Provided by: timidity_2.13.2-40build2_i386 bug


       TiMidity++ - MIDI-to-WAVE converter and player


       timidity [options] filename [...]


       TiMidity++  is  a converter that converts some of MIDI files (supported
       formats: Standard MIDI files (*.mid), Recomposer files  (*.rcp,  *.r36,
       *.g18,  *.g36)  and  Module  files  (*.mod)) into formatted audio files
       (e.g. RIFF WAVE).  TiMidity++ uses Gravis  Ultrasound-compatible  patch
       files  or Soundfonts (*.sfx, *.sf2) to generate digital audio data from
       MIDI files.  The digital audio data  generated  by  TiMidity++  can  be
       stored  in  a  file  for  processing, or played in real time through an
       audio device.
       In real time playing, TiMidity++ can show the lyrics contained  in  KAR
       or WRD files.


       You can use the following expressions as the filename argument:

       -      Read a MIDI file from standard input.

              Read a MIDI file from the specified path on a filesystem.

              Read  and  play  all MIDI files in the specified directory.  For

              % timidity some/where/

              plays all files in the directory some/where/.

       Archive File
              Extract and play the file(s) in the archive.   If  you  want  to
              specify   a   certain   MIDI   file   in   the  archive,  append
              #<MIDI-filename> to the archive name.  The path after `#' allows
              the use of the wildcard expressions (case insensitive).
              You  can  use escape sequence \xHH, where `HH' is a ASCII number
              in hexadecimal integer.

              For example:

              % timidity
                     Plays file.mid in

              % timidity file.lzh#*.mid
                     Plays any files that match the wildcard expression  *.mid
                     in file.lzh

              % timidity file.tgz#*
                     This expression is the same as file.tgz

              Since  these  mechanism  are contained in TiMidity++ itself, you
              can use this syntax even in the MS Windows environment.

              TiMidity++ can handle the following archive formats:

              tar (*.tar)

              tar+gzip (*.tar.gz, *.tgz)

              zip (*.zip)

              lzh (*.lzh, *.lha)
                     (lh0, lh1, lh2, lh3, lh4, lh5, lh6, lz4, lzs and lz5  are

              Other  archives can be expanded if expander command is specified
              on the compile phase.  TiMidity++ will pipe that command.

              Play the MIDI file in the specified article on the news  server.
              If  a  newsgroup  is  specified  TiMidity++ plays all MIDI files
              found in any article posted to that newsgroup.
              TiMidity++ parses MIME Multi-part messages in case  of  news://*
              scheme,  extracts  MIDI  file that was post to that group, or in
              case of normal file, you can explicitly handle MIME documents by
              naming that file with *.mime extension, or prefix that file with

              The following MIME-types are allowed:

              uu-encoded file
                     is required

              base64 encoded
                     Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
                     is required

                     Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-string
                     is required

              Mac BinHex format
                     only HQX format is available

              Play the file specified in the URL.

              For example:

              %                                                       timidity
                     plays the specified MIDI-file directly from the network.

              If  these  expression  are used in the *.cfg files, you can even
              use patch-files (and others) from remote machines.


       TiMidity++ can handle the following file formats:

       .mid, .rmi (Format 0, 1, 2)
              Standard MIDI File

       .rcp, .r36, .g18, .g36 (Recomposer formats)
              Recomposer format which is product for COME ON MUSIC co.

       .mfi (MFi Version 3 - Melody Format for i-Mode)
              i-Mode is Japanese local mobile phone

       .kar (Karaoke format)
              Displays the lyrics as a Lyric Meta Event message.

       .mod, mod.* (Module file)

       .wrd (WRD format)


       The following command line options are accepted by TiMidity++:

       -A [n][,m](a)
              Multiplies the master volume  by  n%.   Default  value  is  70%.
              Higher  amplification  makes louder sounds.  You can specify the
              drum power, ratio of drum volume from the other  channels.   The
              allowed values of amplification range from 0 (no sound) to 800.
              Optionally  to put `a' character along with -a option, or to use
              --volume-compensation, instructs TiMidity++  to  regularize  the
              volume.  You can easily gain dynamic range.

              For example:

              -A90   volume 90%, drum power 100%, compensation is off

              -A,120 volume 70%, drum power 120%, compensation is off

                     volume 90%, drum power 120%, compensation is off

              -Aa    volume 70%, drum power 100%, compensation is on

              -A90a  volume 90%, drum power 100%, compensation is on

                     volume 70%, drum power 120%, compensation is on

                     volume 90%, drum power 120%, compensation is on

       -a, --[no-]anti-alias
              Turns  on  anti-aliasing.   Samples  are  run  through a lowpass
              filter before playing,  which  reduces  aliasing  noise  at  low
              resampling frequencies.

       -B n,m, --buffer-fragments=n,m
              For the Linux/FreeBSD/OSS/ALSA/Windows sound driver, selects the
              number of buffer fragments in interactive mode.  Increasing  the
              number  of  fragments  may reduce choppiness when many processes
              are running.  It will make TiMidity++ seem to respond sluggishly
              to  fast forward, rewind, and volume controls, and it will throw
              the status display off sync.  Specify a fragments number of 0 to
              use the maximum number of fragments available.

       -C n, --control-ratio=n
              Sets  the  ratio  of  sampling  and  control  frequencies.  This
              determines how often envelopes are recalculated -- small  ratios
              yield better quality but use more CPU time.

       -c file, --config-file=file
              Reads an extra configuration file.

       -D n, --drum-channel=n
              Marks  channel  as  a  drum  channel.   If  channel is negative,
              channel -n is marked as an instrumental channel.  If n is 0, all
              channels are marked as instrumental.

       -d dir, --interface-path=dir
              Specifies   the   directory  containing  installed  dynamic-link
              interface modules.

       -E mode, --ext=mode
              Set TiMidity++ extend modes.  The following modes are  available
              (capitalized switch means disable this feature):

              w/W, --[no-]mod-wheel
                     Enable/disable modulation controlling.

              p/P, --[no-]portamento
                     Enable/disable portamento controlling.

              v/V, --[no-]vibrato
                     Enable/disable NRPM vibration.

              s/S, --[no-]ch-pressure
                     Enable/disable channel pressure controlling.

              e/E, --[no-]mod-envelope
                     Enable/disable modulation envelope controlling.

              t/T, --[no-]trace-text-meta
                     Enable/disable tracing all Text Meta Events.

              o/O, --[no-]overlap-voice
                     Accept/reject pronouncing multiple same notes.

              z/Z, --[no-]temper-control
                     Enable/disable    MIDI    Tuning   Standard   temperament

              mHH, --default-mid=HH
                     Sets  the  manufacturer  ID  to  HH  (where  HH  are  two
                     HH  values of GS/gs, XG/xg or GM/gm are understood as 41,
                     43 and 7e respectively.

              MHH, --system-mid=HH
                     Sets the system manufacturer ID to HH (where HH  are  two
                     In  this  option, the manufacture ID is set unchangeable.
                     Manufacture ID from the input file would be ignored.

              bn, --default-bank=n
                     Use tone bank n as the default.

              Bn, --force-bank=n
                     Sets the bank number of all channels to n.

              in[/m], --default-program=n[/m]
                     Use the program number as the  default  instrument.   Any
                     Program  Change  events  in MIDI files will override this
                     If n is followed by /m the default program number of  the
                     channel m is specified by n.

              In[/m], --force-program=n[/m]
                     Similar to -Ei but this ignores all program changes.

              F args For effects.  See below.  In args option, you can specify
                     following effect options:

                     delay=(d|l|r|b)[,msec], --delay=(d|l|r|b)[,msec]
                            Sets delay type.

                            d, 0   Disabled delay effect.

                            l, 1   Left delay.

                            r, 2   Right delay.

                            b, 3   Swap left & right.

                            Optional msec is the delay time.

                     chorus=(d|n|s)[,level], --chorus=(d|n|s)[,level]

                            d, 0   Disable this effect.

                            n, 1   Enable MIDI chorus effect control.

                            s, 2   Surround sound, chorus detuned to a  lesser
                                   degree (default).

                            The  optional parameter level specifies the chorus
                            level 0 to 127.

                     reverb=(d|n|g|f|G)[,level], --reverb=(d|n|g|f|G)[,level]

                            d, 0   Disable MIDI reverb effect control.

                            n, 1   Enable MIDI reverb  effect  control.   This
                                   effect is only available in stereo.

                            g, 2   Global reverb effect.

                            f, 3   Freeverb   MIDI   reverb   effect   control

                            G, 4   Global freeverb effect.

                            The optional parameter level specifies the  reverb
                            level 0 to 127.

                     vlpf=(d|c|m), --voice-lpf=(d|c|m)

                            d, 0   Disable LPF effect.

                            c, 1   Chamberlin    resonant    LPF    (12dB/oct)

                            m, 2   Moog resonant low-pass VCF (24dB/oct)

                     ns=n, --noise-shaping=n
                            Enable the n th degree noiseshaping  filter.   The
                            distortion  at  decay  stage  is improved, but the
                            noise on human auditory feeling increases  because
                            it  shifts  to a high frequency.  In case of 8-bit
                            linear encoding, valid values  of  n  are  in  the
                            interval  from  0 (min) to 4 (max).  Default value
                            is 4.  In case of 16-bit  linear  encoding,  valid
                            values  of  n  are  in  the  interval from 0 to 4.
                            According to the value,  it  works  as  following.
                            Default value is 4.

                            0      No noise shaping.

                            1      Traditional noise shaping.

                            2      Overdrive-like  soft-clipping  +  new noise

                            3      Tube-amplifier-like  soft-clipping  +   new
                                   noise shaping.

                            4      New noise shaping.

                     resamp=(d|l|c|L|n|g), --resample=(d|l|c|L|n|g)

                            d, 0   No interpolation.

                            l, 1   Linear interpolation.

                            c, 2   Cubic spline interpolation.

                            L, 3   Lagrange method.

                            n, 4   Newton polynomial interpolation.

                            g, 5   Modified Gauss effect (default).

                            This option affects the behavior of -N option.

       -e, --evil
              Make TiMidity++ evil.  For the Win32 version, this increases the
              task priority by one.  It can  give  better  playback  when  you
              switch tasks at the expense of slowing all other tasks down.

       -F, --[no-]fast-panning
              Turns  on  fast  panning  to accommodate MIDI pieces that expect
              panning adjustments to affect notes that  are  already  playing.
              Some  files  that  don't  expect  this  have a habit of flipping
              balance rapidly between left and right, which can  cause  severe
              popping when the -F flag is used.
              In the current version of TiMidity++ this option is a toggle.

       -f, --[no-]fast-decay
              Toggles fast envelopes.  This option makes TiMidity++ faster but
              the release time of the notes are shortened.

       -g sec, --spectrogram=sec
              Open the Sound-Spectrogram window.  This option is activated  if
              the system has support for the X Window System.

       -H n, --force-keysig=n
              Specify  the  key signature.  MIDI playback is transposed to the
              key with the same number of sharps (when n is positive) or flats
              (when  n  is  negative).  Valid values for n range from -7 to 7.
              For example, if n is 1, MIDI playback  would  transpose  1  flat
              (i.e., F major or D minor).

       -h, --help
              Show the help message.

       -i mode, --interface=mode
              Selects  the  user interfaces from the compiled-in alternatives.
              mode  must  be  begun  with  one  of  the  supported   interface
              identifiers.  Run TiMidity++ with the -h option to see a list.
              For    ALSA    sequencer    interface,    optionally    to   use
              --realtime-priority, set the realtime priority by n, and to  use
              --sequencer-ports,  set  the  number  of opened sequencer ports.
              Default value is 4.
              The following identifiers may be available:

              -id    dumb interface

              -in    ncurses interface

              -is    S-Lang interface

              -ia    X Athena Widget interface

              -ik    Tcl/Tk interface

              -im    Motif interface

              -iT    vt100 interface

              -ie    Emacs interface
                     (use ``M-x timidity'' in Emacs)

              -ii    skin interface
                     Environment variable TIMIDITY_SKIN must  be  set  to  the
                     path   of   the  skin  data  (compressed  data  are  also

              -ig    GTK+ interface

              -ir    Launch TiMidity++ as MIDI server.

              -iA    Launch TiMidity++ as ALSA sequencer client.

              -iW    Windows synthesizer interface

              -iw    Windows GUI interface

              -iP    PortMIDI synthesizer interface

              -ip    UMP interface

              Interface options
                     Option characters may  be  added  immediately  after  the
                     interface   identifier.    The   following   options  are

                     v, --verbose=n
                            Increases  verbosity  level.    This   option   is

                     q, --quiet=n
                            Decreases   verbosity   level.    This  option  is

                     t, --[no-]trace
                            Toggles trace mode.   In  trace  mode,  TiMidity++
                            attempts  to  display  its  current  state in real
                            time.   For  the  Linux  sound  driver,  this   is
                            accomplished  through  the use of short DMA buffer
                            fragments, which can be tuned via the -B option.

                     l, --[no-]loop
                            Loop playing (some interfaces ignore this option)

                     r, --[no-]random
                            Randomize file list arguments before playing

                     s, --[no-]sort
                            Sort file list arguments before playing

                     D, --[no-]background
                            Daemonize TiMidity++ in  background  (for  alsaseq

       -j, --[no-]realtime-load
              Enable the loading of patch files during play.

       -K n, --adjust-key=n
              Adjusts key (i.e., transposes the song) by n half tones.  Ranges
              from -24 to 24.

       -k msec, --voice-queue=msec
              Specify audio  queue  time  limit  to  reduce  voices.   If  the
              remaining   audio   buffer   is  less  than  msec  milliseconds,
              TiMidity++ tries to kill some voices.   This  feature  makes  it
              possible  to  play complicated MIDI files on slow CPUs.  Setting
              msec to zero tells TiMidity++ to never remove any voices.

       -L path, --patch-path=path
              Adds path to the library path.  Patch, configuration,  and  MIDI
              files are searched along this path.  Directories added last will
              be searched first.  Note that the current  directory  is  always
              searched first before the library path.

       -M name, --pcm-file=name
              TiMidity++  can  play  a  PCM  file  instead of a MIDI file.  If
              ``auto'' is specified, TiMidity++ tries to open  foo.mid.wav  or
              foo.mid.aiff  when  playing  foo.mid.  If ``none'' is specified,
              this feature is disabled.  Otherwise just plays name.

       -m msec, --decay-time=msec
              Modify envelope volume decay time.  msec is the  minimum  number
              of milliseconds to sustain a sustained note.

              -m0    Disable  sustain ramping, causes constant volume sustains

              -m1    Effectively behaves  as  if  all  sustains  are  ignored,
                     volume ramping is the same as normal stage 3.

              -m3000 A  note  at  full volume will decay for 3 seconds once it
                     begins to be sustained (assuming the regular stage 3 rate
                     would  not  cause it to decay even longer).  Softer notes
                     will of course die sooner.

       -N n, --interpolation=n
              Sets  interpolation  parameter.   This  option  depends  on  the
              -EFresamp option's value.

              cspline, lagrange
                     Toggles 4-point linear interpolation (default is on).

              newton n  point  interpolation using Newton polynomials.  n must
                     be an odd number from 1 to 57.

              gauss  n+1  point  modified  Gauss  interpolation.    Ranges   0
                     (disable) to 34 (max), default to 25.

              In  either  way,  linear  interpolation is used if audio queue <

       -O mode, --output-mode=mode
              Selects the output mode from the compiled-in alternatives.  mode
              must  begin  with  one of the supported output mode identifiers.
              Run TiMidity++ with the -h option to see the list.
              Special in Ogg FLAC output mode, verifying generated data  (will
              be  a bit slower), the size of header padding (default is 4096),
              the compression level (0 to 8)  (default  is  5),  and  enabling
              OggFLAC    stream    can    be   specified   by   --flac-verify,
              --flac-padding,   --flac-complevel   and    --oggflac    options
              Special  in Ogg Speex output mode, the compression quality (0 to
              10) (default is 8), Enabling VBR output, enabling ABR output and
              setting the ratio to n, enabling VAD (voice activity detection),
              enabling  DTX   (discontinuous   transmission),   the   encoding
              complexity  (0 to 10) (default is 3), and frames in a single Ogg
              packet  (0  to  10)  (default  is  1)  can   be   specified   by
              --speex-quality,    --speex-vbr,    --speex-abr,    --speex-vad,
              --speex-dtx,  --speex-complexity  and  --speex-nframes   options
              The following identifiers are available in all versions:

              -Od    Outputs via audio device (default)

              -Os    Output to ALSA

              -Or    Generate  raw  waveform  data.   All  format  options are
                     supported.  Common formats include:

                     -OrU   u-Law

                     -Or1sl 16-bit signed linear PCM

                     -Or8ul 8-bit unsigned linear PCM

              -Ou    Generate Sun Audio (au) data

              -Oa    Generate AIFF data

              -Ow    Generate RIFF WAVE format output.  If output is  directed
                     to  a  non-seekable file, or if TiMidity++ is interrupted
                     before closing the file, the  file  header  will  contain
                     0xffffffff in the RIFF and data block length fields.  The
                     popular sound conversion utility sox is able to read such
                     malformed files, so you can pipe data directly to sox for
                     on-the-fly conversion to other formats.

              -Ol    List MIDI events

              -OM    MOD -> MIDI conversion

              -Oe    EsounD

              -Op    PortAudio

              -Oj    JACK

              -OR    aRts

              -OA    Alib

              -Ov    Ogg Vorbis

              -OF    Ogg FLAC

              -OS    Ogg Speex

              -OO    libdao

              Format options
                     Option characters may be added immediately after the mode
                     identifier  to  change  the output format.  The following
                     options are recognized:

                     S, --output-stereo

                     M, --output-mono

                     s, --output-signed
                            Signed output

                     u, --output-unsigned
                            Unsigned output

                     1, --output-16bit
                            16-bit sample width

                     2, --output-24bit
                            24-bit sample width

                     8, --output-8bit
                            8-bit sample width

                     l, --output-linear
                            Linear encoding

                     U, --output-ulaw
                            u-Law (8-bit) encoding

                     A, --output-alaw
                            A-Law encoding

                     x, --[no-]output-swab
                            Byte-swapped output

                     Note that some options have no effect on some modes.  For
                     example,  you  cannot  generate  a byte-swapped RIFF WAVE
                     file, or force uLaw output on a Linux PCM device.

       -o file, --output-file=file
              Place output on file, which may be  a  file,  device,  or  HP-UX
              audio  server, depending on the output mode selected with the -O
              option.  The special filename `-' causes output to be placed  on

       -P file, --patch-file=file
              Use patch file for all programs.

       -p [n](a)
              Sets polyphony (maximum number of simultaneous voices) to n.
              Optionally  to put `a' character along with -p option, or to use
              --polyphony-reduction, instructs TiMidity++ to enable  automatic
              polyphony reduction algorithm.

       -Q n[,...](t)
              Cause   channel  n  to  be  quiet.   n  can  carry  out  package
              specification by `,'.  If n is 0, all channels are  turned  off.
              Continuously, specifying -n, channel n is turned back on.
              On  the  other  hand, to put `t' character after -Q option or to
              use  --temper-mute  describes  temperament  mute.   This   mutes
              channels   of   specific   temperament   type   n.   For  preset
              temperament, n can range 0 to 3.  For user-defined  temperament,
              n can range 4 to 7.

       -q sec/n, --audio-buffer=sec/n
              Specify  audio buffer in seconds.  sec maximum size of buffer, n
              percentage filled at the beginning (default is 5.0/100) (size of
              100% equals the whole device buffer size).

       -R msec
              Enables  Pseudo Reverb Mode.  It sets every instrument's release
              to msec ms.  If msec is 0, msec is set to 800 (default).

       -S n, --cache-size=n
              Sets the re-sample cache size to n bytes.  If  n  equals  0  any
              sample  caches  are disabled.  The default value of n is 2097152

       -s freq, --sampling-freq=freq
              Sets the resampling  frequency  (Hz  or  kHz).   Not  all  sound
              devices  are  capable  of  all  frequencies  --  an  approximate
              frequency may be selected, depending on the implementation.

       -T n, --adjust-tempo=n
              Adjust tempo to n%; 120 play MOD  files  with  an  NTSC  Amiga's

       -t code, --output-charset=code
              Sets  output  coding  of Japanese text.  Possible values of code

              auto   determined by the LANG environment variable.

              ascii  Translates non-ASCII code to period.

              nocnv  No conversion.

              1251   Convert from windows-1251 to koi8-r.

              euc    Outputs EUC (Japan) coding.

              jis    Outputs JIS coding.

              sjis   Outputs SJIS coding.

       -U, --[no-]unload-instruments
              Unload all instruments from memory between MIDI files.  This can
              reduce   memory   requirements   when   playing  many  files  in

       -V power, --volume-curve=power
              Set the power of volume curve.  The total amplification  becomes
              volume^power.    0  (default)  uses  the  regular  tables.   Any
              non-zero value causes all midi  to  use  the  new  user  defined
              velocity/volume/expression  curve (linear: 1, ideal: ~1.661, GS:

       -v, --version
              Show the version string

       -W mode, --wrd=mode
              Play WRD file.

              Allowed values of mode are:

              x      X Window System mode

              w      Windows console mode

              t      TTY mode

              d      Dumb mode (outputs WRD events directory)

              -      do not trace WRD

                     Sets WRD options:

                            Sets the WRD options.  an is the  name  of  option
                            and bn is the value.

                     d=n    Emulates   timing  (@WAIT,  @WMODE)  bugs  of  the
                            original MIMPI player.  The emulation levels are:

                            -WRd=0 do not emulate any bugs of MIMPI

                            -WRd=1 only emulate some bugs (default)

                            -WRd=2 emulate all known bugs

                     F=file Use file as WRD file only no file  matching  *.wrd
                            is found.

                     f=file Uses file as WRD file.

              WRD mode must also use trace mode (option -i?t) or the timing of
              the WRD events will be terrible.

       -w mode, --rcpcv-dll=mode
              Extended  mode  for  MS  Windows.   The  following  options  are

              -w r   Use rcpcv.dll to play RCP/R36 files.

              -w R   Do not use rcpcv.dll (default).

       -x str, --config-string=str
              Configure TiMidity++ with str.  The format of str is the same as

              For example:
              -x'bank 0\n0 violin.pat'
              Sets the instrument number 0 to violin.
              Character `\' (Ascii 0x5c) in  the  str  is  treated  as  escape
              character  like  in  C  literals.   For example \n is treated as
              carriage return.

       -Z file, --freq-table=file
              Cause the table of frequencies to be read from  file.   This  is
              useful  to  define a tuning different from 12-equal temperament.
              If  ``pure''  is  specified,  TiMidity++  plays  in  trial  pure

              -Zpure[n(m)], --pure-intonation=[n(m)]
                     Play in trial pure intonation by Key Signature meta-event
                     in the MIDI file.  You can specify the initial keysig  by
                     hand,  in  case  the  MIDI  file  does  not  contains the
                     meta-event.   Optionally,  n  is  the   number   of   key
                     signature.   In case of sharp, n is positive.  In case of
                     flat, n is negative.   Valid  values  of  n  are  in  the
                     interval from -7 to 7.  In case of minor mode, you should
                     put `m' character along with -Zpure option.

              Simulate behavior of specific  synthesizer  module  as  much  as
              possible.  For the moment, the value of n defined is as follows:

              0      TiMidity++ Default

              1      Roland SC-55

              2      Roland SC-88

              3      Roland SC-88Pro

              4      Roland SC-8850

              5-15   Reserved for GS family

              16     YAMAHA MU-50

              17     YAMAHA MU-80

              18     YAMAHA MU-90

              19     YAMAHA MU-100

              20-31  Reserved for XG family

              32     SoundBlaster Live!

              33     SoundBlaster Audigy

              34-111 Reserved for other synthesizer modules

              112    TiMidity++ Special 1

                     Reserved for TiMidity++ specification purposes

              127    TiMidity++ Debug


       sf2text(1), timidity.cfg(5)


       Copyright (C) 1999-2004 Masanao Izumo <>
       Copyright (C) 1995 Tuukka Toivonen <>

       The original version was developed by Tuukka Toivonen <> until
       the release of TiMidity-0.2i.  His development was discontinued because
       of his being busy with work.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT   ANY   WARRANTY;   without   even   the  implied  warranty  of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA


       The latest release is available on the TiMidity++ Page,



       Eats more CPU time than a small CPU-time-eating animal.

       This  man  page was translated from Japanese to English by me with poor
       English skill :-)


       Version 0.2i and earlier:
              Tuukka Toivonen <>
              Vincent Pagel <>
              Takashi Iwai <>
              Davide Moretti <>
              Chi Ming HUNG <>
              Riccardo Facchetti <>

              IZUMO Masanao <>
              HARADA Tomokazu <>
              YAMATE Keiichirou <>
              KIRYU Masaki <>
              AOKI Daisuke <>
              MATSUMOTO Shoji <>
              KOYANAGI Masaaki <>
              IMAI Kunihiko <>
              NOGAMI Takaya <>
              WATANABE Takanori <>
              TAKEKAWA Hiroshi <>
              NAGANO Daisuke <>
              KINOSHITA kosuke <>
              SHIGEMURA Norikatsu <>
              YAMAHATA Isaku <>
              ARAI Yoshishige <>
              Glenn Trigg <>
              Tim Allen <>
              Michael Haardt <>
              Eric A. Welsh <>
              Paolo Bonzini <>
              KIMOTO Masahiko <>
              IWAI Takashi <>
              Saito <>
              SATO Kentaro <>
              TAMUKI Shoichi <>
              URABE Shohei <>
              SUENAGA Keishi <>
              SUZUKI Koji <>

       (titles omitted and an order different)

       and other many people sends information and bug-fix codes.

       The English version of this man page  was  written  by  NAGANO  Daisuke

       Now,    TAMUKI    Shoichi   <>   and   URABE   Shohei
       <> are maintaining the man page.
       If you have any comments or suggestions or complaints :) about this man
       page, please tell us it.