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#### NAME

tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

#### SYNOPSIS

tex [options] [& format ] [ file | \ commands ]

#### DESCRIPTION

Run the TeX typesetter on file, usually creating file.dvi.  If the file
argument has no extension, ".tex" will be appended to it.  Instead of a
filename,  a  set of TeX commands can be given, the first of which must
start with a backslash.  With a &format argument TeX uses  a  different
set  of  precompiled  commands,  contained in format.fmt; it is usually
better to use the -fmt format option instead.

TeX formats the interspersed text and commands contained in  the  named
files  and  outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI, which is
short for DeVice Independent).  TeX's  capabilities  and  language  are
described  in The TeX for nroffbook.  TeX is normally used with a large
body of precompiled macros, and there are several  specific  formatting
systems,  such  as  LaTeX,  which  require the support of several macro
files.

This version of TeX looks at its command line to see what name  it  was
called  under.  If they exist, then both initex and virtex are symbolic
links to the tex executable.  When called as initex (or when  the  -ini
option  is given) it can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt file.
When called as virtex it will use the plain format.  When called  under
any  other  name,  TeX  will use that name as the name of the format to
use.  For example, when called as tex the tex format is used, which  is
identical  to  the  plain  format.   The  commands defined by the plain
format are documented in The TeX for nroffbook.  Other formats that are
often available include latex and amstex.

The  non-option command line arguments to the TeX program are passed to
it as the first input line.  (But it is often easier to  type  extended
arguments  as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up
or misinterpret TeX's favorite symbols, like  backslashes,  unless  you
quote  them.)   As  described in The TeX for nroffbook, that first line
should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'',
and is used in forming output filenames.  If TeX doesn't get a filename
in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
looks  for  the  name  with  and  without  the default extension (.tex)
appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is
the  ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail than
normally appears on the screen,  will  appear  in  paper.log,  and  the
output file will be in paper.dvi.

This version of TeX can look in the first line of the file paper.tex to
see if it begins with the magic sequence %&.  If the first line  begins
with  %&format  -translate-file tcxname  then  TeX  will  use the named
format and translation  table  tcxname  to  process  the  source  file.
Either  the  format  name  or  the -translate-file specification may be
omitted, but not both.  This overrides the format  selection  based  on
the name by which the program is invoked.  The -parse-first-line option
or the parse_first_line configuration variable  controls  whether  this
behaviour is enabled.

The  e  response to TeX's error prompt causes the system default editor
to start up at the current line of the current file.   The  environment
variable TEXEDIT can be used to change the editor used.  It may contain
a string  with  "%s"  indicating  where  the  filename  goes  and  "%d"
indicating where the decimal line number (if any) goes.  For example, a
TEXEDIT string for emacs can be set with the sh command
TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

A convenient file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When
TeX  can't find a file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking you
for another filename; responding `null' gets you out of the loop if you
don't  want  to  input  anything.  You can also type your EOF character
(usually control-D).

#### OPTIONS

This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

-enc   Enable the encTeX extensions.  This option is only effective  in
combination   with   -ini.   For  documentation  of  the  encTeX
extensions see http://www.olsak.net/enctex.html.

-file-line-error
Print error  messages  in  the  form  file:line:error  which  is
similar to the way many compilers format them.

-no-file-line-error
Disable printing error messages in the file:line:error style.

-file-line-error-style
This is the old name of the -file-line-error option.

-fmt format
Use  format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the
name by which TeX was called or a %& line.

-halt-on-error
Exit with an error code when  an  error  is  encountered  during
processing.

-help  Print help message and exit.

-ini   Start  in INI mode, which is used to dump formats.  The INI mode
can be used for typesetting, but no  format  is  preloaded,  and
basic initializations like setting catcodes may be required.

-interaction mode
Sets  the  interaction  mode.  The mode can be either batchmode,
nonstopmode, scrollmode,  and  errorstopmode.   The  meaning  of
these modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

-ipc   Send  DVI  output  to a socket as well as the usual output file.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-ipc-start
As -ipc, and starts  the  server  at  the  other  end  as  well.
Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

-jobname name
Use  name for the job name, instead of deriving it from the name
of the input file.

Sets path searching debugging flags according  to  the  bitmask.
See the Kpathsea manual for details.

-mktex fmt
Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-mltex Enable  MLTeX  extensions.   Only  effective in combination with
-ini.

-no-mktex fmt
Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

-output-comment string
Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

-output-directory directory
Write  output  files  in  directory  instead  of   the   current
directory.   Look  up input files in directory first, then along
environment variable.

-parse-first-line
If the first line of the main input file begins with %& parse it
to look for a dump name or a -translate-file option.

-no-parse-first-line
Disable parsing of the first line of the main input file.

-progname name
Pretend to be program name.  This affects both the  format  used
and the search paths.

-recorder
Enable  the filename recorder.  This leaves a trace of the files
opened for input and output in a file with extension .fls.

-shell-escape
Enable the \write18{command} construct.  The command can be  any
shell  command.   This  construct  is  normally  disallowed  for
security reasons.

-no-shell-escape
Disable the \write18{command} construct, even if it  is  enabled
in the texmf.cnf file.

-src-specials
Insert source specials into the DVI file.

-src-specials where
Insert source specials in certain places of the DVI file.  where
is a comma-separated value list: cr, display, hbox,  math,  par,
parent, or vbox.

-translate-file tcxname
Use  the  tcxname  translation table to set the mapping of input
characters and re-mapping of output characters.

-default-translate-file tcxname
Like -translate-file except that a %&  line  can  overrule  this
setting.

-version
Print version information and exit.

#### ENVIRONMENT

See  the  Kpathsearch  library documentation (the `Path specifications'
node) for precise details of how the environment  variables  are  used.
The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of the variables.

One  caveat:  In  most  TeX formats, you cannot use ~ in a filename you
give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active character,  and  hence  is
expanded,  not  taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as
Metafont, do not have this problem.

TEXMFOUTPUT
Normally, TeX puts its output files in  the  current  directory.
If  any  output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it
in  the  directory  specified  in   the   environment   variable
TEXMFOUTPUT.   There is no default value for that variable.  For
example, if you say tex paper and the current directory  is  not
writable,  if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the value /tmp, TeX attempts to
create /tmp/paper.log (and  /tmp/paper.dvi,  if  any  output  is
produced.)

TEXINPUTS
Search  path for \input and \openin files.  This should probably
files.   An empty path component will be replaced with the paths
defined in the texmf.cnf file.  For example,  set  TEXINPUTS  to
".:/home/usr/tex:"   to   prepend   the  current  directory  and
``/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

TEXFORMATS
Search path for format files.

TEXPOOL
search path for tex internal strings.

TEXEDIT
Command template for switching to editor.  The default,  usually
vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

TFMFONTS
Search path for font metric (.tfm) files.

#### FILES

The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.
Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

texmf.cnf
Configuration file.  This contains definitions of  search  paths
as well as other configuration parameters like parse_first_line.

tex.pool
Text file containing TeX's internal strings.

texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

*.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

*.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

\$TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in the TeX for nroffbook.

#### NOTES

This  manual  page  is  not  meant  to  be  exhaustive.   The  complete
documentation for this version of TeX can be found in the  info  manual
Web2C: A TeX implementation.

#### BUGS

This  version  of  TeX  implements a number of optional extensions.  In
fact, many of these extensions conflict to a greater or  lesser  extent
with  the  definition  of  TeX.   When such extensions are enabled, the
banner printed when TeX starts is changed to print TeXk instead of TeX.

This version of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow  when  dimensions
are added or subtracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it
does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

#### SEEALSO

mf(1),
Donald E. Knuth, The TeX  for  nroffbook,  Addison-Wesley,  1986,  ISBN
0-201-13447-0.
Leslie  Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System, Addison-Wesley,
1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
K.       Berry,        Eplain:        Expanded        plain        TeX,
ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
Michael  Spivak, The Joy of TeX for nroff, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley,
1990, ISBN 0-8218-2997-1.
TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

#### TRIVIA

TeX,  pronounced  properly,  rhymes  with  ``blecchhh.''   The   proper
spelling  in  typewriter-like  fonts  is  ``TeX''  and  not  ``TEX'' or
``tex.''

#### AUTHORS

TeX was designed by Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using  his  Web
system  for  Pascal  programs.   It  was  ported to Unix at Stanford by
Howard Trickey, and at  Cornell  by  Pavel  Curtis.   The  version  now
offered  with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web to
C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

The encTeX extensions were written by Petr Olsak.