Provided by: netpbm_10.0-15_amd64 bug


       ppmshadow - add simulated shadows to a portable pixmap image


       ppmshadow [-b blur_size] [-k] [-t] [-x xoffset] [-y yoffset] [-u] [pnmfile]


       ppmshadow  adds a simulated shadow to an image, giving the appearance that the contents of
       the image float above the page, casting a diffuse shadow on the background.   Shadows  can
       either  be black, as cast by opaque objects, or translucent, where the shadow takes on the
       colour of the object which casts it.  You can specify the extent of  the  shadow  and  its
       displacement from the image with command line options.


       -b blur_size

              Sets the distance of the light source from the image.  Larger values move the light
              source closer, casting a more diffuse shadow, while smaller settings move the light
              further away, yielding a sharper shadow.  blur_size defaults to 11 pixels.

       -k     Keep  the  intermediate  temporary image files.  When debugging, these intermediate
              files provide many clues as to the source of an error.  See FILES below for a  list
              of the contents of each file.

       -t     Consider  the  non-background material in the image translucent -- it casts shadows
              of its own colour rather than a black shadow, which is default.  This often results
              in fuzzy, difficult-to-read images but in some circumstances may look better.

       -u     Print command syntax and a summary of options.

       -x xoffset
              Specifies  the  displacement  of the light source to the left of the image.  Larger
              settings of xoffset displace the shadow to the right, as would be cast by  a  light
              further  to the left.  If not specified, the horizontal offset is half of blur_size
              (above), to the left.

       -y yoffset
              Specifies the displacement of the light source above the top of the image.   Larger
              settings  displace  the  shadow downward, corresponding to moving the light further
              above the top of the image.  If you don't specify -y, the vertical offset  defaults
              to the same as the horizontal offset (above), upward.


       Input  is  an  anymap  named  by  the  pnmfile command line argument; if you don't specify
       pnmfile, the input is the Standard Input file.

       Output is a always a PPM file, written to Standard Output.

       pnmfile creates a number of temporary files as it executes.  It creates them in  the  /tmp
       directory, with names of the form:


       where pid is the process number of the ppmshadow process and N is a number identifying the
       file as described below.  In normal operation, ppmshadow deletes temporary files  as  soon
       as  it  is done with them and leaves no debris around after it completes.  To preserve the
       intermediate files for debugging, use the -k command line option.

       N in the filename means:

       1      Positive binary mask

       2      Convolution kernel for blurring shadow

       3      Blurred shadow image

       4      Clipped shadow image, offset as requested

       5      Blank image with background of source image

       6      Offset shadow

       7      Inverse mask file

       8      Original image times inverse mask

       9      Generated shadow times positive mask

       10     Shadow times background colour


       The source image must contain sufficient space on the edges in the direction in which  the
       shadow is cast to contain the shadow -- if it doesn't some of the internal steps may fail.
       You can usually expand the border of a too-tightly-cropped  image  with  pnmmargin  before
       processing it with ppmshadow.

       Black  pixels  and pixels with the same color as the image background don't cast a shadow.
       If this causes unintentional "holes" in the shadow, fill the offending areas with a  color
       which differs from black or the background by RGB values of 1, which will be imperceptible
       to the viewer.  Since the comparison is exact, the modified areas will now cast shadows.

       The background color of the source image (which is preserved in the output) is  deemed  to
       be the color of the pixel at the top left of the input image.  If that pixel isn't part of
       the background, simply add a one-pixel border at the top of the image, generate the shadow
       image, then delete the border from it.

       If something goes wrong along the way, the error messages from the various Netpbm programs
       ppmshadow calls will, in general, provide little or no clue as  to  where  ppmshadow  went
       astray.   In  this case, Specify the -k option and examine the intermediate results in the
       temporary files (which this option causes to be  preserved).   If  you  manually  run  the
       commands  that ppmshadow runs on these files, you can figure out where the problem is.  In
       problem cases where you want to manually tweak the image generation process along the way,
       you  can keep the intermediate files with the -k option, modify them appropriately with an
       image editor, then recombine them with the steps used by the code in ppmshadow.   See  the
       ppmshadow.doc document for additional details and examples of the intermediate files.

       Shadows  are  by  default  black,  as cast by opaque material in the image occluding white
       light.  Use the -t option to simulate translucent material, where the shadow takes on  the
       colour  of  the object that casts it.  If the contrast between the image and background is
       insufficient, the -t option may yield unattractive results which resemble simple  blurring
       of the original image.

       Because  Netpbm  used  to  have  a  maximum  maxval  of  255, which meant that the largest
       convolution kernel pnmconvol could use was 11 by 11, ppmshadow  includes  a  horrid,  CPU-
       time-burning  kludge which, if a blur of greater than 11 is requested, performs an initial
       convolution with an 11×11 kernel, then calls pnmsmooth (which is actually  a  script  that
       calls  pnmconvol  with a 3×3 kernel) as many times as the requested blur exceeds 11.  It's
       ugly, but it gets the job done on those rare occasions where you need a blur greater  than

       If  you  wish  to  generate an image at high resolution, then scale it to publication size
       with pnmscale in order to eliminate jagged edges by resampling, it's best to generate  the
       shadow  in  the  original high resolution image, prior to scaling it down in size.  If you
       scale first and then add the shadow, you'll get an unsightly  jagged  stripe  between  the
       edge  of  material  and its shadow, due to resampled pixels intermediate between the image
       and background obscuring the shadow.


       ppmshadow returns status 0 if processing was completed without errors, and a nonzero  Unix
       error  code  if  an  error  prevented generation of output.  Some errors may result in the
       script aborting, usually displaying error messages from various Netpbm components it uses,
       without returning a nonzero error code.  When this happens, the output file will be empty,
       so be sure to test this if you need to know if the program succeeded.


       pnm(5), pnmmargin(1), pnmconvol(1), pnmscale(1), pnmsmooth(1), ppm(5)


       John Walker <> August 8, 1997


       This software is in the public domain.  Permission to use, copy,  modify,  and  distribute
       this  software  and  its  documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
       without any conditions or restrictions.

                                          12 March 2000                              ppmshadow(1)