Provided by: twm_1.0.6-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       twm - Tab Window Manager for the X Window System

SYNTAX

       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f initfile ] [ -v ]

DESCRIPTION

       Twm  is  a window manager for the X Window System.  It provides titlebars, shaped windows,
       several forms of icon management, user-defined macro functions, click-to-type and pointer-
       driven keyboard focus, and user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This  program  is  usually  started by the user's session manager or startup script.  When
       used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session manager, twm is frequently executed in  the
       foreground  as  the  last client.  When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be
       terminated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a ``frame'' with a titlebar at  the  top
       and  a  special  border  around  the  window.   The titlebar contains the window's name, a
       rectangle that is lit when the window is receiving  keyboard  input,  and  function  boxes
       known as ``titlebuttons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing  pointer  Button1  (usually  the left-most button unless it has been changed with
       xmodmap) on a titlebutton will invoke the function associated with  the  button.   In  the
       default  interface,  windows  are  iconified  by  clicking  (pressing and then immediately
       releasing) the left titlebutton  (which  looks  like  a  Dot).   Conversely,  windows  are
       deiconified  by  clicking  in  the  associated  icon  or  entry  in  the icon manager (see
       description of the variable ShowIconManager and of the function f.showiconmgr).

       Windows are resized by pressing the right titlebutton (which resembles a group  of  nested
       squares),  dragging  the  pointer over edge that is to be moved, and releasing the pointer
       when the outline of the window is the desired  size.   Similarly,  windows  are  moved  by
       pressing  in the title or highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new location,
       and then releasing when the outline is in the desired  position.   Just  clicking  in  the
       title or highlight region raises the window without moving it.

       When  new  windows are created, twm will honor any size and location information requested
       by the user (usually  through  -geometry  command  line  argument  or  resources  for  the
       individual  applications).   Otherwise,  an  outline  of  the  window's  default size, its
       titlebar, and lines dividing the window into  a  3x3  grid  that  track  the  pointer  are
       displayed.   Clicking pointer Button1 will position the window at the current position and
       give it the default size.  Pressing pointer Button2 (usually the  middle  pointer  button)
       and  dragging the outline will give the window its current position but allow the sides to
       be resized as described above.   Clicking  pointer  Button3  (usually  the  right  pointer
       button)  will  give  the window its current position but attempt to make it long enough to
       touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS

       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display dpy
               This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This option indicates that only the default screen (as specified by -display or by
               the DISPLAY environment variable) should be managed.  By default, twm will attempt
               to manage all screens on the display.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.  By default,  twm  will
               look  in  the  user's  home  directory  for files named .twmrc.num (where num is a
               screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that twm should print error messages whenever an  unexpected
               X Error event is received.  This can be useful when debugging applications but can
               be distracting in regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION

       Much of twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled by providing a startup file in one
       of  the  following  locations  (searched  in  order for each screen being managed when twm
       begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
               The screennumber is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1,  etc.)   representing  the
               screen   number  (e.g.  the  last  number  in  the  DISPLAY  environment  variable
               host:displaynum.screennum) that would be  used  to  contact  that  screen  of  the
               display.   This is intended for displays with multiple screens of differing visual
               types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
               This is the usual name for an individual user's startup file.

       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
               If neither of the preceding files are found, twm will look  in  this  file  for  a
               default  configuration.   This  is  often  tailored  by  the site administrator to
               provide convenient menus or familiar bindings for novice users.

       If no startup files are found, twm will use the built-in defaults  described  above.   The
       only  resource  used by twm is bitmapFilePath for a colon-separated list of directories to
       search when looking for bitmap files (for more information, see the Athena Widgets  manual
       and xrdb(1)).

       Twm  startup files are logically broken up into three types of specifications:  Variables,
       Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must come first and is used to describe the fonts,
       colors,  cursors,  border  widths,  icon  and window placement, highlighting, autoraising,
       layout of titles, warping, use of the icon manager.  The Bindings  section  usually  comes
       second and is used to specify the functions that should be to be invoked when keyboard and
       pointer buttons are pressed in windows, icons, titles,  and  frames.   The  Menus  section
       gives  any  user-defined  menus  (containing  functions  to  be  invoked or commands to be
       executed).

       Variable names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be  surrounded  by  double
       quote  characters  (e.g.  "blue")  and  are case-sensitive.  A pound sign (#) outside of a
       string causes the remainder of the line in which the character appears to be treated as  a
       comment.

VARIABLES

       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables that may be set in
       the user's startup file.  Some of the options  are  enabled  or  disabled  simply  by  the
       presence  of  a  particular keyword.  Other options require keywords, numbers, strings, or
       lists of all of these.

       Lists are surrounded by braces and are usually separated by whitespace or a newline.   For
       example:
       AutoRaise { "emacs" "XTerm" "Xmh" }
       or
       AutoRaise
       {
            "emacs"
            "XTerm"
            "Xmh"
       }
       When  a  variable  containing  a list of strings representing windows is searched (e.g. to
       determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown above), a string must be  an  exact,
       case-sensitive match to the window's name (given by the WM_NAME window property), resource
       name or class name (both given by the WM_CLASS window property).   The  preceding  example
       would  enable autoraise on windows named ``emacs'' as well as any xterm (since they are of
       class ``XTerm'') or xmh windows (which are of class ``Xmh'').

       String arguments that  are  interpreted  as  filenames  (see  the  Pixmaps,  Cursors,  and
       IconDirectory  below) will prepend the user's directory (specified by the HOME environment
       variable) if the first character is a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first  character  is  a
       colon  (:),  the  name is assumed to refer to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or :delete (both refer to the X logo),  :dot
       or  :iconify  (both  refer  to  the  dot),  :resize (the nested squares used by the resize
       button), :menu (a page with lines), and :question (the question mark used for non-existent
       bitmap files).

       The  following  variables  may  be  specified  at the top of a twm startup file.  Lists of
       Window name prefix strings are indicated by win-list.  Optional  arguments  are  shown  in
       square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list  of windows that should automatically be raised
               whenever the pointer enters the window.  This action can be interactively  enabled
               or disabled on individual windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
               This  variable  indicates  that  dragging out a window size (either when initially
               sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when resizing it) should not wait  until
               the   pointer   has  crossed  the  window  edges.   Instead,  moving  the  pointer
               automatically causes the nearest edge or edges to move by the same  amount.   This
               allows  the  resizing  of  windows that extend off the edge of the screen.  If the
               pointer is in the center of the window, or if the resize is begun  by  pressing  a
               titlebutton,  twm  will  still  wait  for  the  pointer to cross a window edge (to
               prevent accidents).  This option is particularly useful for people  who  like  the
               press-drag-release method of sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This  variable  specifies  the default color of the border to be placed around all
               non-iconified windows, and  may  only  be  given  within  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome  list.   The optional wincolorlist specifies a list of window and color
               name pairs for specifying particular border colors for different types of windows.
               For example:
               BorderColor "gray50"
               {
                    "XTerm"   "red"
                    "xmh"     "green"
               }
               The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This  variable  specifies the default background color in the gray pattern used in
               unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only be given
               within  a  Color,  Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default  is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
               This variable specifies the default foreground color in the gray pattern  used  in
               unhighlighted borders (only if NoHighlight hasn't been set), and may only be given
               within a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The  optional  wincolorlist  allows
               per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
               This  variable  specifies the width in pixels of the border surrounding all client
               window frames if ClientBorderWidth has not been specified.   This  value  is  also
               used  to set the border size of windows created by twm (such as the icon manager).
               The default is 2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
               This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons should be indented on all
               sides.   Positive  values cause the buttons to be smaller than the window text and
               highlight   area   so   that   they   stand   out.    Setting   this    and    the
               TitleButtonBorderWidth  variables  to  0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as
               possible.  The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
               This variable indicates that border width of a window's frame should be set to the
               initial border width of the window, rather than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list  of color assignments to be made if the default
               display is capable of displaying more than simple black and  white.   The  colors-
               list   is   made   up   of   the  following  color  variables  and  their  values:
               DefaultBackground,     DefaultForeground,     MenuBackground,      MenuForeground,
               MenuTitleBackground,    MenuTitleForeground,   MenuShadowColor,   MenuBorderColor,
               PointerForeground, and PointerBackground.  The following color variables may  also
               be  given  a  list of window and color name pairs to allow per-window colors to be
               specified  (see  BorderColor  for  details):  BorderColor,   IconManagerHighlight,
               BorderTitleBackground,  BorderTitleForeground,  TitleBackground,  TitleForeground,
               IconBackground,  IconForeground,   IconBorderColor,   IconManagerBackground,   and
               IconManagerForeground.  For example:
               Color
               {
                    MenuBackground      "gray50"
                    MenuForeground      "blue"
                    BorderColor              "red" { "XTerm" "yellow" }
                    TitleForeground          "yellow"
                    TitleBackground          "blue"
               }
               All  of  these  color variables may also be specified for the Monochrome variable,
               allowing the same initialization file to be used  on  both  color  and  monochrome
               displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
               This variable specifies the length of time between button clicks needed to begin a
               constrained move operation.  Double clicking  within  this  amount  of  time  when
               invoking f.move will cause the window to be moved only in a horizontal or vertical
               direction.  Setting this value to 0 will disable constrained moves.   The  default
               is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
               This  variable  specifies  the  glyphs  that  twm  should  use for various pointer
               cursors.  Each cursor may be defined either from  the  cursor  font  or  from  two
               bitmap files.  Shapes from the cursor font may be specified directly as:
                    cursorname     "string"
               where  cursorname  is one of the cursor names listed below, and string is the name
               of a glyph as found in the file /usr/include/X11/cursorfont.h (without the ``XC_''
               prefix).   If  the cursor is to be defined from bitmap files, the following syntax
               is used instead:
                    cursorname     "image"   "mask"
               The image and mask strings specify the names of files containing the  glyph  image
               and  mask  in  bitmap(1) form.  The bitmap files are located in the same manner as
               icon bitmap files.  The following example shows the default cursor definitions:
               Cursors
               {
                    Frame          "top_left_arrow"
                    Title          "top_left_arrow"
                    Icon      "top_left_arrow"
                    IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
                    Move      "fleur"
                    Resize         "fleur"
                    Menu      "sb_left_arrow"
                    Button         "hand2"
                    Wait      "watch"
                    Select         "dot"
                    Destroy   "pirate"
               }

       DecorateTransients
               This   variable   indicates   that   transient   windows   (those   containing   a
               WM_TRANSIENT_FOR  property) should have titlebars.  By default, transients are not
               reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color to be used for sizing and information
               windows.  The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used for sizing and information
               windows.  The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows that should not be iconified  by  simply
               unmapping  the  window  (as would be the case if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).
               This is frequently used to force some windows to be treated as icons  while  other
               windows are handled by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
               This  variable  indicates  that  windows should not be allowed to be moved off the
               screen.  It can be overridden by the f.forcemove function.

       DontSqueezeTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that titlebars should not be  squeezed  to  their  minimum
               size  as  described  under  SqueezeTitle  below.   If  the optional window list is
               supplied, only those windows will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
               This variable indicates that icon pixmaps specified in the Icons  variable  should
               override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
               This  variable specifies the distance between the titlebar decorations (the button
               and text) and the window frame.  The default is 2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
               This variable specifies a list of color assignments that should  be  made  if  the
               screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies the background color of icons, and may only be specified
               inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a  list
               of  window  names  and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.  See the
               BorderColor variable for a complete description of the win-list.  The  default  is
               "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies  the  color of the border used for icon windows, and may
               only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.   The  optional
               win-list  is  a  list  of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be
               specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description  of  the  win-
               list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
               This  variable  specifies  the  width  in  pixels  of  the border surrounding icon
               windows.  The default is 2.

       IconDirectory string
               This variable specifies the directory that should be searched if if a bitmap  file
               cannot be found in any of the directories in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont string
               This  variable  specifies  the font to be used to display icon names within icons.
               The default is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This variable specifies the foreground color to be used when displaying icons, and
               may  only  be  specified  inside  of  a  Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The
               optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so that  per-window  colors
               may  be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of the
               win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should be iconified by being unmapped without
               trying to map any icons.  This assumes that the user will remap the window through
               the icon manager, the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows menu.  If the  optional
               win-list  is  provided,  only those windows will be iconified by simply unmapping.
               Windows that have both this and the IconManagerDontShow options  set  may  not  be
               accessible if no binding to the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's startup file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable specifies the background color to use for icon manager entries, and
               may only be specified inside of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome  list.   The
               optional  win-list  is a list of window names and colors so that per-window colors
               may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for a complete description of  the
               win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
               This  variable indicates that the icon manager should not display any windows.  If
               the optional win-list is given, only those windows will not  be  displayed.   This
               variable  is  used to prevent windows that are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
               xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
               This variable specifies the font to be used when displaying icon manager  entries.
               The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies  the  foreground  color  to be used when displaying icon
               manager entries, and may only  be  specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or
               Monochrome  list.   The  optional win-list is a list of window names and colors so
               that per-window colors may be specified.   See  the  BorderColor  variable  for  a
               complete description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
               This  variable  specifies  the  geometry  of  the icon manager window.  The string
               argument is standard geometry specification that indicates the initial  full  size
               of  the  icon manager.  The icon manager window is then broken into columns pieces
               and scaled according to the number of entries in the icon manager.  Extra  entries
               are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies  the  border color to be used when highlighting the icon
               manager entry that currently has the focus, and can only be specified inside of  a
               Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a list of window
               names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.  See the  BorderColor
               variable for a complete description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  icon managers to create.  Each item in the
               iconmgr-list has the following format:
                    "winname" ["iconname"]   "geometry" columns
               where winname is the name of the  windows  that  should  be  put  into  this  icon
               manager,  iconname  is  the name of that icon manager window's icon, geometry is a
               standard geometry specification, and columns is the number of columns in this icon
               manager as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:
               IconManagers
               {
                    "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
                    "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
               }
               Clients  whose  name  or  class  is  ``XTerm''  will  have an entry created in the
               ``XTerm'' icon manager.  Clients whose name was ``myhost'' would be put  into  the
               ``myhost'' icon manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
               This  variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in the icon manager.
               When used in conjunction with the IconManagerDontShow variable, only  the  windows
               in this list will be shown in the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
               This variable specifies an area on the root window in which icons are placed if no
               specific icon location is provided by the client.   The  geomstring  is  a  quoted
               string  containing a standard geometry specification.  If more than one IconRegion
               lines are given, icons will be put into the succeeding icon regions when the first
               is  full.   The  vgrav argument should be either North or South and control and is
               used to control whether icons are first filled in from the top or  bottom  of  the
               icon  region.   Similarly, the hgrav argument should be either East or West and is
               used to control whether icons should be filled in from left from the right.  Icons
               are  laid  out  within  the  region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels wide and
               gridheight pixels high.

       Icons { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of window  names  and  the  bitmap  filenames  that
               should be used as their icons.  For example:
               Icons
               {
                    "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
                    "xfd"          "xfd_icon"
               }
               Windows  that  match  ``XTerm'' and would not be iconified by unmapping, and would
               try to use  the  icon  bitmap  in  the  file  ``xterm.icon''.   If  ForceIcons  is
               specified,  this bitmap will be used even if the client has requested its own icon
               pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
               This variable indicates that menu entry  colors  should  be  interpolated  between
               entry specified colors.  In the example below:
               Menu "mymenu"
               {
                    "Title"        ("black":"red")          f.title
                    "entry1"                 f.nop
                    "entry2"                 f.nop
                    "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
                    "entry4"                 f.nop
                    "entry5"  ("red":"white")          f.nop
               }
               the  foreground  colors for ``entry1'' and ``entry2'' will be interpolated between
               black and white, and the background colors between red and green.  Similarly,  the
               foreground  for  ``entry4''  will  be  half-way  between  white  and  red, and the
               background will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
               This variable specifies a list of windows on which a titlebar should be placed and
               is used to request titles on specific windows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
               This  variable specifies a geometry in which the width and height give the maximum
               size for a given window.  This is typically used to restrict windows to  the  size
               of  the screen.  The default width is 32767 - screen width.  The default height is
               32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color used  for  menus,  and  can  only  be
               specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuBorderColor string
               This  variable  specifies  the  color of the menu border and can only be specified
               inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuBorderWidth pixels
               This variable specifies the  width  in  pixels  of  the  border  surrounding  menu
               windows.  The default is 2.

       MenuFont string
               This  variable  specifies  the  font to use when displaying menus.  The default is
               "variable".

       MenuForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color used  for  menus,  and  can  only  be
               specified  inside  of  a  Color,  Grayscale  or  Monochrome  list.  The default is
               "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
               This variable specifies the color of the shadow behind  pull-down  menus  and  can
               only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is
               "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
               This variable specifies the background color for f.title entries in menus, and can
               only be specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is
               "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
               This variable specifies the foreground color for f.title entries in menus and  can
               only be specified inside of a Color or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       Monochrome { colors }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list of color assignments that should be made if the
               screen has a depth of 1.  See the description of Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
               This variable specifies the number of pixels the  pointer  must  move  before  the
               f.move  function  starts working.  Also see the f.deltastop function.  The default
               is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
               This variable indicates that twm's menus  should  not  request  backing  store  to
               minimize  repainting  of  menus.   This  is  typically  used with servers that can
               repaint faster than they can handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
               This variable indicates that case should be ignored when sorting icon names in  an
               icon manager.  This option is typically used with applications that capitalize the
               first letter of their icon name.

       NoDefaults
               This variable indicates that twm should not supply the  default  titlebuttons  and
               bindings.   This  option  should  only  be  used  if  the  startup file contains a
               completely new set of bindings and definitions.

       NoGrabServer
               This variable indicates that twm should not grab the server when popping up  menus
               and moving opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  indicates  that  borders  should  not  be highlighted to track the
               location of the pointer.  If the optional win-list  is  given,  highlighting  will
               only  be  disabled  for those windows.  When the border is highlighted, it will be
               drawn in the current BorderColor.  When the border is not highlighted, it will  be
               stippled   with   a  gray  pattern  using  the  current  BorderTileForeground  and
               BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
               This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
               This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows drawn behind them.
               This  is typically used with slower servers since it speeds up menu drawing at the
               expense of making the menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
               This variable indicates that windows that are deiconified should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
               This variable indicates that windows should not be raised  when  moved.   This  is
               typically used to allow windows to slide underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
               This  variable  indicates that windows should not be raised when resized.  This is
               typically used to allow windows to be resized underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
               This variable indicates that windows should not be  raised  when  the  pointer  is
               warped into them with the f.warpto function.  If this option is set, warping to an
               occluded window may result in the  pointer  ending  up  in  the  occluding  window
               instead the desired window (which causes unexpected behavior with f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
               This  variable  indicates  that  menus  should not request save-unders to minimize
               window repainting following menu selection.  It is typically  used  with  displays
               that can repaint faster than they can handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  indicates  that  client  window  requests to change stacking order
               should be ignored.  If the optional win-list is  given,  only  requests  on  those
               windows  will  be  ignored.   This  is typically used to prevent applications from
               relentlessly popping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.  If  the  optional
               win-list  is  given, only those windows will not have titlebars.  MakeTitle may be
               used with this option to force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
               This variable indicates that twm should not  set  keyboard  input  focus  to  each
               window  as  it  is  entered.   Normally,  twm sets the focus so that focus and key
               events from the titlebar and icon managers are delivered to the  application.   If
               the  pointer is moved quickly and twm is slow to respond, input can be directed to
               the old window instead of the new.  This option is typically used to prevent  this
               ``input  lag''  and  to  work around bugs in older applications that have problems
               with focus events.

       NoTitleHighlight [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that the highlight area of the titlebar, which is used  to
               indicate  the  window that currently has the input focus, should not be displayed.
               If the optional win-list is given, only those  windows  will  not  have  highlight
               areas.   This  and the SqueezeTitle options can be set to substantially reduce the
               amount of screen space required by titlebars.

       OpaqueMove
               This variable indicates that the f.move function should actually move  the  window
               instead  of  just  an outline so that the user can immediately see what the window
               will look like in the new  position.   This  option  is  typically  used  on  fast
               displays (particularly if NoGrabServer is set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
               This  variable  specifies  a list of pixmaps that define the appearance of various
               images.  Each entry is a keyword indicating the  pixmap  to  set,  followed  by  a
               string  giving  the  name  of  the  bitmap  file.   The  following  pixmaps may be
               specified:
               Pixmaps
               {
                    TitleHighlight "gray1"
               }
               The default for TitleHighlight is to use an even stipple pattern.

       Priority priority
               This variable sets twm's priority.  priority should be an unquoted, signed  number
               (e.g.  999).   This  variable  has  an effect only if the server supports the SYNC
               extension.

       RandomPlacement
               This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry should  be  placed
               in a pseudo-random location instead of having the user drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
               This  variable  specifies  the  font  to be used for in the dimensions window when
               resizing windows.  The default is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
               This variable indicates that twm should attempt to use the  WM_STATE  property  on
               client  windows to tell which windows should be iconified and which should be left
               visible.  This is typically used to try to regenerate the state  that  the  screen
               was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
               This  variable  indicates a list of color assignments to be stored as pixel values
               in the root window property _MIT_PRIORITY_COLORS.  Clients may elect  to  preserve
               these  values when installing their own colormap.  Note that use of this mechanism
               is a way an for application to avoid the  "technicolor"  problem,  whereby  useful
               screen  objects  such  as  window  borders and titlebars disappear when a programs
               custom colors are installed by the window manager.  For example:
               SaveColor
               {
                       BorderColor
                       TitleBackground
                       TitleForeground
                       "red"
                       "green"
                       "blue"
               }
               This would place on the root window 3 pixel values for borders and  titlebars,  as
               well as the three color strings, all taken from the default colormap.

       ShowIconManager
               This  variable indicates that the icon manager window should be displayed when twm
               is started.  It can always be brought up using the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
               This variable indicates  that  entries  in  the  icon  manager  should  be  sorted
               alphabetically rather than by simply appending new windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
               This variable indicates that twm should attempt to use the SHAPE extension to make
               titlebars occupy only as much screen space as they need, rather than extending all
               the  way  across  the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may be used to
               control the location of the squeezed titlebar along the top  of  the  window.   It
               contains entries of the form:
                    "name"         justification  num  denom
               where  name  is a window name, justification is either left, center, or right, and
               num and denom are numbers specifying a ratio giving the  relative  position  about
               which  the titlebar is justified.  The ratio is measured from left to right if the
               numerator is positive, and  right  to  left  if  negative.   A  denominator  of  0
               indicates  that  the numerator should be measured in pixels.  For convenience, the
               ratio 0/0 is the same as 1/2 for center and -1/1 for right.  For example:
               SqueezeTitle
               {
                    "XTerm"   left      0    0
                    "xterm1"  left      1    3
                    "xterm2"  left      2    3
                    "oclock"  center         0    0
                    "emacs"   right          0    0
               }
               The DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
               This variable indicates that client windows should  initially  be  left  as  icons
               until explicitly deiconified by the user.  If the optional win-list is given, only
               those windows will be started iconic.  This is useful for  programs  that  do  not
               support an -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies  the background color used in titlebars, and may only be
               specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional  win-list
               is  a  list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               The default is "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
               This  variable  specifies  the  width  in  pixels  of   the   border   surrounding
               titlebuttons.  This is typically set to 0 to allow titlebuttons to take up as much
               space as possible and to not have a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
               This variable specifies the font  to  be  used  for  displaying  window  names  in
               titlebars.  The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  specifies  the foreground color used in titlebars, and may only be
               specified inside of a Color, Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional  win-list
               is  a  list of window names and colors so that per-window colors may be specified.
               The default is "black".

       TitlePadding pixels
               This variable specifies the  distance  between  the  various  buttons,  text,  and
               highlight areas in the titlebar.  The default is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
               This  variable  specifies  the filename of a bitmap file to be used as the default
               icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon of all clients which do not provide an
               icon bitmap and are not listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
               This  variable  specifies  whether  or  not  twm  should  honor  program-requested
               locations (given by the PPosition flag in the  WM_NORMAL_HINTS  property)  in  the
               absence  of  a user-specified position.  The argument string may have one of three
               values:  "off" (the default)  indicating  that  twm  should  ignore  the  program-
               supplied  position,  "on"  indicating  that the position should be used, and "non-
               zero" indicating that the position should used if it is  other  than  (0,0).   The
               latter option is for working around a bug in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
               This  variable  indicates that the pointer should be warped into windows when they
               are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is given,  the  pointer  will  only  be
               warped when those windows are deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
               This  variable  specifies  a  list  of windows along which the f.warpring function
               cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
               This variable indicates that the f.warpto function should deiconify any  iconified
               windows it encounters.  This is typically used to make a key binding that will pop
               a particular window (such as xmh), no matter where it  is.   The  default  is  for
               f.warpto to ignore iconified windows.

       XorValue number
               This  variable  specifies the value to use when drawing window outlines for moving
               and resizing.  This should be set to a value that will result in a variety  of  of
               distinguishable  colors  when  exclusive-or'ed  with  the  contents  of the user's
               typical screen.  Setting this variable to 1 often gives nice results  if  adjacent
               colors  in  the  default  colormap  are distinct.  By default, twm will attempt to
               cause temporary lines to appear at the opposite  end  of  the  colormap  from  the
               graphics.

       Zoom [ count ]
               This  variable indicates that outlines suggesting movement of a window to and from
               its iconified state  should  be  displayed  whenever  a  window  is  iconified  or
               deiconified.   The  optional count argument specifies the number of outlines to be
               drawn.  The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have been assigned, so it  is  usually
       best to put them at the end of the variables or beginning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
               This  variable specifies the function to be executed when a key or button event is
               received for which no binding is provided.  This  is  typically  bound  to  f.nop,
               f.beep, or a menu containing window operations.

       WindowFunction function
               This variable specifies the function to execute when a window is selected from the
               TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is not set, the window will be deiconified  and
               raised.

BINDINGS

       After  the desired variables have been set, functions may be attached titlebuttons and key
       and pointer buttons.  Titlebuttons may be added from the left or right side and appear  in
       the  titlebar  from left-to-right according to the order in which they are specified.  Key
       and pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons specifications must include the name of the pixmap to use in the  button  box
       and the function to be invoked when a pointer button is pressed within them:
       LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function
       or
       RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function
       The  bitmapname  may  refer  to  one  of  the  built-in bitmaps (which are scaled to match
       TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must be  pressed,  over
       which  parts  of the screen the pointer must be, and what function is to be invoked.  Keys
       are given as strings containing the appropriate keysym name;  buttons  are  given  as  the
       keywords Button1-Button5:
       "FP1"          = modlist : context : function
       Button1   = modlist : context : function
       The  modlist  is  any  combination of the modifier names shift, control, lock, meta, mod1,
       mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may be abbreviated as s, c, l, m, m1,  m2,  m3,  m4,  m5,
       respectively)  separated by a vertical bar (|).  Similarly, the context is any combination
       of window, title, icon, root, frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr abbreviation is
       m),  or  all,  separated  by  a  vertical  bar.   The  function is any of the f.  keywords
       described below.  For example, the default startup file contains the following bindings:
       Button1   =    : root         : f.menu "TwmWindows"
       Button1   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-lower"
       Button2   = m  : window | icon     : f.iconify
       Button3   = m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button1   =    : title        : f.function "move-or-raise"
       Button2   =    : title        : f.raiselower
       Button1   =    : icon         : f.function "move-or-iconify"
       Button2   =    : icon         : f.iconify
       Button1   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       Button2   =    : iconmgr : f.iconify
       A user who wanted to be able to  manipulate  windows  from  the  keyboard  could  use  the
       following bindings:
       "F1" =    : all          : f.iconify
       "F2" =    : all          : f.raiselower
       "F3" =    : all          : f.warpring "next"
       "F4" =    : all          : f.warpto "xmh"
       "F5" =    : all          : f.warpto "emacs"
       "F6" =    : all          : f.colormap "next"
       "F7" =    : all          : f.colormap "default"
       "F20"     =    : all          : f.warptoscreen "next"
       "Left"    = m  : all          : f.backiconmgr
       "Right"   = m | s   : all          : f.forwiconmgr
       "Up" = m  : all          : f.upiconmgr
       "Down"    = m | s   : all          : f.downiconmgr
       Twm provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be conveniently stored in a
       titlebar, menu, or set of key bindings.  Although a small set  of  defaults  are  supplied
       (unless  the  NoDefaults  is  specified),  most  users will want to have their most common
       operations bound to key and button strokes.  To do this, twm associates names with each of
       the  primitives  and  provides user-defined functions for building higher level primitives
       and menus for interactively selecting among groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain  the  name  by  which  they  are  referenced  in  calls  to
       f.function and a list of other functions to execute.  For example:
       Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
       Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
       Function "move-or-iconify"    { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
       Function "restore-colormap"   { f.colormap "default" f.lower }
       The  function  name  must  be  used  in  f.function  exactly as it appears in the function
       specification.

       In the descriptions below, if the function is said to operate on the selected window,  but
       is  invoked from a root menu, the cursor will be changed to the Select cursor and the next
       window to receive a button press will be chosen:

       ! string
               This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
               This function toggles whether or  not  the  selected  window  is  raised  whenever
               entered by the pointer.  See the description of the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
               This  function  warps  the  pointer  to  the  previous  column in the current icon
               manager, wrapping back to the previous row if necessary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
               This function is similar to the f.fullzoom function, but  resizes  the  window  to
               fill only the bottom half of the screen.

       f.circledown
               This function lowers the top-most window that occludes another window.

       f.circleup
               This function raises the bottom-most window that is occluded by another window.

       f.colormap string
               This  function  rotates  the  colormaps  (obtained  from  the  WM_COLORMAP_WINDOWS
               property on the window) that twm will display when the pointer is in this  window.
               The  argument  string  may  have  one of the following values: "next", "prev", and
               "default".  It should be noted here that in general,  the  installed  colormap  is
               determined  by  keyboard  focus.   A  pointer driven keyboard focus will install a
               private colormap upon entry of the window owning the colormap.  Using the click to
               type model, private colormaps will not be installed until the user presses a mouse
               button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
               This function deiconifies the selected window.  If the window is not an icon, this
               function does nothing.

       f.delete
               This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW message to the selected window if the
               client application has requested it through the WM_PROTOCOLS window property.  The
               application  is  supposed  to  respond  to  the  message by removing the indicated
               window.  If the window has not requested WM_DELETE_WINDOW messages,  the  keyboard
               bell  will  be  rung indicating that the user should choose an alternative method.
               Note this is very different from f.destroy.  The intent here is to delete a single
               window,  not necessarily the entire application.

       f.deltastop
               This function allows a user-defined function to be aborted if the pointer has been
               moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the example definition given  for  Function
               "move-or-raise" at the beginning of the section.

       f.destroy
               This function instructs the X server to close the display connection of the client
               that created the selected window.  This should only be used as a last  resort  for
               shutting down runaway clients.  See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
               This  function  warps  the  pointer  to  the  next row in the current icon manger,
               wrapping to the beginning of the next column if necessary.

       f.exec string
               This function passes the argument string to /bin/sh for execution.  In multiscreen
               mode,  if  string  starts  a  new  X client without giving a display argument, the
               client will appear on the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This function toggles the keyboard focus of the server  to  the  selected  window,
               changing  the focus rule from pointer-driven if necessary.  If the selected window
               already was focused, this function executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
               This function is like f.move except that it ignores the DontMoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next column in the  current  icon  manager,
               wrapping to the beginning of the next row if necessary.

       f.fullzoom
               This  function resizes the selected window to the full size of the display or else
               restores the original size if the window was already zoomed.

       f.function string
               This function executes the user-defined function whose name is  specified  by  the
               argument string.

       f.hbzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
               This function unmaps the current icon manager.

       f.horizoom
               This variable is similar to the f.zoom function except that the selected window is
               resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
               This function iconifies or deiconifies the selected window or icon, respectively.

       f.identify
               This function displays a summary of the name and geometry of the selected  window.
               If  the  server supports the SYNC extension, the priority of the client owning the
               window is also displayed.  Clicking the pointer or pressing a key  in  the  window
               will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
               This function similar to f.backiconmgr except that wrapping does not change rows.

       f.leftzoom
               This  variable  is  similar  to  the f.bottomzoom function but causes the selected
               window is only resized to the left half of the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the selected window.

       f.menu string
               This function invokes the menu specified by the argument string.   Cascaded  menus
               may be built by nesting calls to f.menu.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window (or the window itself if the
               OpaqueMove variable is set) until the invoking pointer button is released.  Double
               clicking  within the number of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps the
               pointer to the center  of  the  window  and  constrains  the  move  to  be  either
               horizontal  or vertical depending on which grid line is crossed.  To abort a move,
               press another button before releasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
               This function warps the pointer to the next icon manager containing any windows on
               the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This  function  does  nothing  and  is  typically used with the DefaultFunction or
               WindowFunction variables or to introduce blank lines in menus.

       f.previconmgr
               This function warps the pointer  to  the  previous  icon  manager  containing  any
               windows on the current or preceding screens.

       f.priority string
               This  function  sets  the priority of the client owning the selected window to the
               numeric value of the argument string, which should be a signed integer  in  double
               quotes (e.g. "999" ).  This function has an effect only if the server supports the
               SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This function causes twm to restore the window's borders and exit.  If twm is  the
               first client invoked from xdm, this will result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the selected window.

       f.raiselower
               This function raises the selected window to the top of the stacking order if it is
               occluded by any windows, otherwise the window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
               This function causes all windows to be refreshed.

       f.resize
               This function displays an outline of the selected window.  Crossing a  border  (or
               setting  AutoRelativeResize)  will cause the outline to begin to rubber band until
               the invoking button is released.  To abort a resize, press another  button  before
               releasing the first button.

       f.restart
               This function kills and restarts twm.

       f.startwm string
               This function kills twm and starts another window manager, as specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
               This  function  is  similar  to f.nexticonmgr except that wrapping does not change
               rows.

       f.rightzoom
               This variable is similar to the f.bottomzoom function  except  that  the  selected
               window is only resized to the right half of the display.

       f.saveyourself
               This  function  sends  a  WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected window if it has
               requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS window property.   Clients  that  accept
               this  message  are supposed to checkpoint all state associated with the window and
               update the WM_COMMAND property as specified in the ICCCM.  If the selected  window
               has not selected for this message, the keyboard bell will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
               This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
               This  function  sorts the entries in the current icon manager alphabetically.  See
               the variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This function provides a centered, unselectable item in  a  menu  definition.   It
               should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
               This  variable  is  similar  to the f.bottomzoom function except that the selected
               window is only resized to the top half of the display.

       f.unfocus
               This function resets the focus back to pointer-driven.  This should be used when a
               focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
               This  function  warps the pointer to the previous row in the current icon manager,
               wrapping to the last row in the same column if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
               This function is a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.warpring string
               This function warps the pointer to the next or previous window  (as  indicated  by
               the  argument  string,  which may be "next" or "prev") specified in the WindowRing
               variable.

       f.warpto string
               This function warps the pointer to the window which  has  a  name  or  class  that
               matches  string.   If  the  window  is  iconified,  it  will be deiconified if the
               variable WarpUnmapped is set or else ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
               This function warps the pointer to the icon  manager  entry  associated  with  the
               window  containing  the  pointer  in  the  icon  manager specified by the argument
               string.  If string is empty (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
               This function warps the pointer to the screen specified by  the  argument  string.
               String  may be a number (e.g. "0" or "1"), the word "next" (indicating the current
               screen plus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens), the word  "back"  (indicating
               the  current  screen  minus  1,  skipping over any unmanaged screens), or the word
               "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
               This function is similar to the f.refresh function except that only  the  selected
               window is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This  function  is  similar  to  the f.fullzoom function, except that the only the
               height of the selected window is changed.

MENUS

       Functions may be grouped and interactively selected using pop-up (when bound to a  pointer
       button)  or pull-down (when associated with a titlebutton) menus.  Each menu specification
       contains the name of the menu as it will  be  referred  to  by  f.menu,  optional  default
       foreground  and  background  colors,  the list of item names and the functions they should
       invoke, and optional foreground and background colors for individual items:
       Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
       {
            string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]     function1
            string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]     function2
                 .
                 .
                 .
            stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]     functionN
       }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.  The optional deffore and defback  arguments  specify  the
       foreground  and  background colors used on a color display to highlight menu entries.  The
       string portion of each menu entry will be the text which will appear  in  the  menu.   The
       optional  fore and back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will only be  used  on  a  color
       display.   The  default  is  to  use  the  colors  specified  by  the  MenuForeground  and
       MenuBackground variables.  The function portion of the menu entry is one of the functions,
       including any user-defined functions, or additional menus.

       There is a special menu named TwmWindows which contains the names of all of the client and
       twm-supplied windows.  Selecting an entry will cause the WindowFunction to be executed  on
       that  window.   If  WindowFunction  hasn't  been  set,  the window will be deiconified and
       raised.

ICONS

       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified windows.  The common pixmap-
       and-text  style  may  be  laid  out  by hand or automatically arranged as described by the
       IconRegion variable.  In addition, a terse grid of icon names,  called  an  icon  manager,
       provides  a  more  efficient  use of screen space as well as the ability to navigate among
       windows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that contains names of selected or all  windows  currently  on
       the  display.   In  addition  to the window name, a small button using the default iconify
       symbol will be displayed to the left of  the  name  when  the  window  is  iconified.   By
       default,  clicking  on  an  entry  in  the icon manager performs f.iconify.  To change the
       actions taken in the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when specifying button  and
       keyboard bindings.

       Moving  the  pointer  into  the  icon manager also directs keyboard focus to the indicated
       window (setting the focus explicitly or else  sending  synthetic  events  NoTitleFocus  is
       set).   Using  the f.upiconmgr, f.downiconmgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions,
       the input focus can be changed between windows directly from the keyboard.

BUGS

       The resource manager should have been used instead of all of the window lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get the constrained move function will  sometimes  cause  the
       window to move, even though the pointer is not moved.

       If  IconifyByUnmapping  is  on  and  windows  are listed in IconManagerDontShow but not in
       DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they are iconified and no bindings  to  f.menu
       "TwmWindows" or f.warpto are setup.

FILES

       $HOME/.twmrc.<screen number>
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       DISPLAY This  variable  is used to determine which X server to use.  It is also set during
               f.exec so that programs come up on the proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is used as the prefix for files that begin  with  a  tilde  and  for
               locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO

       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS

       Tom  LaStrange, Solbourne Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium; Steve Pitschke, Stardent
       Computer; Keith Packard, MIT X Consortium; Dave Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave  Payne,
       Apple Computer.