Provided by: pcp_3.5.11_amd64 bug


       pmie - inference engine for performance metrics


       pmie  [-bCdefHVvWxz]  [-A  align]  [-a  archive]  [-c filename] [-h host] [-l logfile] [-j
       stompfile] [-n pmnsfile] [-O  offset]  [-S  starttime]  [-T  endtime]  [-t  interval]  [-Z
       timezone] [filename ...]


       pmie  accepts a collection of arithmetic, logical, and rule expressions to be evaluated at
       specified frequencies.  The base data for the expressions consists of performance  metrics
       values  delivered  in  real-time  from any host running the Performance Metrics Collection
       Daemon (PMCD), or using historical data from Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) archive logs.

       As well as computing arithmetic and  logical  values,  pmie  can  execute  actions  (popup
       alarms,  write  system  log  messages,  and  launch  programs)  in  response  to specified
       conditions.  Such actions are extremely useful in  detecting,  monitoring  and  correcting
       performance related problems.

       The expressions to be evaluated are read from configuration files specified by one or more
       filename arguments.  In the absence of any filename, expressions are  read  from  standard

       A description of the command line options specific to pmie follows:

       -a   archive  is  the  base  name  of  a PCP archive log written by pmlogger(1).  Multiple
            instances of the -a flag may appear on the command line to specify a set of archives.
            In  this  case,  it  is  required  that only one archive be present for any one host.
            Also, any explicit host names occurring in a pmie expression must match the host name
            recorded  in one of the archive labels.  In the case of multiple archives, timestamps
            recorded in the archives are used to ensure temporal consistency.

       -b   Output will be line buffered and standard output is attached to standard error.  This
            is  most  useful  for background execution in conjunction with the -l option.  The -b
            option is always used for pmie instances launched from pmie_check(1).

       -C   Parse the configuration file(s) and exit  before  performing  any  evaluations.   Any
            errors in the configuration file are reported.

       -c   An alternative to specifying filename at the end of the command line.

       -d   Normally  pmie  would  be launched as a non-interactive process to monitor and manage
            the performance of one or more hosts.   Given  the  -d  flag  however,  execution  is
            interactive  and  the  user is presented with a menu of options.  Interactive mode is
            useful mainly for debugging new expressions.

       -e   When used with -V, -v or -W, this option forces timestamps to be reported  with  each
            expression.   The  timestamps  are  in  ctime(3)  format, enclosed in parenthesis and
            appear after the expression name and before the expression value, e.g.
                 expr_1 (Tue Feb  6 19:55:10 2001): 12

       -f   If the -l option is specified and there is no -a option  (ie.  real-time  monitoring)
            then  pmie is run as a daemon in the background (in all other cases foreground is the
            default).  The -f option forces pmie to be run in the foreground, independent of  any
            other options.

       -H   The  default  hostname  written  to  the  stats  file  will  not  be  looked  up  via
            gethostbyname(3), rather it will be written as-is.  This option can  be  useful  when
            host  name  aliases are in use at a site, and the logical name is more important than
            the physical host name.

       -h   By default performance data is fetched from the local host (in real-time mode) or the
            host  for  the  first  named archive on the command line (in archive mode).  The host
            argument overrides this default.  It does not override hosts explicitly named in  the
            expressions being evaluated.

       -l   Standard error is sent to logfile.

       -j   An alternative STOMP protocol configuration is loaded from stompfile.  If this option
            is not used, and the  stomp  action  is  used  in  any  rule,  the  default  location
            $PCP_VAR_DIR/pmie/config/stomp will be used.

       -n   An  alternative  Performance  Metrics  Name  Space  (PMNS)  is  loaded  from the file

       -t   The interval argument follows  the  syntax  described  in  PCPIntro(1),  and  in  the
            simplest  form  may  be  an  unsigned  integer  (the  implied  units in this case are
            seconds).  The value is used to determine the sample interval for expressions that do
            not  explicitly  set  their  sample  interval using the pmie variable delta described
            below.  The default is 10.0 seconds.

       -v   Unless one of the verbose  options  -V,  -v  or  -W  appears  on  the  command  line,
            expressions  are  evaluated  silently,  the only output is as a result of any actions
            being executed.  In the verbose mode, specified using the -v flag, the value of  each
            expression  is  printed as it is evaluated.  The values are in canonical units; bytes
            in the dimension of ``space'', seconds in the dimension of ``time'' and events in the
            dimension  of  ``count''.  See pmLookupDesc(3) for details of the supported dimension
            and scaling mechanisms for performance  metrics.   The  verbose  mode  is  useful  in
            monitoring  the  value  of given expressions, evaluating derived performance metrics,
            passing these values on to other tools for further processing and  in  debugging  new

       -V   This  option  has  the same effect as the -v option, except that the name of the host
            and instance (if applicable) are printed as well as expression values.

       -W   This option has the same effect as the -V option described  above,  except  that  for
            boolean  expressions,  only  those names and values that make the expression true are
            printed.  These are the same names and values accessible to rule actions as  the  %h,
            %i and %v bindings, as described below.

       -x   Execute  in  domain  agent  mode.   This mode is used within the Performance Co-Pilot
            product to derive values for summary metrics, see  pmdasummary(1).   Only  restricted
            functionality is available in this mode (expressions with actions may not be used).

       -Z   Change  the  reporting timezone to timezone in the format of the environment variable
            TZ as described in environ(5).

       -z   Change the reporting timezone to the timezone of the host that is the source  of  the
            performance  metrics,  as  identified  via  either  the  -h option or the first named
            archive (as described above for the -a option).

       The -S, -T, -O, and -A options may be used to define a time window to restrict the samples
       retrieved,  set  an  initial  origin  within  the  time  window,  or specify a ``natural''
       alignment of the sample times; refer to PCPIntro(1) for a complete  description  of  these

       Output from pmie is directed to standard output and standard error as follows:

            Expression values printed in the verbose -v mode and the output of print actions.

            Error  and  warning messages for any syntactic or semantic problems during expression
            parsing, and  any  semantic  or  performance  metrics  availability  problems  during
            expression evaluation.


       The  following  example  expressions demonstrate some of the capabilities of the inference

       The directory $PCP_DEMOS_DIR/pmie contains a number of other annotated  examples  of  pmie

       The  variable  delta  controls  expression  evaluation frequency.  Specify that subsequent
       expressions be evaluated once a second, until further notice:

            delta = 1 sec;

       If total syscall rate exceeds 5000 per second per CPU, then display an alarm notifier:

            kernel.all.syscall / hinv.ncpu > 5000 count/sec
            -> alarm "high syscall rate";

       If the high syscall rate is sustained for 10 consecutive samples, then launch top(1) in an
       xwsh(1G) window to monitor processes, but do this at most once every 5 minutes:

            all_sample (
                kernel.all.syscall @0..9 > 5000 count/sec * hinv.ncpu
            ) -> shell 5 min "xwsh -e 'top'";

       The following rules are evaluated once every 20 seconds:

            delta = 20 sec;

       If  any  disk is performing more than 60 I/Os per second, then print a message identifying
       the busy disk to standard output and launch dkvis(1):

            some_inst (
       > 60 count/sec
            ) -> print "disk %i busy " &
                 shell 5 min "dkvis";

       Refine the preceding rule to apply only between the hours of 9am and 5pm, and to require 3
       of 4 consecutive samples to exceed the threshold before executing the action:

            $hour >= 9 && $hour <= 17 &&
            some_inst (
              75 %_sample (
       @0..3 > 60 count/sec
            ) -> print "disk %i busy ";

       The following rules are evaluated once every 10 minutes:

            delta = 10 min;

       If  either the / or the /usr filesystem is more than 95% full, display an alarm popup, but
       not if it has already been displayed during the last 4 hours:

   #'/dev/root' /
                filesys.capacity #'/dev/root' < 0.05
            -> alarm 4 hour "root filesystem (almost) full";

   #'/dev/usr' /
                filesys.capacity #'/dev/usr' < 0.05
            -> alarm 4 hour "/usr filesystem (almost) full";

       The following rule requires a machine that supports the PCP environment metrics.   If  the
       machine environment temperature rises more than 2 degrees over a 10 minute interval, write
       an entry in the system log:

            environ.temp @0 - environ.temp @1 > 2
            -> alarm "temperature rising fast" &
               syslog "machine room temperature rise alarm";

       And last, something  interesting  if  you  have  performance  problems  with  your  Oracle

            db = "oracle.ptg1";
            host = "";
            lru = "#'cache buffers lru chain'";
            gets = "$db.latch.gets $host $lru";
            total = "$db.latch.gets $host $lru +
                     $db.latch.misses $host $lru +
                     $db.latch.immisses $host $lru";

            $total > 100 && $gets / $total < 0.2
            -> alarm "high lru latch contention";


       The pmie specification language is powerful and large.

       To  expedite rapid development of pmie rules, the pmieconf(1) tool provides a facility for
       generating a pmie configuration file from a set of generalized pmie rules.   The  supplied
       set of rules covers a wide range of performance scenarios.

       The  pmrules(1)  tool  provides  a  GUI-based  facility  for  generating  pmie  rules from
       parametrized templates.   The  supplied  templates  cover  a  wide  range  of  performance

       The  development  efforts  of the PCP engineering team are focused on pmieconf rather than
       pmrules, and thus pmieconf is the recommended  tool  for  quickly  deploying  useful  pmie

       The  Performance  Co-Pilot  User's and Administrator's Guide provides a detailed tutorial-
       style chapter covering pmie.


       This description is terse and informal.  For a  more  comprehensive  description  see  the
       Performance Co-Pilot User's and Administrator's Guide.

       A pmie specification is a sequence of semicolon terminated expressions.

       Basic  operators  are modeled on the arithmetic, relational and Boolean operators of the C
       programming language.  Precedence rules are as expected, although the use  of  parentheses
       is encouraged to enhance readability and remove ambiguity.

       Operands are performance metric names (see pmns(4)) and the normal literal constants.

       Operands  involving  performance  metrics  may  produce  sets  of  values,  as a result of
       enumeration in the dimensions of hosts, instances and time.  Special qualifiers may appear
       after a performance metric name to define the enumeration in each dimension.  For example,

           kernel.percpu.cpu.user :foo :bar #cpu0 @0..2

       defines  6  values  corresponding to the time spent executing in user mode on CPU 0 on the
       hosts ``foo'' and ``bar'' over the last 3 consecutive samples.  The default interpretation
       in  the  absence of : (host), # (instance) and @ (time) qualifiers is all instances at the
       most recent sample time for the default source of PCP performance metrics.

       Host and instance names that  do  not  follow  the  rules  for  variables  in  programming
       languages,  ie.  alphabetic  optionally  followed  by alphanumerics, should be enclosed in
       single quotes.

       Expression evaluation follows the law of ``least surprises''.  Where  performance  metrics
       have  the  semantics  of  a  counter, pmie will automatically convert to a rate based upon
       consecutive samples and the time interval between  these  samples.   All  expressions  are
       evaluated  in double precision, and where appropriate, automatically scaled into canonical
       units of ``bytes'', ``seconds'' and ``counts''.

       A rule is a special form of expression that specifies a condition or logical expression, a
       special operator (->) and actions to be performed when the condition is found to be true.

       The following table summarizes the basic pmie operators:

                     │   Operators    │                Explanation                 │
                     │+ - * /         │ Arithmetic                                 │
                     │< <= == >= > != │ Relational (value comparison)              │
                     │! && ||         │ Boolean                                    │
                     │->              │ Rule                                       │
                     │rising          │ Boolean, false to true transition          │
                     │falling         │ Boolean, true to false transition          │
                     │rate            │ Explicit rate conversion (rarely required) │
       Aggregate  operators  may  be used to aggregate or summarize along one dimension of a set-
       valued expression.  The following aggregate operators map from a logical expression  to  a
       logical expression of lower dimension.

                  │       Operators         │    Type     │       Explanation        │
                  │some_inst                │ Existential │ True if at least one set │
                  │some_host                │             │ member is true in the    │
                  │some_sample              │             │ associated dimension     │
                  │all_inst                 │ Universal   │ True if all set members  │
                  │all_host                 │             │ are true in the          │
                  │all_sample               │             │ associated dimension     │
                  │N%_inst                  │ Percentile  │ True if at least N       │
                  │N%_host                  │             │ percent of set members   │
                  │N%_sample                │             │ are true in the          │
                  │                         │             │ associated dimension     │
       The following instantial operators may be used to filter or  limit  a  set-valued  logical
       expression,  based  on  regular  expression  matching  of  instance  names.   The  logical
       expression must be a set involving the dimension of instances, and the regular  expression
       is of the form used by egrep(1) or the Extended Regular Expressions of regcomp(3G).

                       │ Operators   │               Explanation                │
                       │match_inst   │ For each value of the logical expression │
                       │             │ that is ``true'', the result is ``true'' │
                       │             │ if the associated instance name matches  │
                       │             │ the regular expression.  Otherwise the   │
                       │             │ result is ``false''.                     │
                       │nomatch_inst │ For each value of the logical expression │
                       │             │ that is ``true'', the result is ``true'' │
                       │             │ if the associated instance name does not │
                       │             │ match the regular expression.  Otherwise │
                       │             │ the result is ``false''.                 │
       For  example, the expression below will be ``true'' for disks attached to controllers 2 or
       3 performing more than 20 operations per second:
            match_inst "^dks[23]d" > 20;

       The following aggregate operators map from  an  arithmetic  expression  to  an  arithmetic
       expression of lower dimension.

                   │       Operators         │   Type    │       Explanation        │
                   │min_inst                 │ Extrema   │ Minimum value across all │
                   │min_host                 │           │ set members in the       │
                   │min_sample               │           │ associated dimension     │
                   │max_inst                 │ Extrema   │ Maximum value across all │
                   │max_host                 │           │ set members in the       │
                   │max_sample               │           │ associated dimension     │
                   │sum_inst                 │ Aggregate │ Sum of values across all │
                   │sum_host                 │           │ set members in the       │
                   │sum_sample               │           │ associated dimension     │
                   │avg_inst                 │ Aggregate │ Average value across all │
                   │avg_host                 │           │ set members in the       │
                   │avg_sample               │           │ associated dimension     │
       The  aggregate  operators  count_inst,  count_host  and  count_sample  map  from a logical
       expression to an arithmetic expression of lower dimension by counting the  number  of  set
       members for which the expression is true in the associated dimension.

       For action rules, the following actions are defined:

                          │Operators │              Explanation               │
                          │alarm     │ Raise a visible alarm with xconfirm(1) │
                          │print     │ Display on standard output             │
                          │shell     │ Execute with sh(1)                     │
                          │stomp     │ Send a STOMP message to a JMS server   │
                          │syslog    │ Append a message to system log file    │
       Multiple  actions  may  be  separated  by  the  &  and | operators to specify respectively
       sequential execution (both actions are  executed)  and  alternate  execution  (the  second
       action will only be executed if the execution of the first action returns a non-zero error

       Arguments to actions are an optional suppression time, and then one or more expressions (a
       string is an expression in this context).  Strings appearing as arguments to an action may
       include the following special selectors that will be replaced at the time  the  action  is

       %h  Host(s) that make the left-most top-level expression in the condition true.

       %i  Instance(s) that make the left-most top-level expression in the condition true.

       %v  Values(s) from the left-most top-level expression in the condition subject to the host
           and instance assignments that make the condition true.

       Note that expansion of the special selectors is done by repeating the whole argument  once
       for each unique binding to any of the qualifying special selectors.  For example if a rule
       were true for the host mumble with instances grunt and snort,  and  for  host  fumble  the
       instance puff makes the rule true, then the action
            -> shell myscript "Warning: %h-%i busy ";
       will  execute  myscript  with  the  argument  string  "Warning: mumble-grunt busy Warning:
       mumble-snort busy Warning: fumble-puff busy".

       By comparison, if the action
            -> shell myscript "'Warning! busy:" " %i@%h" "'";
       were executed under the same circumstances, then  myscript  would  be  executed  with  the
       argument string '"Warning! busy: grunt@mumble snort@mumble puff@fumble"'.

       The semantics of the expansion of the special selectors leads to a common usage, where one
       argument is a constant (contains no special selectors) the second  argument  contains  the
       desired  special  selectors  with  minimal  separator  characters,  and  an optional third
       argument provides a constant postscript (e.g. to terminate any argument quoting  from  the
       first argument).  If necessary post-processing (eg. in myscript) can provide the necessary
       enumeration over  each  unique  expansion  of  the  string  containing  just  the  special

       For  complex  conditions,  the bindings to these selectors is not obvious.  It is strongly
       recommended that pmie be used in the debugging mode (specify the -W command line option in
       particular) during rule development.


       Scale  factors  may  be appended to arithmetic expressions and force linear scaling of the
       value to canonical units.   Simple  scale  factors  are  constructed  from  the  keywords:
       nanosecond,  nanosec,  nsec,  microsecond,  microsec,  usec,  millisecond, millisec, msec,
       second, sec, minute, min, hour, byte, Kbyte, Mbyte, Gbyte, Tbyte, count,  Kcount,  Mcount,
       Gcount and Tcount, and the operator /, for example ``Kbytes / hour''.


       Macros are defined using expressions of the form:

            name = constexpr;

       Where name follows the normal rules for variables in programming languages, ie. alphabetic
       optionally followed by alphanumerics.  constexpr must be a constant expression,  either  a
       string  (enclosed  in  double quotes) or an arithmetic expression optionally followed by a
       scale factor.

       Macros are expanded when their name, prefixed by a dollar ($) appears  in  an  expression,
       and macros may be nested within a constexpr string.

       The following reserved macro names are understood.

       minute    Current minute of the hour.

       hour      Current hour of the day, in the range 0 to 23.

       day       Current day of the month, in the range 1 to 31.

       month     Current month of the year, in the range 0 (January) to 11 (December).

       year      Current year.

                 Current day of the week, in the range 0 (Sunday) to 6 (Saturday).

       delta     Sample interval in effect for this expression.

       Dates  and  times  are  presented in the reporting time zone (see description of -Z and -z
       command line options above).


       It is often useful for pmie processes to be started and stopped when  the  local  host  is
       booted  or  shutdown, or when they have been detected as no longer running (when they have
       unexpectedly exited for some reason).  Refer to pmie_check(1) for  details  on  automating
       this process.


       It  is common for production systems to be monitored in a central location.  Traditionally
       on UNIX systems this has been performed by the system log facilities - see logger(1),  and
       syslogd(1).   On  Windows,  communication  with  the  system  event log is handled by pcp-

       pmie fits into this model when rules use the syslog  action.   Note  that  if  the  action
       string  begins with -p (priority) and/or -t (tag) then these are extracted from the string
       and treated in the same way as in logger(1) and pcp-eventlog(1).

       However, it is common to have other event monitoring frameworks also, into which  you  may
       wish  to  incorporate performance events from pmie.  You can often use the shell action to
       send events to these frameworks, as they usually provide their  a  program  for  injecting
       events into the framework from external sources.

       A  final  option  is use of the stomp (Streaming Text Oriented Messaging Protocol) action,
       which allows pmie to connect to a central JMS (Java  Messaging  System)  server  and  send
       events to the PMIE topic.  Tools can be written to extract these text messages and present
       them to operations people (via desktop popup windows,  etc).   Use  of  the  stomp  action
       requires  a  stomp configuration file to be setup, which specifies the location of the JMS
       server host, port number, and username/password.

       The format of this file is as follows:

     # this is the JMS server (required)
            port=61616              # and its listening here (required)
            timeout=2               # seconds to wait for server (optional)
            username=joe            # (required)
            password=j03ST0MP       # (required)
            topic=PMIE              # JMS topic for pmie messages (optional)

       The  timeout  value  specifies  the  time  (in  seconds)  that  pmie   should   wait   for
       acknowledgements  from  the  JMS  server after sending a message (as required by the STOMP
       protocol).  Note that on startup, pmie will wait indefinately for a connection,  and  will
       not  begin rule evaluation until that initial connection has been established.  Should the
       connection to the JMS server be lost at any time while pmie is running, pmie will  attempt
       to reconnect on each subsequent truthful evaluation of a rule with a stomp action, but not
       more than once per minute.  This is to avoid contributing to network congestion.  In  this
       situation, where the STOMP connection to the JMS server has been severed, the stomp action
       will return a non-zero error value.


                 annotated example rules
                 default PMNS specification files
                 pmie maintains files in this directory to identify the  running  pmie  instances
                 and  to  export  runtime  information  about each instance - this data forms the
                 basis of the pmcd.pmie performance metrics
                 the default set of pmie instances to start at boot time - refer to pmie_check(1)
                 for details
                 the  predefined alarm action scripts (email, log, popup and syslog), the example
                 action script (sample)and the concurrent action  control  file  (control.master,
                 see also pmrules(1)).
                 common shell procedures for the predefined alarm action scripts


       The  lexical  scanner  and  parser  will  attempt  to  recover after an error in the input
       expressions.  Parsing resumes after skipping input up to the next semi-colon (;),  however
       during  this  skipping  process  the  scanner  is  ignorant of comments and strings, so an
       embedded semi-colon may cause parsing to resume at an unexpected place.  This behavior  is
       largely  benign, as until the initial syntax error is corrected, pmie will not attempt any
       expression evaluation.


       Environment variables with the prefix PCP_ are used to parameterize the file and directory
       names used by PCP.  On each installation, the file /etc/pcp.conf contains the local values
       for these variables.  The $PCP_CONF  variable  may  be  used  to  specify  an  alternative
       configuration file, as described in pcp.conf(4).






       PCPIntro(1),  pmcd(1),  pmdumplog(1),  pmieconf(1), pmie_check(1), pminfo(1), pmlogger(1),
       pmval(1), PMAPI(3), pcp.conf(4) and pcp.env(4).


       For a more complete description of the pmie language, refer to  the  Performance  Co-Pilot
       Users  and  Administrators Guide.  This is distributed in insight(1) format as part of the
       pcp.books subsystem, or in HTML format from: