Provided by: units_1.87-2_amd64 bug


       units - unit conversion program


       The  `units'  program converts quantities expressed in various scales to their equivalents
       in other scales.  The `units' program can handle multiplicative scale changes as  well  as
       nonlinear  conversions  such  as Fahrenheit to Celsius.  Temperature conversions require a
       special syntax.  See the examples below.

       The units are defined in an external data file.  You can use the extensive data file  that
       comes with this program, or you can provide your own data file to suit your needs.

       You  can  use  the  program interactively with prompts, or you can use it from the command


       To invoke units for interactive use, type `units' at your shell prompt.  The program  will
       print something like this:

           2131 units, 53 prefixes, 24 nonlinear units

           You have:

       At  the `You have:' prompt, type the quantity and units that you are converting from.  For
       example, if you want to convert ten meters to feet, type `10 meters'.  Next, `units'  will
       print  `You want:'.  You should type the type of units you want to convert to.  To convert
       to feet, you would type `feet'.  Note that if the readline library was  compiled  in  then
       the  tab  key  can  be  used  to  complete  unit  names.   See  Readline support, for more
       information about readline.

       The answer will be displayed in two ways.  The first line of output, which is marked  with
       a  `*'  to indicate multiplication, gives the result of the conversion you have asked for.
       The second line of output, which is marked with a `/'  to  indicate  division,  gives  the
       inverse of the conversion factor.  If you convert 10 meters to feet, `units' will print

               * 32.808399
               / 0.03048

       which  tells  you  that  10  meters  equals  about 32.8 feet.  The second number gives the
       conversion in the opposite direction.  In this case, it tells you that 1 foot is equal  to
       about  0.03 dekameters since the dekameter is 10 meters.  It also tells you that 1/32.8 is
       about .03.

       The `units' program prints the inverse because sometimes it is a more  convenient  number.
       In  the  example  above,  for example, the inverse value is an exact conversion: a foot is
       exactly .03048 dekameters.  But the number given the other direction is inexact.

       If you try to convert grains to pounds, you will see the following:

           You have: grains
           You want: pounds
                   * 0.00014285714
                   / 7000

       From the second line of the output you can immediately see that a  grain  is  equal  to  a
       seven  thousandth  of  a pound.  This is not so obvious from the first line of the output.
       If you find  the output format  confusing, try using the `--verbose' option:

           You have: grain
           You want: aeginamina
                   grain = 0.00010416667 aeginamina
                   grain = (1 / 9600) aeginamina

       If you request a conversion  between  units  which  measure  reciprocal  dimensions,  then
       `units'  will display the conversion results with an extra note indicating that reciprocal
       conversion has been done:

           You have: 6 ohms
           You want: siemens
                   reciprocal conversion
                   * 0.16666667
                   / 6

       Reciprocal conversion can be suppressed by using the `--strict' option.  As usual, use the
       `--verbose' option to get more comprehensible output:

           You have: tex
           You want: typp
                   reciprocal conversion
                   1 / tex = 496.05465 typp
                   1 / tex = (1 / 0.0020159069) typp

           You have: 20 mph
           You want: sec/mile
                   reciprocal conversion
                   1 / 20 mph = 180 sec/mile
                   1 / 20 mph = (1 / 0.0055555556) sec/mile

       If  you enter incompatible unit types, the `units' program will print a message indicating
       that the units are not conformable and it will display the reduced form for each unit:

           You have: ergs/hour
           You want: fathoms kg^2 / day
           conformability error
                   2.7777778e-11 kg m^2 / sec^3
                   2.1166667e-05 kg^2 m / sec

       If you only want to find the reduced form or definition of a unit, simply press return  at
       the `You want:' prompt.  Here is an example:

           You have: jansky
           You want:
                   Definition: fluxunit = 1e-26 W/m^2 Hz = 1e-26 kg / s^2

       The  output  from  `units'  indicates that the jansky is defined to be equal to a fluxunit
       which in turn is defined to be a certain combination of watts,  meters,  and  hertz.   The
       fully reduced (and in this case somewhat more cryptic) form appears on the far right.

       Some  named  units  are  treated  as  dimensionless in some situations.  These include the
       radian and steradian.  These units will be treated as equal to  1  in  units  conversions.
       Power is equal to torque times angular velocity.  This conversion can only be performed if
       the radian is dimensionless.

           You have: (14 ft lbf) (12 radians/sec)
           You want: watts
                   * 227.77742
                   / 0.0043902509

       Note that named dimensionaless units are not treated as dimensionless in  other  contexts.
       They cannot be used as exponents so for example, `meter^radian' is not allowed.

       If  you  want  a  list of options you can type `?' at the `You want:' prompt.  The program
       will display a list of named units which are conformable with the unit that you entered at
       the  `You have:' prompt above.  Note that conformable unit combinations will not appear on
       this list.

       Typing `help' at either prompt displays a short help message.  You can  also  type  `help'
       followed  by  a  unit  name.  This will invoke a pager on the units data base at the point
       where that unit is defined.  You can read the definition and comments that may  give  more
       details or historical information about the unit.

       Typing `search text' will display a list of all of the units whose names contain `text' as
       a substring along with their definitions.  This may help in the case where you aren't sure
       of the right unit name.


       The `units' program can perform units conversions non-interactively from the command line.
       To do this, type the command, type the original units expression, and type the  new  units
       you  want.  You will probably need to protect the units expressions from interpretation by
       the shell using single quote characters.

       If you type

           units '2 liters' 'quarts'

       then `units' will print

               * 2.1133764
               / 0.47317647

       and then exit.  The output tells you that 2 liters is about 2.1 quarts,  or  alternatively
       that a quart is about 0.47 times 2 liters.

       If  the  conversion  is  successful,  then  `units' will return success (0) to the calling
       environment.  If `units' is given non-conformable  units  to  convert,  it  will  print  a
       message  giving  the reduced form of each unit and it will return failure (nonzero) to the
       calling environment.

       When `units' is invoked with only one argument, it will print out the  definition  of  the
       specified unit.  It will return failure if the unit is not defined and success if the unit
       is defined.


       In order to enter more complicated units or fractions, you will  need  to  use  operations
       such  as  powers,  products  and division.  Powers of units can be specified using the `^'
       character as shown in  the  following  example,  or  by  simple  concatenation:  `cm3'  is
       equivalent  to  `cm^3'.   If the exponent is more than one digit, the `^' is required.  An
       exponent like `2^3^2' is evaluated right to left.  The `^' operator has the second highest
       precedence.  The `**' operator is provided as an alternative exponent operator.

           You have: cm^3
           You want: gallons
                   * 0.00026417205
                   / 3785.4118

           You have: arabicfoot * arabictradepound * force
           You want: ft lbf
                   * 0.7296
                   / 1.370614

       Multiplication  of  units  can  be  specified  by  using spaces, or an asterisk (`*').  If
       `units' is invoked with the `--product' option then  the  hyphen  (`-')  also  acts  as  a
       multiplication operator.  Division of units is indicated by the slash (`/') or by `per'.

           You have: furlongs per fortnight
           You want: m/s
                   * 0.00016630986
                   / 6012.8727

       Historically,  multiplication  in  units  was  assigned a higher precedence than division.
       This disagrees with the usual precedence rules  which  give  multiplication  and  division
       equal precedence, and it has been a source of confusion for people who think of units as a

       By default, multiplication using the star (`*') now has the same  precedence  as  division
       and  hence  follows  the  usual  precedence  rules.   If  units  is  invoked  with the the
       `--oldstar' option then then the old behavior is activated and  `*'  will  have  the  same
       precedence as the other multiplication operators described next.

       Multiplication using a space or using the hyphen has a higher precedence than division and
       is evaluated left to right.  So @samp{m/s s/day} is equivalent to `m / s s  day'  and  has
       dimensions  of  length  per  time  cubed.   Similarly,  `1/2  meter'  refers  to a unit of
       reciprocal length equivalent to .5/meter, which is probably not what you would  intend  if
       you entered that expression.

       You can indicate division of numbers with the vertical dash (`|'), so if you wanted half a
       meter you could write @samp{1|2 meter}.  This operator has the highest precedence  so  the
       square root of two thirds could be written `2|3^1|2'.

           You have: 1|2 inch
           You want: cm
                   * 1.27
                   / 0.78740157

       Parentheses can be used for grouping as desired.

           You have: (1/2) kg / (kg/meter)
           You want: league
                   * 0.00010356166
                   / 9656.0833

       Prefixes  are  defined separately from base units.  In order to get centimeters, the units
       database defines `centi-' and `c-' as prefixes.  Prefixes can appear alone  with  no  unit
       following them.  An exponent applies only to the immediately preceding unit and its prefix
       so that `cm^3' or `centimeter^3' refer to cubic centimeters but `centi*meter^3' refers  to
       hundredths  of  cubic meters.  Only one prefix is permitted per unit, so `micromicrofarad'
       will fail, but `micro*microfarad' will work, as will `micro microfarad'..

       For `units', numbers are just another kind of unit.  They can appear as many times as  you
       like  and  in  any  order  in a unit expression.  For example, to find the volume of a box
       which is 2 ft by 3 ft by 12 ft in steres, you could do the following:

           You have: 2 ft 3 ft 12 ft
           You want: stere
                   * 2.038813
                   / 0.49048148

           You have: $ 5 / yard
           You want: cents / inch
                   * 13.888889
                   / 0.072

       And the second example shows how the dollar sign in the units conversion can  precede  the
       five.  Be careful:  `units' will interpret `$5' with no space as equivalent to dollars^5.

       Outside of the SI system, it is often desirable to add values of different units together.
       You may also wish to use `units' as a calculator that  keeps  track  of  units.   Sums  of
       conformable units are written with the `+' character.

           You have: 2 hours + 23 minutes + 32 seconds
           You want: seconds
                   * 8612
                   / 0.00011611705

           You have: 12 ft + 3 in
           You want: cm
                   * 373.38
                   / 0.0026782366

           You have: 2 btu + 450 ft lbf
           You want: btu
                   * 2.5782804
                   / 0.38785542

       The expressions which are added together must reduce to identical expressions in primitive
       units, or an error message will be displayed:

           You have: 12 printerspoint + 4 heredium
           Illegal sum of non-conformable units

       Historically `-' has been used for products of units, which complicates its  iterpretation
       in  `units'.   Because  `units'  provides  several other ways to obtain unit products, and
       because `-' is a subtraction operator in general algebraic expressions, `units' treats the
       binary  `-'  as a subtraction operator by default.  This behavior can be altered using the
       `--product' option which causes `units' to treat the binary  `-'  operator  as  a  product
       operator.   Note  that when `-' is a multiplication operator it has the same precedence as
       `*', but when `-' is a subtraction operator it has the lower precedence  as  the  addition

       When  `-'  is  used as a unary operator it negates its operand.  Regardless of the `units'
       options, if `-' appears after `(' or after `+' then it will act as  a  negation  operator.
       So  you  can  always  compute  20  degrees  minus 12 minutes by entering `20 degrees + -12
       arcmin'.  You must use this construction when you define new units because you cannot know
       what options will be in force when your definition is processed.

       The  `+'  character  sometimes  appears  in  exponents  like  `3.43e+8'.  This leads to an
       ambiguity in an expression like `3e+2 yC'.  The unit `e' is a small  unit  of  charge,  so
       this  can  be  regarded as equivalent to `(3e+2) yC' or `(3 e)+(2 yC)'.  This ambiguity is
       resolved by always interpreting `+' as part of an exponent if possible.

       Several built in functions are provided: `sin', `cos', `tan', `ln', `log', `log2',  `exp',
       `acos',  `atan'  and  `asin'.   The  `sin',  `cos',  and  `tan' functions require either a
       dimensionless argument or an argument with dimensions of angle.

           You have: sin(30 degrees)
           You want:
                   Definition: 0.5

           You have: sin(pi/2)
           You want:
                   Definition: 1

           You have: sin(3 kg)
           Unit not dimensionless

       The  other  functions  on  the  list  require  dimensionless   arguments.    The   inverse
       trigonometric functions return arguments with dimensions of angle.

       If you wish to take roots of units, you may use the `sqrt' or `cuberoot' functions.  These
       functions require that the argument have the  appropriate  root.   Higher  roots  can   be
       obtained by using fractional exponents:

           You have: sqrt(acre)
           You want: feet
                   * 208.71074
                   / 0.0047913202

           You have: (400 W/m^2 / stefanboltzmann)^(1/4)
           You have:
                   Definition: 289.80882 K

           You have: cuberoot(hectare)
           Unit not a root

       Nonlinear  units  are represented using functional notation.  They make possible nonlinear
       unit conversions such temperature.  This is different from the linear units  that  convert
       temperature differences.  Note the difference below.  The absolute temperature conversions
       are handled by units starting with `temp', and you  must  use  functional  notation.   The
       temperature  differences  are done using units starting with `deg' and they do not require
       functional notation.

           You have: tempF(45)
           You want: tempC

           You have: 45 degF
           You want: degC
                   * 25
                   / 0.04

       Think of `tempF(x)' not as a function but as a notation which indicates  that  `x'  should
       have  units  of  `tempF' attached to it.  See Nonlinear units.  The first conversion shows
       that if it's  45  degrees  Fahrehneit  outside  it's  7.2  degrees  Celsius.   The  second
       conversions indicates that a change of 45 degrees Fahrenheit corresponds to a change of 25
       degrees Celsius.

       Some other examples of nonlinears units are ring size and wire gauge.  There are  numerous
       different gauges and ring sizes.  See the units database for more details.  Note that wire
       gauges with multiple zeroes are signified using negative numbers where two zeroes  is  -1.
       Alternatively,  you  can use the synonyms `g00', `g000', and so on that are defined in the
       units database.

           You have: wiregauge(11)
           You want: inches
                   * 0.090742002
                   / 11.020255

           You have: brwiregauge(g00)
           You want: inches
                   * 0.348
                   / 2.8735632

           You have: 1 mm
           You want: wiregauge


       You invoke `units' like this:

           units [OPTIONS] [FROM-UNIT [TO-UNIT]]

       If the FROM-UNIT and TO-UNIT are omitted, then the program will use interactive prompts to
       determine  which  conversions to perform.  See Interactive use.  If both FROM-UNIT and TO-
       UNIT are given, `units' will print the result of that single conversion and then exit.  If
       only  FROM-UNIT  appears  on the command line, `units' will display the definition of that
       unit and exit.  Units specified on the command line will need to be quoted to protect them
       from shell interpretation and to group them into two arguments.  See Command line use.

       The  following  options  allow  you to read in an alternative units file, check your units
       file, or change the output format:

       -c, --check
              Check that all units and  prefixes  defined  in  the  units  data  file  reduce  to
              primitive  units.   Print a list of all units that cannot be reduced.  Also display
              some other diagnostics about suspicious definitions in the units data  file.   Note
              that only definitions active in the current locale are checked.

              Like  the  `-check'  option,  this  option  prints  a  list of units that cannot be
              reduced.  But to help find unit  definitions that cause endless loops, it lists the
              units  as they are checked.  If `units' hangs, then the last unit to be printed has
              a bad definition.  Note that only definitions active  in  the  current  locale  are

       -o format, --output-format format
              Use  the  specified  format for numeric output.  Format is the same as that for the
              printf function in the ANSI C standard.  For example, if you  want  more  precision
              you might use `-o %.15g'.

       -f filename, --file filename
              Instruct  `units'  to  load  the units file `filename'.  If `filename' is the empty
              string (`-f "') then the default units file will be loaded.  This  enables  you  to
              load  the  default  file  plus  a personal units file.  Up to 25 units files may be
              specified on the command line.  This option overrides the  `UNITSFILE'  environment

       -h, --help
              Print out a summary of the options for `units'.

       -m, --minus
              Causes  `-'  to  be  interpreted  as  a  subtraction operator.  This is usually the
              default behavior.

       -p, --product
              Causes `-' to be interpreted as a multiplication operator when it has two operands.
              It  will as a negation operator when it has only one operand: `(-3)'.  Note that by
              default `-' is treated as a subtraction operator.

       , --oldstar Causes `*' to have the old style precedence, higher  than  the  precedence  of
       division so that `1/2*3' will equal `6'.

       ,  --newstar Forces `*' to have the new (default) precedence which follows the usual rules
       of algebra: the precedence of `*' is the same as the precedence of `/',  so  that  `1/2*3'
       will equal `3/2'.

       ,  --compact Give compact output featuring only the conversion factor.  This turns off the
       `--verbose' option.

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              Suppress prompting of the user for units and the display of  statistics  about  the
              number of units loaded.

       -s, --strict
              Suppress  conversion of units to their reciprocal units.  For example, `units' will
              normally convert hertz to seconds because  these  units  are  reciprocals  of  each
              other.   The strict option requires that units be strictly conformable to perform a
              conversion, and will give an error if you attempt to convert hertz to seconds.

       -1, --one-line
              Give only one line of output (the forward conversion).  Do not  print  the  reverse
              conversion.   Note  that  if a reciprocal conversion is performed then `units' will
              print still print the "reciprocal conversion" line.

       -t, --terse
              Give terse output when converting units.  This option  can  be  used  when  calling
              `units'  from another program so that the output is easy to parse.  This option has
              the  combined  effect  of  these  options:    `--strict'   `--quiet'   `--one-line'

       -v, --verbose
              Give  slightly  more  verbose output when converting units.  When combined with the
              `-c' option this gives the same effect as `--check-verbose'.

       -V, --version
              Print program version number, tell whether the readline library has been  included,
              and give the location of the default units data file.


       The  conversion information is read from a units data file which is called `units.dat' and
       is probably located in the `/usr/local/share' directory.  If you invoke `units'  with  the
       `-V'  option,  it  will  print  the  location  of  this  file.   The default file includes
       definitions for all familiar units, abbreviations and metric prefixes.  It  also  includes
       many obscure or archaic units.

       Many constants of nature are defined, including these:

              pi         ratio of circumference to diameter
              c          speed of light
              e          charge on an electron
              force      acceleration of gravity
              mole       Avogadro's number
              water      pressure per unit height of water
              Hg         pressure per unit height of mercury
              au         astronomical unit
              k          Boltzman's constant
              mu0        permeability of vacuum
              epsilon0   permitivity of vacuum
              G          gravitational constant
              mach       speed of sound
       The  database includes atomic masses for all of the elements and numerous other constants.
       Also included are the densities of various ingredients used in  baking  so  that  `2  cups
       flour_sifted'  can  be converted to `grams'.  This is not an exhaustive list.  Consult the
       units data file to see the complete list, or to see the definitions that are used.

       The unit `pound' is a unit of mass.  To get force, multiply by the force  conversion  unit
       `force'  or  use  the  shorthand  `lbf'.   (Note that `g' is already taken as the standard
       abbreviation for the gram.)  The unit `ounce' is also a unit of mass.  The fluid ounce  is
       `fluidounce'  or  `floz'.   British capacity units that differ from their US counterparts,
       such as the British Imperial gallon, are prefixed with `br'.  Currency  is  prefixed  with
       its country name: `belgiumfranc', `britainpound'.

       The  US Survey foot, yard, and mile can be obtained by using the `US' prefix.  These units
       differ slightly from the international length units.  They were in general use until 1959,
       and are still used for geographic surveys.  The acre is officially defined in terms of the
       US Survey foot.  If you want an acre defined according  to  the  international  foot,  use
       `intacre'.   The difference between these units is about 4 parts per million.  The British
       also used a slightly different length measure before 1959.  These can be obtained with the
       prefix `UK'.

       When searching for a unit, if the specified string does not appear exactly as a unit name,
       then the `units' program will try to remove a trailing `s' or a trailing  `es'.   If  that
       fails, `units' will check for a prefix.  All of the standard metric prefixes are defined.

       To find out what units and prefixes are available, read the standard units data file.


       All of the units and prefixes that `units' can convert are defined in the units data file.
       If you want to add your own units, you can supply your own file.  You can  also  add  your
       own  units  definitions  in  the  `.units.dat'  file in your home directory.  If this file
       exists it is read before the units data file.  It will not be read if any units files  are
       specified on the command line.

       A  unit  is  specified  on  a single line by giving its name and an equivalence.  Comments
       start with a `#' character, which can appear anywhere in a line.  The backslash  character
       (`ยด)  acts  as  a  continuation  character  if it appears as the last character on a line,
       making it possible to spread definitions out over several lines if desired.  A file can be
       included  by  giving the command `!include' followed by the file's name.  The file will be
       sought in the same directory as the parent file unless a full path is given.

       Unit names must not contain any of the operator characters `+', `-', `*', `/', `|', `^' or
       the  parentheses.   They  cannot begin with a digit or a decimal point (`.'), nor can they
       end with a digit (except for zero).  Be careful to define new units in terms of  old  ones
       so  that  a  reduction leads to the primitive units, which are marked with `!' characters.
       Dimensionless units are indicated by  using  the  string  `!dimensionless'  for  the  unit

       When  adding  new units, be sure to use the `-c' option to check that the new units reduce
       properly.  If you create a loop in the units definitions,  then  `units'  will  hang  when
       invoked  with  the  `-c' options.  You will need to use the `--check-verbose' option which
       prints out each unit as it checks them.  The program will still hang, but  the  last  unit
       printed will be the unit which caused the infinite loop.

       If  you  define  any  units which contain `+' characters, carefully check them because the
       `-c' option will not catch non-conformable sums.  Be careful  with  the  `-'  operator  as
       well.   When  used  as  a  binary  operator,  the  `-'  character  can perform addition or
       multiplication depending on the options used to  invoke  `units'.   To  ensure  consistent
       behavior  use  `-'  only  as a unary negation operator when writing units definitions.  To
       multiply two units leave a space or use the `*' operator with care, recalling that it  has
       two  possible precedence values and may require parentheses to ensure consistent behavior.
       To compute the difference of `foo' and `bar' write `foo+(-bar)' or even `foo+-bar'.

       Here is an example of a short units file that defines some basic units:

              m        !                # The meter is a primitive unit
              sec      !                # The second is a primitive unit
              rad      !dimensionless   # The second is a primitive unit
              micro-   1e-6             # Define a prefix
              minute   60 sec           # A minute is 60 seconds
              hour     60 min           # An hour is 60 minutes
              inch     0.0254 m         # Inch defined in terms of meters
              ft       12 inches        # The foot defined in terms of inches
              mile     5280 ft          # And the mile

                     A unit which ends with a `-' character is a prefix.  If a prefix  definition
                     contains  any `/' characters, be sure they are protected by parentheses.  If
                     you define `half- 1/2' then `halfmeter'  would  be  equivalent  to  `1  /  2


       Some  units  conversions  of  interest are nonlinear; for example, temperature conversions
       between the Fahrenheit and  Celsius  scales  cannot  be  done  by  simply  multiplying  by
       conversions factors.

       When  you  give  a  linear  unit  definition  such  as  `inch  2.54  cm' you are providing
       information that `units' uses to convert values in inches into primitive units of  meters.
       For nonlinear units, you give a functional definition that provides the same information.

       Nonlinear  units  are  represented using a functional notation.  It is best to regard this
       notation not as a function call but as a way of adding units to a number,  much  the  same
       way that writing a linear unit name after a number adds units to that number.  Internally,
       nonlinear units are defined by a pair of functions which convert to and from linear  units
       in the data file, so that an eventual conversion to primitive units is possible.

       Here is an example nonlinear unit definition:

       tempF(x) [1;K] (x+(-32)) degF + stdtemp ; (tempF+(-stdtemp))/degF + 32

       A  nonlinear unit definition comprises a unit name, a dummy parameter name, two functions,
       and two corresponding units.  The functions tell `units' how to convert to  and  from  the
       new  unit.   In  order  to produce valid results, the arguments of these functions need to
       have  the  correct  dimensions.   To  facilitate  error  checking,  you  may  specify  the

       The  definition  begins  with the unit name followed immediately (with no spaces) by a `('
       character.   In  parentheses  is  the  name  of  the  parameter.   Next  is  an   optional
       specification  of  the units required by the functions in this definition.  In the example
       above, the `tempF' function requires an input argument conformable with `1'.   For  normal
       nonlinear  units  definitions  the  forward  function  will  always  take  a dimensionless
       argument.  The inverse function requires an  input  argument  conformable  with  `K'.   In
       general  the  inverse  function  will  need units that match the quantity measured by your
       nonlinear unit.  The sole purpose of the expression  in  brackets  to  enable  `units'  to
       perform error checking on function arguments.

       Next  the  function  definitions  appear.   In  the example above, the `tempF' function is
       defined by

           tempF(x) = (x+(-32)) degF + stdtemp

       This gives a rule for converting `x' in the units `tempF'  to  linear  units  of  absolute
       temperature, which makes it possible to convert from tempF to other units.

       In  order to make conversions to Fahrenheit possible, you must give a rule for the inverse
       conversions. The inverse will be  `x(tempF)'  and  its  definition  appears  after  a  `;'
       character.  In our example, the inverse is

           x(tempF) = (tempF+(-stdtemp))/degF + 32

       This  inverse  definition takes an absolute temperature as its argument and converts it to
       the Fahrenheit temperature.  The inverse can be omitted by leaving out the `;'  character,
       but  then  conversions to the unit will be impossible.  If the inverse is omitted then the
       `--check' option will display a warning.  It is up to  you  to  calculate  and  enter  the
       correct  inverse  function  to  obtain proper conversions.  The `--check' option tests the
       inverse at one point and print an error if it is not  valid  there,  but  this  is  not  a
       guarantee that your inverse is correct.

       If  you  wish  to  make  synonyms  for  nonlinear units, you still need to define both the
       forward and inverse functions.  Inverse functions can be obtained using the `~'  operator.
       So to create a synonym for `tempF' you could write

           fahrenheit(x) [1;K] tempF(x); ~tempF(fahrenheit)

       You  may  occasionally wish to define a function that operates on units.  This can be done
       using a nonlinear unit definition.  For example, the definition below provides  conversion
       between  radius  and the area of a circle.  Note that this definition requires a length as
       input and produces an area as output, as indicated by the specification in brackets.

           circlearea(r) [m;m^2] pi r^2 ; sqrt(circlearea/pi)

       Sometimes you may be interested in a piecewise linear  unit  such  as  many  wire  gauges.
       Piecewise  linear units can be defined by specifying conversions to linear units on a list
       of points.  Conversion at other points will be done by linear  interpolation.   A  partial
       definition of zinc gauge is

           zincgauge[in] 1 0.002, 10 0.02, 15 0.04, 19 0.06, 23 0.1

       In  this example, `zincgauge' is the name of the piecewise linear unit.  The definition of
       such a unit is indicated by the embedded `[' character.  After  the  bracket,  you  should
       indicate  the  units  to  be  attached  to the numbers in the table.  No spaces can appear
       before the `]' character, so a definition like `foo[kg meters]' is illegal; instead  write
       `foo[kg*meters]'.   The  definition  of  the  unit  consists of a list of pairs optionally
       separated by commas.  This list defines a  function  for  converting  from  the  piecewise
       linear  unit  to  linear units.  The first item in each pair is the function argument; the
       second item is the value of the function at that  argument  (in  the  units  specified  in
       brackets).   In  this  example, we define `zincgauge' at five points.  For example, we set
       `zincgauge(1)' equal to `0.002 in'.  Definitions like  this  may  be   more  readable   if
       written using  continuation characters as
              zincgauge[in]         \
                      1        0.002 \
                      10        0.02 \
                      15        0.04 \
                      19        0.06 \
                      23        0.1

       With the preceeding definition, the following conversion can be performed:

           You have: zincgauge(10)
           You want: in
               * 0.02
               / 50
           You have: .01 inch
           You want: zincgauge

       If  you  define  a  piecewise linear unit that is not strictly monotonic, then the inverse
       will not be well defined.  If the inverse is requested  for  such  a  unit,  `units'  will
       return the smallest inverse.  The `--check' option will print a warning if a non-monotonic
       piecewise linear unit is encountered.


       Some units have  different  values  in  different  locations.   The  localization  feature
       accomodates  this  by allowing the units database to specify region dependent definitions.
       A locale region in the units database begins with `!locale' followed by the  name  of  the
       locale.   The  leading  `!'  must  appear  in the first column of the units database.  The
       locale region is terminated by `!endlocale'.  The following example shows how to define  a
       couple units in a locale.

       !locale en_GB
       ton                     brton
       gallon                  brgallon

       The  current locale is specified by the `LOCALE' environment variable.  Note that the `-c'
       option only checks the definitions which are active for the current locale.


       The `units' programs uses the following environment variables.

       LOCALE Specifies the locale.  The default is `en_US'.  Sections of the units database  are
              specific to certain locales.

       PAGER  Specifies  the pager to use for help and for displaying the conformable units.  The
              help function browses the units database and calls the pager using the `+nn' syntax
              for specifying a line number.  The default pager is `more', but `less', `emacs', or
              `vi' are possible alternatives.

              Specifies the units database file to use (instead of the  default).  This  will  be
              overridden  by  the  `-f'  option.   Note  that you can only specify a single units
              database using this environment variable.


       If the `readline' package has been compiled in, then when `units' is  used  interactively,
       numerous command line editing features are available.  To check if your version of `units'
       includes the readline, invoke the program with the `--version' option.

       For complete information about  readline,  consult  the  documentation  for  the  readline
       package.  Without any configuration, `units' will allow editing in the style of emacs.  Of
       particular use with `units' are the completion commands.

       If you type a few characters and then hit `ESC' followed by the `?' key then `units'  will
       display  a  list  of all the units which start with the characters typed.  For example, if
       you type `metr' and then request completion, you will see something like this:

       You have: metr
       metre             metriccup         metrichorsepower  metrictenth
       metretes          metricfifth       metricounce       metricton
       metriccarat       metricgrain       metricquart       metricyarncount
       You have: metr

       If there is a unique way to complete a unitname, you can hit the tab key and `units'  will
       provide  the  rest  of  the unit name.  If `units' beeps, it means that there is no unique
       completion.  Pressing the tab key a second time will print the list of all completions.


       /usr/share/misc/units.dat - the standard units data file


       Adrian Mariano (

                                           25 Sep 2007                                   UNITS(1)