before: m  after: m

                # Perl5:
                # before: x  after: m
                # Modification of a read-only value attempted at line 12.
                # before: a

       ·    "defined $var" behavior changed

            The behavior is slightly different for:

                print "$x", defined $x

                # perl 4: 1
                # perl 5: <no output, $x is not called into existence>

       ·    Variable Suicide

            Variable suicide behavior is more consistent under Perl 5.  Perl5 exhibits the same
            behavior for hashes and scalars, that perl4 exhibits for only scalars.

                $aGlobal{ "aKey" } = "global value";
                print "MAIN:", $aGlobal{"aKey"}, "\n";
                $GlobalLevel = 0;
                &test( *aGlobal );

                sub test {
                    local( *theArgument ) = @_;
                    local( %aNewLocal ); # perl 4 != 5.001l,m
                    $aNewLocal{"aKey"} = "this should never appear";
                    print "SUB: ", $theArgument{"aKey"}, "\n";
                    $aNewLocal{"aKey"} = "level $GlobalLevel";   # what should print
                    if( $GlobalLevel<4 ) {
                        &test( *aNewLocal );

                # Perl4:
                # MAIN:global value
                # SUB: global value
                # SUB: level 0
                # SUB: level 1
                # SUB: level 2

                # Perl5:
                # MAIN:global value
                # SUB: global value
                # SUB: this should never appear
                # SUB: this should never appear
                # SUB: this should never appear

   Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
       ·    Elements of argument lists for formats evaluated in list context

            The elements of argument lists for formats are now evaluated in list context.  This
            means you can interpolate list values now.

                @fmt = ("foo","bar","baz");
                format STDOUT=
                @<<<<< @||||| @>>>>>

                # perl4 errors:  Please use commas to separate fields in file
                # perl5 prints: foo     bar      baz

       ·    "caller()" returns false value in scalar context if no caller present

            The "caller()" function now returns a false value in a scalar context if there is no
            caller.  This lets library files determine if they're being required.

                caller() ? (print "You rang?\n") : (print "Got a 0\n");

                # perl4 errors: There is no caller
                # perl5 prints: Got a 0

       ·    Comma operator in scalar context gives scalar context to args

            The comma operator in a scalar context is now guaranteed to give a scalar context to
            its last argument. It gives scalar or void context to any preceding arguments,
            depending on circumstances.

                @y= ('a','b','c');
                $x = (1, 2, @y);
                print "x = $x\n";

                # Perl4 prints:  x = c   # Interpolates array @y into the list
                # Perl5 prints:  x = 3   # Evaluates array @y in scalar context

       ·    "sprintf()" prototyped as "($;@)"

            "sprintf()" is prototyped as ($;@), so its first argument is given scalar context.
            Thus, if passed an array, it will probably not do what you want, unlike Perl 4:

                @z = ('%s%s', 'foo', 'bar');
                $x = sprintf(@z);
                print $x;

                # perl4 prints: foobar
                # perl5 prints: 3

            "printf()" works the same as it did in Perl 4, though:

                @z = ('%s%s', 'foo', 'bar');
                printf STDOUT (@z);

                # perl4 prints: foobar
                # perl5 prints: foobar

   Precedence Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps involving precedence order.

       Perl 4 has almost the same precedence rules as Perl 5 for the operators that they both
       have.  Perl 4 however, seems to have had some inconsistencies that made the behavior
       differ from what was documented.

       ·    LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator

            LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator.  LHS is evaluated first in perl4, second in
            perl5; this can affect the relationship between side-effects in sub-expressions.

                @arr = ( 'left', 'right' );
                $a{shift @arr} = shift @arr;
                print join( ' ', keys %a );

                # perl4 prints: left
                # perl5 prints: right

       ·    Semantic errors introduced due to precedence

            These are now semantic errors because of precedence:

                @list = (1,2,3,4,5);
                %map = ("a",1,"b",2,"c",3,"d",4);
                $n = shift @list + 2;   # first item in list plus 2
                print "n is $n, ";
                $m = keys %map + 2;     # number of items in hash plus 2
                print "m is $m\n";

                # perl4 prints: n is 3, m is 6
                # perl5 errors and fails to compile

       ·    Precedence of assignment operators same as the precedence of assignment

            The precedence of assignment operators is now the same as the precedence of
            assignment.  Perl 4 mistakenly gave them the precedence of the associated operator.
            So you now must parenthesize them in expressions like

                /foo/ ? ($a += 2) : ($a -= 2);


                /foo/ ? $a += 2 : $a -= 2

            would be erroneously parsed as

                (/foo/ ? $a += 2 : $a) -= 2;

            On the other hand,

                $a += /foo/ ? 1 : 2;

            now works as a C programmer would expect.

       ·    "open" requires parentheses around filehandle

                open FOO || die;

            is now incorrect.  You need parentheses around the filehandle.  Otherwise, perl5
            leaves the statement as its default precedence:

                open(FOO || die);

                # perl4 opens or dies
                # perl5 opens FOO, dying only if 'FOO' is false, i.e. never

       ·    $: precedence over $:: gone

            perl4 gives the special variable, $: precedence, where perl5 treats $:: as main

                $a = "x"; print "$::a";

                # perl 4 prints: -:a
                # perl 5 prints: x

       ·    Precedence of file test operators documented

            perl4 had buggy precedence for the file test operators vis-a-vis the assignment
            operators.  Thus, although the precedence table for perl4 leads one to believe "-e
            $foo .= "q"" should parse as "((-e $foo) .= "q")", it actually parses as "(-e ($foo
            .= "q"))".  In perl5, the precedence is as documented.

                -e $foo .= "q"

                # perl4 prints: no output
                # perl5 prints: Can't modify -e in concatenation

       ·    "keys", "each", "values" are regular named unary operators

            In perl4, keys(), each() and values() were special high-precedence operators that
            operated on a single hash, but in perl5, they are regular named unary operators.  As
            documented, named unary operators have lower precedence than the arithmetic and
            concatenation operators "+ - .", but the perl4 variants of these operators actually
            bind tighter than "+ - .".  Thus, for:

                %foo = 1..10;
                print keys %foo - 1

                # perl4 prints: 4
                # perl5 prints: Type of arg 1 to keys must be hash (not subtraction)

            The perl4 behavior was probably more useful, if less consistent.

   General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
       All types of RE traps.

       ·    "s'$lhs'$rhs'" interpolates on either side

            "s'$lhs'$rhs'" now does no interpolation on either side.  It used to interpolate $lhs
            but not $rhs.  (And still does not match a literal '$' in string)

                $string = '1 2 $a $b';
                $string =~ s'$a'$b';
                print $string,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: $b 2 $a $b
                # perl5 prints: 1 2 $a $b

       ·    "m//g" attaches its state to the searched string

            "m//g" now attaches its state to the searched string rather than the regular
            expression.  (Once the scope of a block is left for the sub, the state of the
            searched string is lost)

                $_ = "ababab";
                sub doit{local($_) = shift; print "Got $_ "}

                # perl4 prints: Got blah Got blah Got blah Got blah
                # perl5 prints: infinite loop blah...

       ·    "m//o" used within an anonymous sub

            Currently, if you use the "m//o" qualifier on a regular expression within an
            anonymous sub, all closures generated from that anonymous sub will use the regular
            expression as it was compiled when it was used the very first time in any such
            closure.  For instance, if you say

                sub build_match {
                    my($left,$right) = @_;
                    return sub { $_[0] =~ /$left stuff $right/o; };
                $good = build_match('foo','bar');
                $bad = build_match('baz','blarch');
                print $good->('foo stuff bar') ? "ok\n" : "not ok\n";
                print $bad->('baz stuff blarch') ? "ok\n" : "not ok\n";
                print $bad->('foo stuff bar') ? "not ok\n" : "ok\n";

            For most builds of Perl5, this will print: ok not ok not ok

            build_match() will always return a sub which matches the contents of $left and $right
            as they were the first time that build_match() was called, not as they are in the
            current call.

       ·    $+ isn't set to whole match

            If no parentheses are used in a match, Perl4 sets $+ to the whole match, just like
            $&. Perl5 does not.

                "abcdef" =~ /b.*e/;
                print "\$+ = $+\n";

                # perl4 prints: bcde
                # perl5 prints:

       ·    Substitution now returns null string if it fails

            substitution now returns the null string if it fails

                $string = "test";
                $value = ($string =~ s/foo//);
                print $value, "\n";

                # perl4 prints: 0
                # perl5 prints:

            Also see "Numerical Traps" for another example of this new feature.

       ·    "s`lhs`rhs`" is now a normal substitution

            "s`lhs`rhs`" (using backticks) is now a normal substitution, with no backtick

                $string = "";
                $string =~ s`^`hostname`;
                print $string, "\n";

                # perl4 prints: <the local hostname>
                # perl5 prints: hostname

       ·    Stricter parsing of variables in regular expressions

            Stricter parsing of variables used in regular expressions


                # perl4: compiles w/o error
                # perl5: with Scalar found where operator expected ..., near "$opt$plus"

            an added component of this example, apparently from the same script, is the actual
            value of the s'd string after the substitution.  "[$opt]" is a character class in
            perl4 and an array subscript in perl5

                $grpc = 'a';
                $opt  = 'r';
                $_ = 'bar';

                # perl4 prints: foo
                # perl5 prints: foobar

       ·    "m?x?" matches only once

            Under perl5, "m?x?" matches only once, like "?x?". Under perl4, it matched
            repeatedly, like "/x/" or "m!x!".

                $test = "once";
                sub match { $test =~ m?once?; }
                if( &match() ) {
                    # m?x? matches more then once
                    print "perl4\n";
                } else {
                    # m?x? matches only once
                    print "perl5\n";

                # perl4 prints: perl4
                # perl5 prints: perl5

       ·    Failed matches don't reset the match variables

            Unlike in Ruby, failed matches in Perl do not reset the match variables ($1, $2, ...,
            "$`", ...).

   Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
       The general group of Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with Signals, Sorting, and their
       related subroutines, as well as general subroutine traps.  Includes some OS-Specific

       ·    Barewords that used to look like strings look like subroutine calls

            Barewords that used to look like strings to Perl will now look like subroutine calls
            if a subroutine by that name is defined before the compiler sees them.

                sub SeeYa { warn"Hasta la vista, baby!" }
                $SIG{'TERM'} = SeeYa;
                print "SIGTERM is now $SIG{'TERM'}\n";

                # perl4 prints: SIGTERM is now main'SeeYa
                # perl5 prints: SIGTERM is now main::1 (and warns "Hasta la vista, baby!")

            Use -w to catch this one

       ·    Reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine

            reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine.

                sub reverse{ print "yup "; $a <=> $b }
                print sort reverse (2,1,3);

                # perl4 prints: yup yup 123
                # perl5 prints: 123
                # perl5 warns (if using -w): Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::reverse()

       ·    "warn()" won't let you specify a filehandle.

            Although it _always_ printed to STDERR, warn() would let you specify a filehandle in
            perl4.  With perl5 it does not.

                warn STDERR "Foo!";

                # perl4 prints: Foo!
                # perl5 prints: String found where operator expected

   OS Traps
       ·    SysV resets signal handler correctly

            Under HPUX, and some other SysV OSes, one had to reset any signal handler, within
            the signal handler function, each time a signal was handled with perl4.  With perl5,
            the reset is now done correctly.  Any code relying on the handler _not_ being reset
            will have to be reworked.

            Since version 5.002, Perl uses sigaction() under SysV.

                sub gotit {
                    print "Got @_... ";
                $SIG{'INT'} = 'gotit';

                $| = 1;
                $pid = fork;
                if ($pid) {
                    kill('INT', $pid);
                    kill('INT', $pid);
                } else {
                    while (1) {sleep(10);}

                # perl4 (HPUX) prints: Got INT...
                # perl5 (HPUX) prints: Got INT... Got INT...

       ·    SysV "seek()" appends correctly

            Under SysV OSes, "seek()" on a file opened to append ">>" now does the right thing
            w.r.t. the fopen() manpage. e.g., - When a file is opened for append,  it  is
            impossible to overwrite information already in the file.

                $start = tell TEST;
                foreach(1 .. 9){
                    print TEST "$_ ";
                $end = tell TEST;
                print TEST "18 characters here";

                # perl4 (solaris) seek.test has: 18 characters here
                # perl5 (solaris) seek.test has: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18 characters here

   Interpolation Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with how things get interpolated within certain
       expressions, statements, contexts, or whatever.

       ·    "@" always interpolates an array in double-quotish strings

            @ now always interpolates an array in double-quotish strings.

                print "To:\n";

                # perl4 prints:
                # perl < 5.6.1, error : In string, @somewhere now must be written as \@somewhere
                # perl >= 5.6.1, warning : Possible unintended interpolation of @somewhere in string

       ·    Double-quoted strings may no longer end with an unescaped $

            Double-quoted strings may no longer end with an unescaped $.

                $foo = "foo$";
                print "foo is $foo\n";

                # perl4 prints: foo is foo$
                # perl5 errors: Final $ should be \$ or $name

            Note: perl5 DOES NOT error on the terminating @ in $bar

       ·    Arbitrary expressions are evaluated inside braces within double quotes

            Perl now sometimes evaluates arbitrary expressions inside braces that occur within
            double quotes (usually when the opening brace is preceded by "$" or "@").

                @www = "buz";
                $foo = "foo";
                $bar = "bar";
                sub foo { return "bar" };
                print "|@{w.w.w}|${main'foo}|";

                # perl4 prints: |@{w.w.w}|foo|
                # perl5 prints: |buz|bar|

            Note that you can "use strict;" to ward off such trappiness under perl5.

       ·    $$x now tries to dereference $x

            The construct "this is $$x" used to interpolate the pid at that point, but now tries
            to dereference $x.  $$ by itself still works fine, however.

                $s = "a reference";
                $x = *s;
                print "this is $$x\n";

                # perl4 prints: this is XXXx   (XXX is the current pid)
                # perl5 prints: this is a reference

       ·    Creation of hashes on the fly with "eval "EXPR"" requires protection

            Creation of hashes on the fly with "eval "EXPR"" now requires either both "$"'s to be
            protected in the specification of the hash name, or both curlies to be protected.  If
            both curlies are protected, the result will be compatible with perl4 and perl5.  This
            is a very common practice, and should be changed to use the block form of "eval{}"
            if possible.

                $hashname = "foobar";
                $key = "baz";
                $value = 1234;
                eval "\$$hashname{'$key'} = q|$value|";
                (defined($foobar{'baz'})) ?  (print "Yup") : (print "Nope");

                # perl4 prints: Yup
                # perl5 prints: Nope


                eval "\$$hashname{'$key'} = q|$value|";


                eval "\$\$hashname{'$key'} = q|$value|";

            causes the following result:

                # perl4 prints: Nope
                # perl5 prints: Yup

            or, changing to

                eval "\$$hashname\{'$key'\} = q|$value|";

            causes the following result:

                # perl4 prints: Yup
                # perl5 prints: Yup
                # and is compatible for both versions

       ·    Bugs in earlier perl versions

            perl4 programs which unconsciously rely on the bugs in earlier perl versions.

                perl -e '$bar=q/not/; print "This is $foo{$bar} perl5"'

                # perl4 prints: This is not perl5
                # perl5 prints: This is perl5

       ·    Array and hash brackets during interpolation

            You also have to be careful about array and hash brackets during interpolation.

                print "$foo["

                perl 4 prints: [
                perl 5 prints: syntax error

                print "$foo{"

                perl 4 prints: {
                perl 5 prints: syntax error

            Perl 5 is expecting to find an index or key name following the respective brackets,
            as well as an ending bracket of the appropriate type.  In order to mimic the behavior
            of Perl 4, you must escape the bracket like so.

                print "$foo\[";
                print "$foo\{";

       ·    Interpolation of "\$$foo{bar}"

            Similarly, watch out for: "\$$foo{bar}"

                $foo = "baz";
                print "\$$foo{bar}\n";

                # perl4 prints: $baz{bar}
                # perl5 prints: $

            Perl 5 is looking for $foo{bar} which doesn't exist, but perl 4 is happy just to
            expand $foo to "baz" by itself.  Watch out for this especially in "eval"'s.

       ·    "qq()" string passed to "eval" will not find string terminator

            "qq()" string passed to "eval"

                eval qq(
                    foreach \$y (keys %\$x\) {

                # perl4 runs this ok
                # perl5 prints: Can't find string terminator ")"

   DBM Traps
       General DBM traps.

       ·    Perl5 must have been linked with same dbm/ndbm as the default for "dbmopen()"

            Existing dbm databases created under perl4 (or any other dbm/ndbm tool) may cause the
            same script, run under perl5, to fail.  The build of perl5 must have been linked with
            the same dbm/ndbm as the default for "dbmopen()" to function properly without
            "tie"'ing to an extension dbm implementation.

                dbmopen (%dbm, "file", undef);
                print "ok\n";

                # perl4 prints: ok
                # perl5 prints: ok (IFF linked with -ldbm or -lndbm)

       ·    DBM exceeding limit on the key/value size will cause perl5 to exit immediately

            Existing dbm databases created under perl4 (or any other dbm/ndbm tool) may cause the
            same script, run under perl5, to fail.  The error generated when exceeding the limit
            on the key/value size will cause perl5 to exit immediately.

                dbmopen(DB, "testdb",0600) || die "couldn't open db! $!";
                $DB{'trap'} = "x" x 1024;  # value too large for most dbm/ndbm
                print "YUP\n";

                # perl4 prints:
                dbm store returned -1, errno 28, key "trap" at - line 3.

                # perl5 prints:
                dbm store returned -1, errno 28, key "trap" at - line 3.

   Unclassified Traps
       Everything else.

       ·    "require"/"do" trap using returned value

            If the file has:

                sub foo {
                    $rc = do "./";
                    return 8;
                print &foo, "\n";

            And the file has the following single line:

                return 3;

            Running gives the following:

                # perl 4 prints: 3 (aborts the subroutine early)
                # perl 5 prints: 8

            Same behavior if you replace "do" with "require".

       ·    "split" on empty string with LIMIT specified

                $string = '';
                @list = split(/foo/, $string, 2)

            Perl4 returns a one element list containing the empty string but Perl5 returns an
            empty list.

       As always, if any of these are ever officially declared as bugs, they'll be fixed and